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Cappi(btcd by dit Aucbot, 1905 

PbenfnplH, cuept when otheniM dai(DMed, \tj 

B. B. DOBBS, of Nome 







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P»rt t - History 


A QUiDpM of Early Hlatorr of thla Conntrr— Me*f[*r Rlatorr of Aluka North of 
th* TukOD— PurohaM of Aluka by th* UtilUd 3Ut«* In HIT— Will Uv* In Hla- 
tory irlth the Oreat Loulalaiui Purobaaa t-9 


Captkin Cook'a Bxploratlona In Beiinc Sea and th* Arctic Ocean — U«utMi*at Von 
KoUabua'a Varan and Hla tHacorerlea — Captain Beocby'a Search for Sir John 
Franklin — Tho 111-Fated Jcannatta and Dlmatron* Tannlnatlon of C^taln De 
line's Attampt to Baaob the North Pole 11-1> 


A Great Induatry In Ita D««adanc« — Wlutllnt Fleet Daatroyed by Rebel Cruiser 
Sbecandoali — Notable Dlaaaters to the WhalloK Fleet In the Arctic Ocean — 
Captain Tllton'a Historic Overland Trip From Point Barrow to B^atmal — De- 
scription of the Bowhead Wb ale— Freak* of the Compaaa In the Polar Sea — 
Where Whalers Celebrate July t IB-SO 


Valuable Work In Alaaka by thia Department of the Oovemment — Bsplora- 

tlona and Contrlbutlona to Natural Slatory literature il-t'l 


Dr. Sheldon Jackson's Work In B«half of the Northland — ConvressloDal Aid for 

Uls L«ud*bte Endeavors — Introduction of Reindeer tt-i4 


Eskimo an Opprobrloua Term — Dr. Dall Haa Named the Race Orarlan* — Their 
Phyaical Features and a SucKeatlon of Eskimo Orlsln — Their Bmnea, Hablta, 
Ceremonials and Superstitions— Eskimo Character and Uetbods of Uvellhood 
— Their RellKloua Belief— The Eskimo a Dylnc IUc«--Obvlous Duty of the Oov- 
emment to These People— Eskimo Folk-lore, an Unexploited Field Fertile with 
Lexenda of Absorbing Intereat tG-10 


The "Bsklmo Bulletin." the Ploner Paper Printed by Natives — Interesting 
Bxtracta from Thla Journal- Papar Published at Qrantler Harbor by Weatem 
Union Telexraph Expedition In lg«-'<7— The "Aurora Borealts." a St Ulchael 
Publication Printed with a Type Wrltet' — "Nome News." Pirst Commercial 
Newepaper Venture— Other Newtpapers 41-44 


Alaska's Contribution to the Ensllsb LanKuace-~Orlfln of the Name Qlven 
Nome — Anglicised Blakimo Words — Ralloa of Rnsslan Occupation — 'Vuah," an 
Alaaka Barbariam 4E-4R 


Early Oold Discoveries— Captain LIbbys Expedition — Stampede to Kotsebue 
Sound — First HlnlDK Operations at Omllak Silver Hlnes — LIndeberc, Undblom 
and Brynteson Uak* a Great Discovery on Anvil Creek and Bnow Gulch — 
OrKatalsation of the Cape Nome Mln ->c District— Arrival of the First Steamer 
in the Sprlnr of '» — Beclnnlnc of Civic Endeavor — Miners Heetlnc Dispersed — 
Ovid Found In tbe Beach — Nome-filnuk Company Causes Arreet of ttG Hlnera — 
Arrival of tbe District Court — Consent Ooverument — Nome's First Winter — 
Chamber of Commerce Provide* Funds for Sanitation — The Great Stampede 
of DOQ — Arrival of tbe New Federal OHlclale 47-eu 


Refline of tbe First Federal Judse of the Second Judicial Division — Serious 
Lltlxatlon Over UlnlnK Property that Threatened the Peace of tbe Camp — Re- 
oslvsrs Appointed for tbe Host Valuable Hlnes in th* Home Country— Refusal 
of Judta Noyea to Allow Appeal from His Decision — Writ of Supersedeas 
Granted by Appellate Court — Failure of I«wer Court to Enforce th* Writ, 
nesnltluK in Punishment for Contempt of Jud^e Noyes. Alexander HcEensl* and 
Otbera — Development of the Country Retarded by Action of the District 
Court ei-«9 


The Bis Storm September 1)— Delecatea Selected to Go to WashlnKton— Nome'* 
Second Winter — Breaklnc Up a Qanc of Ualefactors — Scond Attempt to Incor- 
porate Successful— Opening of Navliatlon and Resumption of Hlnins Operations 
— Judce Wickeraham Desicnated to Temporarily Succeed Judge Noyes — Hla Ef- 
fective Work— Second Municipal Election— Arrival of Judge Alfred S. Hoore— 
The Story of Nome from 1»0! Until 1*06 Tl-TS 

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Part It - Dsacrlptlon 


OUmpse Of Commercial and Scenic Alaska — B«ward Peninsula, Its Ar«k and 
General Phyalea) Features — Descriptions of the Seasons In Norllineslem Alaska 
— A Winter In Nome 


Description ot the Mining Districts. Nome. Council, KouKarok. Port Clarence 
and Falrhaven — The Kobuk RvKlon and the Par North Country — The Country Ad- 
jacent to Norton Sound — The Nome Beach — The Kuakokwln, a Contiguous and 
Comparatively Unknown RegiOD 



Big: Hurrah, the Most Northerly Quarts Mine In North America — Numerous 
QuB.rU Prospects on the Peninsula — EncouraglnK Discoveries on the Kobuk and 
Noatak Rivera— The Omilak Sliver and Lead MInea — Other Valuable Minerals.. 


Transition Period of the Nome Country — Ulllliatlop of Water by Construction Of 
Dltchea and Installation of Modem Hydranllr Machinery 



Thalr Influence on the Development of the Country — Many Ditch Enterprise* 
Representing an AKSrecate Investment of Near 12,000,000 


Towns and Mining Camp! — Schools, Churches and Societies, Telaphonea and 
Railroads — Initiative of Dredge Mining 








Part III - Biographies and Storiaa 






Alles, Eugene E 

Aldrlch, CapUIn C. 

Anderson, Carl 

Ashbr, O. W 

Ashford. Geo. H 

Bard. W. H 

Beach. Res. E. 

Bell,' J. W, ..','.'.".'.'.' 

Berger. Jacob 

Black. W. J. 

Borchsenlua. George V, 

Boyd, Albert V. 

Brannen, John 

Bratnober, Henry 

M 2!S 

De Buhr, John 270 

Derbyshire, Dr. A. L. let 

Dexter, John A 264 

Dieter. Henry J 274 

Dobbs, B. B SflO 

Dunn. E. R. itS 

Dunn. John H SGl 

Dwyer. Thomas 27* 

Fenton. J. E. SS! 

Ferguson. Capt. W. H 

. P. S. 


J. D. . 


Brown, J. C. 

Browne, A. G S21 

Bruner. A. J. SSS 

Brynteson. John 2*4 

Bunker. Geo. D. £t( 

Burton, John Edgar 2*7 

Carllls, S «!2 

Carstens, J. C. 120 

Castle, N. H. 


Chace, Dr. ' 
Chllberg, " 

Chliberg, Eugene 2G1 

Cederbergh, R M ISB 

Clark, W. A IE4 

Cochran, M. J 142 

Cochran, O. D MB 

Cody, A J 26B 

Coply, J. 8 80* 

Coston. P. J 117 

Cowden, C. G 2GS 

Daggett. P. B. SIS 

Daly. A. J 122 

Dashley. P. W (20 

Galtney, j. C 

Gaivin, Jerry 

Gelger, Captain Wm. E. 218 

Gilchrist. David 810 

Gllmore. Wm. A tlfi 

Grigsby, Geo. B. nf 

Hall. Gordon 84) 

Harrison, E, 8 SSO 

Hasklna. C. D. 271 

Henry. Prof. Will 222 

Henton. 8. C 221 

Hesse, Wm. H. 82) 

Hin. Dr. E. B. S«B 

HInes. Jack 277 

Hlrschberg, Max R 287 

Horafall. C. O. 278 

Hultberg. N. O. 218 

number. R. H 277 

Johnson. Judge C. S. 880 

Johnson. John 801 

Johnston. Capt. E. W. 281 

King, H. P. 80E 

KIttllsen, Dr. A. N 218 

KJelaberg, Hagnua 128 

Lane. Charles D 181 

I-ane. Tom T. 8*8 

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LanB, F. 8 812 

Lajis, Win. H. tOt 

L-arlmor*. Li. A 178 

lieedr. J. D. zos 

LIbby, Capt Daniel B £02 

Ldnablom, Erik O 110 

LIndeberg, J^fet 201 

Unton, Dr. B. R 358 

Lomen. O. J. 348 

Low«, A. J. ZS4 

McBrlde, Anxui 3G0 

M ctMrmott. JcR ZSS 

McO«ttmn. A 311 

HcOInn, John L 346 

Hcl>0d, P. B 3J4 

Uartens. H. Q. 3°2 

MeletuB. C SIT 

Metsoo. Wm. H 227 

Honroe. Major W. N 20e 

Moore, A H !»2 

Hoore, Judse Alfred S 331 

Moots. Dr. Henry 9 IflS 

Horrla. C. L. 278 

Moaea, Otto S 269 

Hurane. CD 344 

Murphy. Qeorge 370 

Nixon, P. Thoa 234 

OAlbaum, Henry 239 

Orton, Ira D 334 

Park. R, J 317 

Paaraon, J. P. 2B0 

Perklna. Col. W. T 266 

P*t«nOD, Nela 298 

Polet A !S« 

Porter, F. B 2*3 

Price, O. W g)4 

Raddlns. Dr. O. H. H. 338 

Richards, Frank H 364 

Rlnehart. W. V. Jr 348 

Rlnlnser. Dr. E, M. 861 

Roaencranz. Moae 328 

Ruatgard. John 230 

Ryan, R. S 366 

Bruin Bit a Qun and Broke the Breach.. S7T 

A Spook Pilot 380 

Marooned on Sledse lalaad 381 

At Be* In a Peterboro Canoe 382 

J. A. Hall'a Harrowing Bzperience 313 

A Novel Runaway tl4 


Anderaon. Carl 304-305 

Arctic Brotherhood, Camp Nome, 

No. 9 172-173 

Aahby. O. W 140-141 

Bard. W. H 340-311 

Borchsenlun. Geo. V. 848-349 

Boyd, A. R 228-229 

Bratnober. Hpnry 132-183 

Brown. J. c !»8 

Bruner. A. J 92-93 

Brynteaon. John 28-29 

Burton. J, E. 2«8.2«9 

Cederbertch. Capt. E. M. 288-239 

Clark, W. A 262-268 

Cody, A. J 260-281 

Davidson, J. M 100-101 

Dlckaon. J. Warren 379 

Dieter, Henry 276-277 

Dunn. E. R 236-237 

Penton. J. R. 862-363 

French, Major L. R 164-166 

Hultberc, N. 210-121 

Johnaon, John 302-803 

VIewe of the Council City ft Solomon River Ra 

Ryberg, Rev. C E. 869 

Sandetrom, J, tj. ST6 

Sawyer. L U 282 

Schofleld. Oeo. D 338 

Schneider, A ....... . '.'./.'..'.'.'.'..'..'. .iOI 

Sohuler. Mntt 198 

Simpson, R. N 319 

Simeon, Ab<> 326 

Simeon, Ben 372 

Sloan. Dr J. M 389 

Sloan Dr. W 370 

Smith, Frank 8 til 

Smith. Honry ttS 

Solner, N B 208 

Steel. H. 37S 

Stewart. A. C 284 

Stevens, S. H. 808 

Strong. J. F. A. 868 

Sullivan, J. T 282 

Sullivan. M. J 291 

Sutter. I„ W 814 

Sverdrup. I. B 24t 

Swanton. F. W 181 

Tanner. L. B 263 

Thatcher. Frank H 245 

Thomlnn. Charles W 221 

Thuland, C. M 338 

TraDhagen. D. H 280 

Valentine. A. Ii. 373 

Vlnal. Wirft A 285 

WattH. P. H 804 

Weatby. Jacob A H8 

Whitehead, Calell. Ph. D 241 

Wblttren, J. Potter l" 

Wlckeraham, Judge Janiea 346 

Wllklna. W. C 286 

Will, E. G 807 

Wllllamn. Geo. T 167 

Wynkoop. n. J 188 

Tamell. GrllT 1" 

Zehner. R. B 818 

Played HorHe with a Stove Pipe 384 

Stuck In the Mud 386 

The Eaklmo'e Tonic 886 

Innult Names 385 

Battling the Arctic Bltnard 388 


K1tll1nen. nr. A. N 52-53 

KJelBberg. M 116-117 

Ijine. CharlPB D Frontispiece 

L^ne, Tom T 248-247 

Llndblom. E. 20-21 

LIndeberg. Jafet 12-13 

MeletUB, C. 827 

Metaon, W. H 68-69 

Moore, A. H 192-293 

Moore, Judge Alfred B 331-333 

Morris. C. J^ 276-279 

Murphy. Oeorge 80-61 

Perkins. Col. W. T 196-197 

Peterson, Nela SOO-SDl 

Price, a. W. 36-37 

Rinlnger. Dr. E. M 76-78 

Smith. P. a 1*1-149 

Stewart. A. C. 184-285 

Strong. J. F. A 44-46 

Sullivan. M. J. 191 

Tnnner, L. B ^ 161-168 

Whitehead. Dr. Cabell 148-149 

Wllklna, W. C 1(6-217 

Iroad 144-146 

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Preface and Dedication 

A BOOK widwut a preface and declicatioii would be a 
variabon of fonn. Moil boolu are complete widi- 
out either of dieae pr^xei. but Bke ceremoniab 
prehces and dedicatioiM are houoied hy wage, even though 
ifaejr be platitudet. In thit caM die preface givet me an 
opportunity to say that I have contumed enough time in the 
pTtpantion of tfak book to make it better than it k. The 
reaioa it ii not better ii became a lot of that time wat uted 
in trying to convince the men of the Northland that I wai 
trying to accomplith a meriloiioiu work, and wu entitled 
to their financial aid. 

I never wa« a niccew ai a money getter, but ai I grow 
older 1 realize more fully die tmdi and wiidom of the old 
Jew'* advice to hi* ton; "Young man, get moitey." My 
attempt to follow thit advice did not leave me adequate 
time to rewrite and edit all of die material m thii volume, 
and a part of the matter doet not pleaie me. But what' 
ever demoit the bo<^ may have from a writer'* point of view, 
it ti iq> to the book-maker'* ttandard. I did not ctJut in 
die telection of paper, and the engraver, printer, preMman 
and Innder have done dieir work well 

I never could have connimmatcd diit endeavor if it had 
not been for the good friend* and public^irited cidzcni of 
Nome, vrbo tniited and aMirted me; and at an evidence <^ 
my ^q>reciation of their generoui co-operation, thit volume i> 
dedicated to them. 


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Discovery of Alaska 

A GlimpM of Early Hlatory of thia Country— Voyagaa of Vltua Bering — Tha Ruaalan 
Fur Tradar*— Mtagor Htltory of Alaaka North of tha Yukon — Purchaaa of Alaaka 
by tha Unltod SUtaa in 1S67— Will Llva In Hiatory with tha Graal Louiaiana 

THE cariy hithHy of AUdu it a put of the hiatoiy of Ruaiia. Ruxian* diacoveied 
Ala^, took poMcnion of the country and occupied it (or a period of a ceatuty 
and a quarter. Their habitat did not extend to the eaaterly or die northerly 
boundaries of die territory they claimed, but wu confined prindpally to the 
coast and die idanda louth of the mouth of the Yukon; hence the early history of that 
large part oi Alaaka north of the Yukon, co'' priting at lea»l one-third of the area of tbit 
vast territory, ii meager. Runian occupancy of this Northland i* not a bii{^t page in the 
annak of the world. The Ruinan Government formed the country out to adventuren and 
traders, and even after the organization of the Ruman-American CoBq»ny the 4>irit of 
lelfithneM and greed dominated the entire field of industrial endeavor. And there was not 
much industrial endeavor. The Russian settlen were engaged in the fur trade, but the 
native* did the wodc of procuring the furs, and their masters bought the fun at prices which 
barely permitted the natives to live. At one time a condition of abaohite serfdom existed on 
the Aleutian Islands. The Russians did worse than impoveroh the natives ; they mtroduced' 
liquor and demoralized them. Knowing the native character as I do I have no doubt 
that alcohol was the cause of nine-tenths of the disturbances between the natives and the 
traders which often resuhed in bloodshed. But in this req>ect the Rusnans were not worse 
than some of the Yankee and ICanaka whalen who visited the northern part of Alaska 
at a later date. ' 

Hie Russians atten^led educatimal and rdigioui work in connection widi die 
fur industry, and edifices of the Greek church in which the Russian service is still per- 
formed stand in Alaska today at a monument of the work of zealous priests. I am dis- 
posed to give alt religious devotees the credit of sincerity, even thou^ unsavory tales 
have been told about some of the Russian priests, but I seriously question the regeneration 
of the Alaska native either by the Russian [viesthood or the missionaries of a later date. 
Missionary work that confines itself to the i^ytical welfare of the "benighted heathen" 
is wholesome and he^fut, but, and without discredit to the many truly good people ^^lo 
devote their lives to this land of work, the spiritual ministrations are misguided and wasted 
efforts. It seems tike a requirement of the law of conq>ensation, howew. that the mis- 
sionary should foDow commerce to try to cleanse the pollution of die aborigine resulting 
from the poisonous touch of a part of our civilization. But thia is another story which may 
be told in a succeeding chapter on the Eskimo. 

The discovery of Alaska is credited to the expedition €>f Vitus Bering, a Dane, who 
was bom in Hortens. He was of humble origin, and had been a sailor in the fleet of 
the East India Company until he joined the Russian fleet at the age of twenty-two. He 
foug^ his way to a command in the Baltic service through the wars of Peter the Great, 

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uid >^wn diit autocrat of all Rumm detemjned to aend an eipe<litii>ii to explore the 
unknown region which Drake had dkcovocd nune than a century b^ote and Bamed New 
Albion, Vitus Boing wat (elected ai the commander. 

The extreme northweitem part of Ae North American continent wat tuppoaed at 
ihii date to be an iiland. Eait India tailon had a mythical hazy conception of a country 
in this remote part of America which they called "Gamaland." but the Rutuan* had 
heard of a land beyond die bleak ikoro of Eaiteni Siberia vrhich wai called the "Great 
Country." It '» posaible that this land wa> ditcovered by Simeon Dethnetf. a daring 
RuMtan navigator, in 1648. The Great G>untrT it the translation of the Innuil name 
of Alaska, and there it do doubt that prior to the earbett voyage* of discovery in diis 
part of die world dtere were commercial relationt between the Chuckee tribes ^ Siberia 
and the natives of Seward Peninsula. The strait dividing the two continents is lets 
than fifty miles in width, and during the period of our early koowrfedge of Alaska die 
natives from either continent frequmtly dotted this neck of water during die sumtner 
irainni In the leverest winten, occurring probably once in a decade, the strait it 
covered with solid ice, and natives have taken advantage of this condition to cross from 
one land to the other. From diete factt the inference it reasonable diat the Siberian 
natives had a knowledge of Alaska, or thr Great Country, knig before the first Rusnan 
explorers reached tUi part of Asia. 

Bering's firtt voyage of exploration hail iti inceptioD in 1 725. Peter the Great 
died soon after fcxmulating the plant of diit expedition, and the Empreat Udifolly 
executed the ordert which he had issued. A great deal of time was consumed in out- 
fitting the ezpeditioo which did not leave die CNdiottk Sea until July 30. 1 728. Starting 
from the mouth of the Kamchatka River the voyagert kept near the SSicrian coatt. and 
arrived at the raoudi oi the Anadir River August 6. St. Lavrrence Island was dis- 
covered August 16. The expedition cmtinued its ioumey nnthward, passing through 
the strait and into the Arctic Ocean, but failed to make a discovery of land on the 
American continent Hirtorians do not give Bering a reputation ht great courage 
and prompt deatioo. From this far-removed point of view we are liaUe to do him 
an injuttice becaute of hit faihne to acconpliah more dian he did on diia voyage. 
After navigating the strait he turned aboUt and retraced his course. But he had 
accomplished diis much — he had learned that Asia did not extend to America. 

When he returned to St Petenburg in 1730 he induced Russia to undertake a 
second expedition. This expedition was lavidily outfitted, and set out in 1733 to crott 
Siberia b detachmenlt. The expedition comprited 580 men, and it had to trantpoit 
ilt tupplict and ecjuipment for dte voyage several thousand venti to the Bay of Avadia 
OD the east shwe of Kamchatka. The voyage of exploration ro the North Pacific Ocean 
did not start until June, 1 74 1 . This voyage wat undertaken m two th^ dte St Peter 
and St Paul. d>e former commanded by Bering and the latter by Lieutenant Alexd 
OiirikoC. The two vessels became separated and were destined never to si|ht c*ch otber 
again. Bufaed by the storms of the North Pacific, and han^Mred by the fogt that hung 
over the ocean at this leaton of the year, the vessels made sbw ptogrest. Scurvy, that 
dread malady of the early voyagen, made its appearance among the crewt and itt 
awful depretting effect robbed the men of dieir courage, and foredtadowed die ditattrout 
ending <^ the ill-fated expe<£tioo. July 16 land wat tinted from the deck of Bering't 
Mp, but Chirikof had tighted knd a day or two prior to this dale. It is probable diat 
Bering's firtt tight of the American ctmlineat wat Mt St EJiat. Chiiikof i veatd came 
to an anchorage of Cape Addington. He sent a kmg boat and a complement of ten men 

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atbore to make an ezuniiutk»i of the new-Fouod Und. Ai thty failed to return by the 
following day be dc^Mtcbcd a unall boat with two men to go after them and urge them 
to letura ipeedily to die ^p. The men that went out in theK boati never returned. 
Th^ must have been killed by ibe natives. Chiiikoff wai «adly in need of fre^ water, 
but there wat nothing left for him to do but to weigh anchor, hoitt *ail and get away 
from thii inhoqiitable ihore a> quickly a* he could. The return ttip was made under the 
mort teriout difficultia. So many of the crew were ill with scurvy that there were not 
enough able-bodiw) men to man the vessel, and when Gnally Aua was sighted and the 
almost hopeless Toyagen arrived at the entrance of Avscha Bay signal guns were Rred 
to a|q>rise the Ruaoan settlemeot of the crew's distress and need of assistance. 

The misfoMunes of the voyagers on the St. Paul were much len than the over- 
whelming disaitei that came to the explorers on the St. Peter. In the early part of 
November during a violent storm the St. Peter was driven ashore at one of the Commander 
Uands, which has since received the name of Bering Island. The crew left die vessel, 
and the few that were able to work immediately began to construct winter quarters. 
The poor unfortunates dying with scurvy, among them the commander of the ship, were 
Iwouf^t ashore and given all the attention that ^ stronger castaways could bestow. 
But the death-rate was appaHing. and difficulty was txpaneaad in preventing the wolves 
from devouring the unburied dead. December 8 Vitus Bering, weakened by the 
oicroacfainent of age and the ravages of disease, breathed his last and was buried on 
the island. In the following firing the few sorvivots built a small boat from some of the 
materials of their ihip, and succeeded in reaching the shore <rf Asia. 

This in brief is the story of the discovery of Alaska. The history of Russian oc- 
cupancy needs but a brief mention in these pages. Subsequent Russian opeimtions and 
industrial activity relate to odier parts of Alaska than Seward Peninsula. There is no 
record of a Russian station having been established north of the Yukon. Russia's 
expbitation of Alaska had for its object only one thing — the mortey to be made out 
of the fur trade. From 1743 until the latter part of the centuty the Aleutian Isknds 
and the shores of Central and Southeastern Alaska were virited by many fur traders. 
In 1 76 1 Ivan Golikoff, Gregory SheKkoff and others formed an assodatimi to engage 
in the fur trade in Alaska. The success of this combination of eCort led to the organiza- 
tion of die Russian-American Conqiany, which was granted a charter June 6, 1 799. 
The company was c^titafized at 98,000 rubles. The charter gave ihe conq>any all 
die coast of Amorica north of fifty-Ave degrees. Alex. BaranoS was selected as the 
manager of the company. This company had absolute control over the country leased 
to them by the Russian Government. The charter ^ the Russian-American Company 
was for a period of twenty yean, and was renewed on three successive occasions at 
the ends of the periods for which it was granted, but the goverrmient did not renew the 
lease in 1859, and from diis date until the sale of die countiy to the United Sutes the 
company's tenure was uncertain and by sufferance of the Russian Cuvemment. The 
civilizing influence ^ these early Russian traders is questionable. BaranoS was a type 
of an executive officer wdl suited for the work he had to do. He was a strong, 
autocratic man wbo ruled bodi Russians and natives vrith an iron hand. Most of the 
subordinates in ibe employma* d the Russian-American Company were convicts and 
exiles, who. to quota the language of Baron Wrangell, a l u fcaequent marutger of tbe 
company, "left tbeir country because they were not wanted there." While the histoiy 
of die Russian-American Conpany's cwnwctien widi the native race of Alaska is a 
story of ftequent atrocities, Baranoff made money for die stockholdera, and so kMig as 

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he did that 'Jiey did not manifest concern about how or in what manner he conducted 
die buiinest and adminiitered the aSain of die company. As the nativea were little 
more than aerfi who were compelled to tell to their maslen the furs they obtained at a 
price which the Russians fixed, which always was ridiculously low, it is not surprising 
that the Russian-American Company became a very rich and world-famous corporation. 

While the Russians daimed by virtue of discovery and occupation all of the 
Northland extending easterly as far as the forty-first parallel and northerly to the Arctic 
Ocean, their work in die country was in a great measure confined to the coast. They 
are not credited with any interior tr^ of exploration, and were content to have the 
natives bring their furs from the great inland region to the trading posts on the sea 
or not far away from the coast en tome rivor. The discovery of Golovin Bay was not 
made until 1820. This discovery was made by Etolin, the son of a native 
mother and a Russian father. This boy possessed enou^ inherited strengdi of char- 
acter to elevate himself to a position of eminence in the service of the Rusuan-American 
Company. Goloviii was first named Golofnina. Golovin Sound and Golovin Bay 
were both discovered by Elolin. For near half a cmtury it was believed by die Rus- 
sians that Golovm Sound and Grantley Harbor were connected by a waterway. 

The most Dortherly trading post of the Russian-American Company was estab- 
lished in 1833 by Michael Tebenkoff under instructions of Baron Wrangell who was thjn 
manager of the company. The post was named Michaelovrki Redoubt, and was erected 
at the mouth of the Yukon I^er. It is now the staticm where all steamer 
freight for the Yukon is trans-shipped. Tht name Michaelovski has been anglicized 
and sanctified with the prefix signifying saint. I do not know the authority or reason 
for changing this name to St Michael. In IS36 the natives (^ Norton Sound attacked 
the Redoubt, which was successfully defended by KurapanoS. In I840''4I the Rus- 
sians buJt a fort at Unalakleet. The first Russian explorations of the Yukon River 
were made in 1635 by Malakoff, a half-breed, vho ascended this great stream as fu 
as Nulalo. So it wiQ be seen that if there were any commerce between the natives of 
Northwestern Alaska and the Russian traders, such trade was during the iatler part 
of the regime of the Russian-American Company. 

In 1667 the United States bought Alaska from the Russian Government. Tht 
price paid for this vast country, comprising 591,000 square miles, was only $7,200,000. 
Secretary Seward was derided and lampooned for making this investmenL The <»untiy 
was called "Seward's ice chest," and some of the leading journals of the United States 
and many provbcial statesmen beBevod that Russia had the better of the bargain. 
When people thou^t of Alaska they conjured a mental picture of icebergs and polar 
bears. It was known that the Russian-American Company had made a profit out of 
die fur industry in diis region, but it was believed that Russia had "skimmed the cream" 
of the mdustry. The develc^iments of the fishing and mining industries in Alaska during 
the past ten years have demonstrated One inaccuracy of preconceived opinions and con- 
clusions deduced from insufficient facts or erroneous information. Tlie purchase of Alaska 
win live in history with the Louisiana Purchase. This is a strong assertion to make 
at this early day of development of the country's resources, but a confirmation of diis 
opinion may be had from any observing person who has lived in this wonderful country 
during a period of several yean. 

Public (pinion in regard to the commercial value of Alaska did not materially 
change until the proq>ector invaded this land. A few people discovered the millions of 

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m1id(M] which tveiy ipmig choked the streunt in Southcaitcm Alaska, but they did not 
give widespread pubUcity o( the pouibilities of Alaskan fisheries. Wilh a wisdom bora 
of the commercial instinct they began fishing and establishing canneries. Today the 
salmon fisheries of Alaska are die greatest in the world. As late as 1 86 1 Petroff wrote 
die subjoined paragraph about a part of Alaska which will produce this year gold valued 
at not less than $15,000,000: 

"Here is an immense tract reaching from Bering Strait in a luccettion of rolling 
ice-bound moors and low mountain ranges, for seven hundred miles an unbroken waste, 
to the boundary line between us and British America. Then, again, from the crests 
of Cook's Inlet and the flanks of Mount Sl Eliat northward over that vast area of 
nigged mountab and lonely moor to the cast, nearly eight hundred milet, is a great expanse 
of coimtry — by its posiBon baned out from occupation and settlement by our own 
people. The climatic conditiona are such that its immense area will remain unditturbed 
in the possession of its savage occupants, man and beast." 

The Nome and Tanana gold fields are a part of these ice-bound, lonely moon, and 
1 5.000 rugged inhabitants have not found the country inaccessible nor the climate a serious 
obstacle to tetdement 

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Arctic Voyai^es 

Captain Cook'a CKploratlona In Baring Saa and tha Arctic Ocaan— Llautanant Van 
Kotxbua'a Voyaga and hia Dlacovarlaa— Captatn Baachy'a Search for Mr John franl^ 
lln— Tha lll-Fatad JaannattaandDlaaatroua Torminatlon of Captain Da Long'a At- 
tempt to Roach tho North Pola. 

THE moat important annab of Nwthwettern AUtka are to be found in the recordi 
of Arctic voyadci and ihe attei>4>ts that were made more iKan a ceatuty ago 
lo bnd a northwest panage from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific In I 776, 
Captain Cook was outfitted by the Royal Geographical Society of England, 
and lent on a voyage of diicovery to the Pacific Ocean with imlructioni to proceed 
northerly to Beting Sea and explore a country which had been mapped by a Mr. Sladin, 
and doignated as the New Northern ArchqieUgo. in which wat the bland of Alaichka. 
He was to sail through Bering Strait into the Arctic Ocean, and ice permitting, wa* (o 
proceed by the northeast passage, if one could be bund, lo the Atlantic This voyage is 
hirtoric and iiKinorabie because it was the last of Captain Cook's expeditions. lu tragic 
coodunMi in the Sandwich Islands, wttere the brave captain and experienced navigator 
kMt his Kfe at the hand* of the native), it a matter of history, but only related lo 
this vohiroe in coimection with his voyage of discovery in Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean. 

1 have before me as I write the k>g of this voyage written in quaint and archaic 
English, condiely and clearly dnciilnng many points of Northwestern Alaska widi yftack I 
am ^miliar. This voyage occurred a loog time ago. Our forefathen had not completed 
their slrag^ for independence. At that time tranqnrtation facilities by water were not 
anything like what they are today; indeed, they were very primitive, and considering the 
vessel in which he sailed, our admiration for the daring tMvigator is accentuated when we 
know what he accomplished. 

The fint record of his Alaskan exploratioa refers to Cook Inlet, which has been 
named after the navigator and which he discovered on diit voyage. To brief tiie inter- 
esting narrative of hit tr^ which is to be found in this log. he entered Bering Sea die latter 
part of July, 1778. He descnbes his first anchorage of the mainland of Alaska in 
Bering Sea. at foUows: 

"At ten o'ckxk in the morning of August 5. with the wind at toulhwert, we ran 
down and anchored between the continent and an island, four leagues in extent, which 
wat named Sledge Island. I landed here but taw neither shrub nor tree cither iqwn tba 
island or upon the continenL That people had lately been on the island wat evident from 
die marks of feet We found near where we landed a dedge, which occanoned thii name 
being given by me to the island. It seemed to be such an one as the Rutnant in Kam- 
chatka make use of upon the ice or snow, and was ten ttti k>ng, two feel broad and had 
a kind t4 rail work on each side, and wat shod with bone. The construction of it wat ad- 
mirable and all the parts neatly put together." 

On the 9 be tacked and stood away from the northwest part of the mainland which 
be named Cape Prince of Wales, and be notes in the'log th«t "this is the western ex- 

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titaitf (rf aS Anciica liid>ato htown." Hit coonf tiom Cape Piince of Wakt wu to 
tbe wotvnnL CroMBg Bering Strait he landed in SSicna, and hit docription of the 
Sknan native it a comet pot-pictive of thii abofigine today. From lii> cfaait he ex- 
pected to find here dte Aidupelato Jadicated by Mr. Stadin'i map, but be wiKly om- 
dnded that die (and waa the eacteni atrcmity of Ana, and that Mr. Staeiin't Awiiipclago 
and Uand of Alaachka were the fig m en t * of a dream. 

Renmnng hit voyage in a noilheaiterty direction, he nolet Ae diicoveiy m latitiide 70* 
29" and longitade 198* 20" of a cape "mnch in cunJ ieicd with ice. for which reaioa it 
obtained die name of Icy Cape." He perceived that "the odier extreme of land wu kMt 
B the horizon, ao that there can be no doubt of in bemg a continuation of the American 
Contiaeat" On Augiat 19 there wat a great body of ice to windward and dwal 
water dioieward. The ntuatioD was aomewhat critical, but he Mcceeded in avoiding ike 
ice. I.^)on the ice were great herd* of "tea hone*, bnddled. one over the odier, like 
iwrine. and roaring and braymg very loud, lo that in die nigjit or in foggy weadier. diey 
gave u* notice <rf the vicmity of the ice before we could *cc it" The tailor* IdHed a num- 
ber of tbcae animab, which were wabuM*. and food being diort they learned to eat their 
Bed). Captain Code uy* the heart of a tea bone it a* good a* the heart of a buOock. 

He law flock* <rf duck* flying loutliward, and on Angwt 27 he *ighted an 
e rt r e me end of die coast which teemed to form a point, and ^>peared to be hi|^ land, 
which be named Cape Litbisne. Evidence of the ^iproacb of winter, tnow-tqualk, 
freezing weather, the flight of birdi to the loutb and die encroachment of the eternal ice 
field* vduch circle the North Pole, made him realize diat it wa* wiM and expedient to 
gel out at the Arctic Ocean. Retumkig dirou^ Bering Strait, he wat confronted with 
the need of wood and water. It wat hi* intention to proceed to one of the iilandt of the 
Pacific Ocean for the winter, and retuni and continue hi* exploration* the next ipring. 
Steering near to the American ihore, on September 19 he came to a coatt covered 
widi wood which he detciibe* ai "an agreeable li^t, to which of late we had not been 
accttttomed." He dro(^>ed anchor in a big bay or tound and ttnt Mr. King, hit executive 
oficcr, atbore to report upon the feaHbility of tecuring the needed wood and water. Hit 
log cayt, "In honor of Sir Fletcher Norton, Speaker of the Houie of Common*, and Mr. 
IGng'* near relative. I named thi* inlet Norton'* Sound." 

The reader who it familiar with N<xthwertem Alaska will perceive from thi* lynopeit 
of Captain Cook'i voyage, that he made a number of vety important ditcoveriet in thit 
part of die Northland. T^e Alaikan reader wiD abo understand why a number of con- 
tpicuout geographical localitie* have received the name* by which they are known. Prioi 
to this date, however, the Russian promishlenikt, or traden, had occiqiied a tmall part of 
the coatt line of Alatka, and had located in the group of Aleutian Itland*, but there i* no 
record of any *ettlenient* or even any Rut*ian exploration* in that part of Alatka north o( 
the Yukon at this eady date. Captain Cook wat undoubtedly the firti white man to vini 
die pmnb of Alatka which he ha* named and de*cribed. 

In 1 789, Mackenzie discovered the river which bean hit name, so it wiD be seen 
that the earliest explorations and ditcoveriet in the extreme northern part of die North 
American Continent were made by EJigBthmen. 

The next important voyage of ditcovery in thit part of the world, wn* made by Lieu- 
tenant Otto Von Kotzebue, a Rutnan, m 1615. He tailed in a vessel named Rurik, 
after die Norse Viking who founded the fint Rusiian Dynasty in 663. He sailed from 
F^ymouth. New England, around die Horn, and arrived at St. Lawrence Island in Bering 
Sea, June 27, 1816. He patted dirough the strait August I, and skirting the coatt. 

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Mu)«l into the big inlet whicb now bean hit name, and which he draught when he entered 
it was the northeast passage to (be Atlantic Ocean. This was a noteworthy ea^tcditioni 
as accmnpanying Lieutenant Kotzebue were Chamisso, the Ruhmui poet and natuiabt. 
and Elschohz, an eminent physician and naturaltsL They remained in Kotezbue Sound 
until August 1 5, maldng esplorabons. Chamisso Island and Escholtz Bay were named 
rc^xcdvely after the poet and physician. It was on diis expedition that the naturalists 
made the discovery of an ice-cHS capped with soil and covered mtfa vegcUliao. This 
kind oi a formation is commm in this part of Alaska. Indeed, nearly all of the tundii 
skirting the Arctic coast ■ mostly composed of ice, and it b probable that if diis region 
should be converted into a truncal climate, the melting irf the ice would result in the 
enooachment of die ocean so that where now is tundra there would be mud-flats covered 
with water at higji dde. 

In July, 1 626, '^A^Uiam Prederick Beechy entered the Arctic Ocean through Bering 
Strait He was in command of the Fnnkhn Research Party sent out l^ die British Govern- 
ment to try to bod some trace of Sir John Franklin, die daring Arctic expktrer who kiat his 
life in the Arctic region. Beechy entered Kotzcbue Sound and discovered Hodiam Inlet, 
v^tich he explored. He followed die Arctic coast line northward for a amsiderable dis- 
tance, having obtained an accurate chart from a native v^ sketched with a stick in the 
bench sands, a msp of the coast He reached a place above Pomt Barrow, which was 
siAwequently found to be only one himdred and sixteen miles from Franklin's Return Reef. 
Lieutenant Elson was with Captain Beechy and was in charge of the ezpedidoD which 
went to Point Barrow and gave the name to that place. On this voyage he discovered 
and named the Colville and Garry Riven, and was at Camden Bay, a place where Captain 
CoUinson subsequently wintered m '52 and '53. 

The foUowing year Captain Beechy discovered and named Port Clarence and Grant- 
kf Harbor. This harbor is the best on the eastern coast of Bering Sea. and is noted 
for being the rendezvous of the whaling fleet which assemble there early b the season and 
wait for the ice to get away so they can enter the Arctic Ocean. 

Hie ill-hted Jeannette, cammaocled by Captain De Lmg, sailed across Bering 
Sea and through the strait on her way to the North Pole. She was caught in die ice 
in the Arctic Ocean several hundred miles from the ^>eiian coast and crushed June 
13, 1661. Captain De Lmig and a part of his crew succeeded dirou^ great hard- 
Mp* and much suffering in reaching shore, but perished in the steppes ^ S%eiia before 
they coulld reach a settlement or secure assistance. Captain Hooper, commanding the 
Corwin, was sent out m search of the Jeannette, and during diis trip the ice-pilot of 
die Corwin made the discovery of the coal mines at Cape Lisbume. 

Another unfortunate expedition to this country was made in 1851 by Lieutenant 
J. J. Barnard of H. M. S. Enterprise, in search of Sir Joha Franklin. Lieutenant 
Barnard ascended the Yukon to Nutato and was murdered by the Koyukuk Indians 
February 16, 1651. 

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Whaling in Northern Waters 

A QrMt Industry In Ita Oacadanc*— Whaling Pl*«t D«itray«d by Rabet Crulsar Shcnan- 
dMti— NoUbl« DIaaatora t« tha Whaling Flaat In tha Arctic Ocaan— Captain 
TIHon'a Historic Ovarland Trip from Point Barrow to Katmal — DoacrlptJon of tho 
•owhaatf Whala — Fraaka of tha Compaaa In tha Polar Sea— V^haro Whalara Cala- 
brata July 4. 

(For much of die material of thit chapter I am indebted to Captain Omu J. Hunt- 
irfuey, of Seattle, and take thi* opportunity of aclmowledging hit courtety in pemuttaig 
me to glean from a lecture, on the Hib)ect of Whaling, prepared by him in 1893.) 

HALERS have helped to make the early hiUory of Alaika. Ever nnce ao 
American whaleman caught the first Right Whale in 1835 on the Kodiak 
ground, whaling in the North Pacific, Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean, ha* 
been an ioduitry which hai been c<»>tantly purttied and which kai yielded an 
immente revenue. In the abtence of sUtittict an etttmale of the total product of the 
whahag mduttry in thex waten is little more than a gueu. In 1846 there were 725 
veateU esgaged in whaling in the world. Theie ve«elt were valued at $21,075,000. 
The total investment connected with whaling at this time ii estimated at $70,000,000. 
wd 70.000 people derived their support from this industry. Between 1851 and 1857 
the value of die whaling product in the world reached near $1 1 ,000,000 annually. At 
one time then were more than 100 whaling ships in Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean 
Jn a single leaMN). The number new is not more thaq twelve or fifteen. It b poss2>le 
that the whaling industry in these waters has produced a revenue of more than $100,- 

The first Bowhead Whale or Balena Mysticetus was captured in Bering Sea in 
1643. Prior to that date the Bowhead was an unknown 4>eciei. The Bark Super- 
ior of Sagg Harbor, Captain Roys commander, was the first whaler to pass throu^ 
Bering Strait and engage in whahng in the Arctic Ocean. This was in I S48. 

It is a matter of history, but not generally kitown, that in June, 1865, the Rd>el 
Cruiser Shenandoah, commanded by Captain Waddell and piloted by an old whaler 
from Australia, entered the Okhotsk Sea and began to destroy the Yankee whaling fleet 
-Captain Waddell burned thirty vessdt in the Okhotsk Sea and Bering Sea. He bonded 
four vessels and placing on board 250 whalers from vesi^ that he had destroyed sent 
tbnn to the states. The loss on account of the destruction of these vessels was esti- 
mated at $ 1 ,000.000 and the kist of the season's catch at aoolher milbon doDan. Aa 
old captain of a wftaling vessel who commanded a ship in the whaling fleet at the tkne 
of Waddell's depredations, told me that he heard of what the Shenandoah was doing 
and "scooted for the ice-pack in the Arctic I iambed into the ice 1 50 miles and took 
«1] kinds of chances of being crushed. I didn't intmd to be burned by the Rebel Cruiser. 
Bat 1 got out of the ice all ri^t, and made the biggest ketch that season that I ever nude 
in my bfe." 

The next serious dtsastn to the whaling fleet was the wreck of 1871. The fleet 
•consisted of forty vessels. Wbter came on much earlier this season dun usual On 

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Angittt 6 the ice-iMck drove mhiw of the vcmcIi upon the ihocb oS ley Cape. Thty wen 
completely hedged in and coukl not get ouL September 1 one veuet wu carried away 
in the pack and the following day two wore cruthed. In all tfaii^-three \emdi wen 
inqiritoned in the ice-pack. Sq>teinber M the litualion had become extrcntdy critkaL 
Young ice wu forming, mow-iqiialli were of (reqiient occuiience, and the ice wu 
•etting towards the northeait caiiying the ve»elt with it A conwltatiixi of '•■p>»'"« 
wai held and it wu decided to abandon ihipi and take to the whale-boati in an edort 
to gel to Uie diore. Twelve hundred men and a few women embarked in 200 whale- 
boats. All band* succeeded in reaching seven vessel* of the fleet lying to the south of 
the ice-pack and were taken aboard, arriving at Honolulu without the loss of a single 
life. The following year two ships were found fast in the icf near ley C*pti om was 
saved but die brcak-iq> of the ice crushed the other. This disaster cauaed a lots of 

But the wont disaster to the whaling Sect in Arctic waters occurred in 1676. 
It was attended with a serious loss of life. In August the fleet was off Point Barrow 
and the ic»i>ack ckised m on it, and with the vessels ^ in tti grip started with the 
current in a northeasterly direction. After a consultation of captains the whale-boats 
were hastily provisioned, and the perikMU trip of hauling these boats over the ice and 
pulling them dirou^ the water between Boes in order to reach the shore was begim. 
The but day's work was very exhausting and can^) was made c» the floating ice. TImI 
night a snow stcnnn came on and there was no such thing as comfort, and the danger 
of freezing seemed imminoit. The next moining the weather was thick The pilot 
fell into the water twice and came near hvezing. Fves were made on the ice bjr' 
breaking up a small boat and using the boards for fuel The second nig^t was qxnt 
on an iceberg grotmded in twelve fathoms of water. The third day channels et open 
water were encountered. Ice was forming in this water and navigation was very difficult. 
Frequently crevasses in the ice were bridged with the boats. On the diird day a weaiy 
whaler trom the summit of an ice-humroock saw land, and at 10 p. m. a thoroughly 
exhausted lot of ship-wrecked tailors reached the shore. 

When it was determined to abandon ship 70 men refused to ac(}inesce in the 
decision of the majority. They chose to trust thrir lives to the ships rather than attempt 
to haul the small boats over the floe* in an effort to get to the shore. There never ha* 
been any tidings from these abandoned vessels, nor of the unfortunate men who re- 
mained in diem. The unmarked currents of the Arctic Ocean carried diem into the 
mysterious and unknown reabn of the Frost King. The great ice fields that cnorde 
the North Pole are near 2,000 miles m diameter — 6,000 miles in drcnmference. This 
ice it constantly moving. During one season there may be an open Polar Sea where 
the seasM) before were impenetrable barriers of ice. At the approach ^ winter the 
current off the northern shore of Alaska sett toward the nordwast It was this current 
that carried away a large part of the whaling fleet in 1876 and with it the seventy men 
who refuted to abandon their ships. Probably all visual evidence of th^M has been 
destroyed, but it is posdble that some of then fast in die rdentlest grip of the ice an 
still floating hither and yon at the mercy of the winds and the tide*. 

Thirty vesseb were lost in this disaster. The part of the crew that got ashore 
started to build quarten and prepan for winter; but die wind shifted and drove die 
ice out making escape posnUe. They took advantage of the opportunity and suc- 
ceeded in reaching Point Barrow. 

In 1 997 die last (fiiatter happened to the whaling fleet in die Arctic Ocean. The 

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larger put of die fleet wu impriMHied in k« near PtNOt Bwrow uid Mvoal vcMck 
were cnubecL Thii inctdeot ii bed known by tbe attempt of the Govenunent to lend 
•id to tbe unfortunate whalers. The United Statei Revenue Cutter Bear wai de- 
tailed on thi* conuniuioD. Proceeding ai far north a* the ice would permit, Lieutenant 
Jarvit, Lieutenant BertboU and Dr. Call were landed and itarted on an overland trip 
with dog teams acrou Alaska to Point Barrow. They were audwrized by the GoT- 
emmcnt to use the reindeer herds in Alaska for tbe succor of the shq>wrecked sailon. 
They succeeded in their undertaking to the extent of driving, with the aid of native 
herders, dte reindeei herd from Cape Prince of Wales to Point Barrow. Fortunately 
there was not a pressing need of the aid that was furnished, although there it no doubt 
that the fresh reindeer meat, and tlie sanitary regulatians provided by Dr. Call, prevented 
the devek^ment of scorbutic symptoms. 

The most interesting stoiy in connection with this incident is the nantive of ■ 
trip made by Captain George F. Tilton who started from Pmnt Barrow October 22. 
and with two natives and a dog team traveled across Seward Peninsula and from St 
Michael to Katmai, completing the trqi before the end of the winter. 

Aftor the whalers discovered their inability to extricate diemsehrei from the ice 
they took stipplies ashore and went into winter quarters. Supplemented by the nqipBea 
at the minionary station they found they had rations suffidcnt for two meals a day until 
the opening of navigation the next year. But they were confronted with this ntoation: 
they had wives and sweethearts, sisters and brothers, fothers and modiers "away dovni 
east" who would mourn them as dead, if not apprised of the safety of the ice-beleag- 
uered whalers. If a messenger could be sent outside the ship owners could be in- 
formed of their situatitn, and could send in itq>plies for the next season's whaling 
<q>erati(ms. Volunteers were called for, and Captain George F. Tihon, now of the 
steam whaler Belvedere, then a mate on the same vessel, otfered to undertake the trip. 
He was young and strong, a product of good New England stock from Mardia's 
Viuyard, and had been a whaler as a boy under his father. With two natives, a man 
and his wife, as guides, a dog (earn and fifteen days' rations he started «i his long and 
perilous journey. His course vrai over tbe ice of the Arctic Ocean and KotzdHie 
Sound to the mouth of Buckland fUver; thoice by umqiass across tbe peninsula to 
Norton Sound. In places the ice had not fonned strong enough to make traveling 
safe. He carried an ax with him, and frequendy used this to test tbe ice. In <Hie 
place where the ice seemed to be bending beneath the weight of the travders he struck 
it with his ax and that was the last he saw of his inqileroeat The ax went through 
the ice and slqjping from his numbed hands disappeared in dte ocean. This incidoit 
is mentitmed as an evidence of the perils of early traveling over the ice in tbe winter 

He eq>erienced great dificulty in getting around Cape Lisbume. The ice at 
this place was broken, and he was compelled to feny himself <mi a cake of ice acns' 
a chasm ^ water to anchored ice. He encountered bhzzards. Smne of bis toes and 
fingers were frozen. He lived on raw fish for nine days. Before arriving at St Michad 
he met Lieut. Jarvis and Dr. CaU. From St Michael he continued his journey across 
die country to Katmai, arriving at die latter place March 12. At Katmai he expected 
to find a station of the Alaska Commercial Company, but it bad been abandoned. He 
discovered among the old stufi at this abandoned station a condemned doty. He tore 
up all of his underclothing to make material with which to calk this dory, and after 
putting it in a seawordiy condition, » as near a seaworthy condition as be- widi die 

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materul at hand could make it, he launched the craft in the Shdikotf Stnut*. and wiA 

hii two native> attempted to pull acnwi this thirQr-five mile* of vraler. Speaking «rf thii 

part of hit tr^ he taid: "I nevor Mt the oan and die naliva never quit bailing until 

we reached die opposite (hore. Leo than an hour after reaching dwre in an ahnoti 

exhausted condition, the wind Iweezed up against the tide and thcae straits kicked up 

their heels in a way that made my blood 

run cokL My old dwy couldn't have 

l.ved five minutes in such a sea." 

When he arrived in Seattle the ship 
owners wouldn't believe hi* story. They 
refused to honor his draft, and thou^t 
he was a deserter from the fleet. Con- 
lidering the cmiditions imder which diis 
trip %va« made, the distance traveled, 
which is more than 2,500 miles, the 
fact that the country was new, and de- 
void of trails or camping places otho 
ttao native villages, it was a brave 
undertaking and its accongJishmcnt re< 
quired physical **■"'"'» as well as 

Captain Giley, of the brig William 
H. Allen, is a conspicuous Bgure in a 
tragic incident of whaling. This in- 
cident occurred at Cape Prince of 
Wales in 1876. In July of this year 
the brig anchored ofi the Cape and 
was visiled by the chief and twenty 
CAPT QEO. p. TILTON. natives of Kmgegan, Ute R s kimo vil- 

lac: at this place. The chief was 
a remarkable native in appearance, being six feet Kve inches taO. He was drunk and 
demanded rum of Capt. Gill^. Upon the captain's refusal to supply him with liquor, 
the chief sent the native women, a few of vrhoin had come aboard, to the shore. The 
ship's crew believed that this was the sign of a fight, and made preparations for the 
conflict. As soon as the big skin boat with the native women had cleared from die 
vessel the natives attempted to seize the brig, and a sangtiinaiy stnig^ ensued, resulting 
in the death of all the Eskimo and the killing of one while man and wounding of three 
others. These natives had looted a schooner the we^ before, but they were not 
prepared br the energetic renstance of Capt. GillcT and his crew. Afto several of 
thcsn had been killer' and d>ey had discovered that their attempt was a failure some of 
them lumped overboard and were drowned, and others tried to hide under (be hatchet. 
Those wiio attempted to hide were pulled out vrith boat hooks and mercilessly put 
to death. 

The natives of Cape Prince of Wales have a reputation for being biters. Neaf 
their village are old fortifications where they went to do battle with their Sberian ad- 
versaries who ventured to cross the strait m search of conquest. But notwitfutanding 

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ibe beBigcnnt chinictCT of thn rqxiUtioD. I do not believe that the*e uttTC* ever 
wouM wu)loB))r kifl if it were not for die bakful influence of liquor. 

Tlw captain of a wfaale-ih^ b uniallir a brave and an a<lventuroui peraon. In 
qncit of whalea he ha.« taiWd n the Arctic Ocean to within a few degreea of die 
latitude rearSed br the mort MKceiafu] cspitatn in tearch of the North Pole. It hai 
been reported that vrfialen hare reached 84 degreei north latitwle, but it it doubtf<^ 
if Ifa^ have been hrtbcr north than 60 degrwa. In tfaii hi^ latitude ibe c^itain of a 
wfaale-ihip hat reported "no ice in nght." It happened to be one of tkote favorable 
■caioBi when thia part of the Polar Sea wai open. It it potwble that if thoe bad bcoi 
an incentive that the captain of thit whaling veuel on thit occation miijit have reached 
the North Pole. Aay penon fam^iar with the Polar Sea, vtho knowt anything of it« 
current! and the action of it> great fiddi of ice, knowt thit: that dte Nordi Pole may 
■omctime be diKovercd, but it can only be reached by a fortnitoui circumitance. Po»- 
>2>ly once in many yean there may be a lead or an opening throu^ which tonte darinc 
tailOT may tail to the ultima thule of Arctic exploration, but he will be a hic^ man 
if Iw ever get> bacL 

Captain f-liuqihrey givet a very intcrertiag deacr^Mion of the BowbeaH or Polar 
Whale which he layt it commercially the nott valuable of all whale*. It it much 
ihmter dtan the Sperm 'Whale, itt greatert length not cxcoeding tiity-five feet The head it 
one-third of the whole creature. A very large Bowbead will yidd 275 bandt oi oil 
and 3,500 poundi of bone. The bone it attached to the iaw in fringed trantveiac 


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layen pcoiectbig downwud and outvrard. but enclosed by the under lip when the 
moath it (hut. The throat u unal! and U taid to be not Urge enough to admit a 
herring. Evidently the whale in the &«fa yam of the B3ile wai not a Bowhead. At* 
tached to the baie of the throat i* the enormout tongue which (ometimei produce* 
twenty-five barreli of oil Such a tongue would equal the weight of ten oxen. The 
eyes are quadn^le the tize of the eyes of an ox, and about a foot above and behind the 
angle of the mouth. The blow holes are two feel from the eyes and nearly in a horizontal 
line with diem. In KHne caaei the blow-boles are ao minute ifaat they can Karcely be dis- 
covered. The caudal fin. or fluke, is the posteri«r limb and i* horn sixteen to twenty-five feet 
long, tail broad and notched at the centor. The whakbone of the Bowhead is imbedded 
in the law to a depth of ten inches. There are about 330 slabs (rf v^ialebone in a buge 
whale, and the largest slabs wei^ from seven pounds to ten pounds each. 

When feeding the Bowhead moves through the water with great velocity, jaws open, 
and a great volume of water enters the animal's mouth. This water is strained through the 
fringed b«ie and all animalculae. )elly fish, young spawn and odier Idnds of wfaale-hiod 
that are caught in this strainer find ttieir way to the animal's stomach. When not dis- 
turbed the vrfiale remains up from one minute to three minutes and qmuts several times. When 
feeding it remains imder water half an hour or more. The range of the BoM^iead is 
east and west of the Arctic Ocean, nordieni limit undefined. It is seldom seen in Bering 
Sea south of 65. It u distinctively an ice-whale. It can travel widt great ^Med. at a 
rate that would circumnavigate the globe in fourteen days. A whale is not old until he 
has lived several centuries. Naturalists estimate his q>an of life at 1,000 yean. 

Whalers in the Arctic Ocean have observed queer freaks in the cinnpass. In chang- 
ing course of the ship the needle has remained stationary for fifteen minutes. A whaler 
usually directs his vessel by the bearing of the sun. or of the land if it be in sighL In a calm 
or south wind the compass is reliable, but vdicn a north wind is blowing it varies often two 
or diree points. The lead is the whale-man's never failing guide. 

A fitting conclusion to this stoiy of whaling and the whale b a description of a 
time-honored custom among whaler* to celebrate the Fourth of July in Crantl^ Hari>or. 
For many years this has been the rendczvoiu of the v^aling fleet where they go for water 
and to await the arrival of the steam tender leaving San Francisco June 1, with mail, 
provisions and coal. In 1893 Captain Humi^ircy was in command of the lenda. He 
arrived at Crantley Harbor June 26. There wasn't a vessel in H|^t. nor were any seen 
the next day or the day following. On the evenmg of July 3 several sails were sighted, 
and on the moning of July 4 diirty-five American whaling vesseb, with Yankee command- 
ers, flying the stars and stripes, rode at anchtv in the hariwr. 

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Revenue Cutter Service 

Valuibl* Work In Alaaka by thia Dapartmant «f tha Oevammant— Exploration a 
ContribuUona to Natural HIatory LItoratura. 

CTv EVENUE Ctitten have pcrftKiited a valuable wodc in the hialory of Alatka. 
I Xj) Prior to the pamage of what it known aa the Hanuon Bill, providing for the 
lfV\ govenunent of Alaska principally by the Oregm Code, and providing for 
educatioDal work among the natives, Congren had given but little attention to 
the "ice chett" that Seward putchaied from the Riutiac Govenunent. The annual 
voyages of whalen to the Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean, the conunerda] rdationi 
existing between traden and the oomadic native tribe* of Alaska, and the initiation of 
mistionary work in die Northlan<l by various religioui societies of the United Statea, re- 
quired the eiercise by tome dtpartroent of our Government of authority, and tome sort 
of executioo of law. These duties were wisely and ^ectively discharged by the com- 
mander* of the levenue cutten in northcni waten. Men like Captain M. A. Healy. 
Giptain Tuttle. Captain Hooper and Lieutenant D. H. Jarvis are honorably associated 
with this regime. 

The only records that I have found available concerning this part of N<ntiiwesteni 
Alaska's htstoiy are the reports to the Government by the officers of the revenue cutters. 
Theae reports show that die revenue cutten patrolled Beting Sea and the Arctic Ocean 
lor the puipoae of rendering aid to unfortunate whalen; for the purpose of preventing uo- 
scTupuiouB traders selling contraband goods to the natives; for the purpose of preventing 
the illicit distillalion of liquor, the natives having learned how to make a fonnidaUe 
"hootch" out of flour and molasses; and for the goieral purpose of preserving the peace 
and settling disputes among the whalen and ttaden and any difficultiet that mif^ arise 
between ihem and the nativea. The revenue cutter service performed another wmk of 
great value to the Government, a work that hat not been recognized, nor its value realized. 
This work was the exploration of many unknown parts of Northwestern Alaaka Iqr ex- 
peditions sent out by the Govenunent in charge of the ^cen of the revenue cidters. In 
addition to all this, the revenue cutter service of the United States has assisted in chatting 
the coast line and marking the hidden rocks, thereby rendering great aid to commerce. 
Men of scientific attairunent have accompanied the exploring . expeditions, and twen^ 
yean ago they furnished valuable data to the Government in regard to die natural his- 
tory of this country. Lieutenant John C Cantwetl explored the Kobuk lUver in 1864 
and his mtelligent and w^written report to the Government of these expeditioiu is the 
first accurate description of this country. Prior to Lieutniant Cantwell's trp Lieutenant 
George M. Stoney q>ent a winter c» the Kobuk River and established hit winter guar- 
ten at a place he named Fort Cosmos. Lieutenant Cantwell was an officer on the 
revenue cutter Corwin undv the command of Captain M. A Healy. He succeeded in 
navigating the Kobuk to Big Fiih Lake. This lake it the scene of the Eskimo Jonah 
story. Lieutenant Caotwell'i narrative of this trip correctly describes the physical fea- 



tures of the country, the cuttomi and iubitt of dte nativei and the character of the river. 
In a foreword to hit report Ueutenant Cantwell layi: 

"That thii country hat rklic* in mincn] depoaiti ii fully atteated by the many 
tpedmou of ore brought to the caait by the nonudic tribe* of Indiana in warch of bear. 
mooM and deer during the winter month*, and by the frequent indications of gold and 
utver *een by our party in our progro* up the Kowak (Kobuk). ThcM indicatioru 
increased ai we advanced, and the aHtchioon it ioditputable that among ihe high moun- 
tain* which form 6k water-«hed For the Kowak, Koyukuk and (po*Hb(y) CoWiDe the 
pieciou* metab may be found in large quantitie*." 

Samuel B. McLencgan, AMiitant Engineer U. S. Revenue Marine, acaxnpanied 
Lieutenant Cantwell on thii expedition and compiled a report of the natural hi*t<Hy of 
diit region, which i* pubb^ed in tbe volume with Lieutenant Canlwell'i esploraHoo*. 
"Repwt of the Cnate of the Cnwin in the Arctic Ocean, IS84." 

In Ae flawing year, 1685, Lieutenant Cantwell made a aecood trip of explota- 
tion up the Kobuk River, and Mr. McLenegan aaccoded the Noatak River and rcpMtod 
to the Govanment the result of his explorations on this Kream. Charlet H. Townaend, 
of the Smitluonian Institution, accompanied Lieutenant Cantwell iq> the Kobuk on itii* 
tr^, and his story of tbe natural history and ethnology of Northern Alaska is a 
valuable addition to this phase of Alaskan literature. It is pubUied in the "RcpOTt of 
the Cruise of the Comin in the Arctic Ocean, 1685." I have referred to these pubB* 
catioDS because tptxe in this volume will not permit me to attempt to tell the natural his- 
tory story of Alaska. At die outset of this wotk I intended to irtcorporate in it a natural 
history story of tbe Northland, but the quantity of other notes collected has made it im- 
possible to print thai story in dii* bo<^ without exceeding the Hmil plaimed for the volume. 
I have reacfved this story for a future book. 

From I860 until the discovery of gold in Northwestern Alaska inaugunted a new 
era for this country, the revenue cutter coramandar's authority was siq>Kine in this land. 
He was the Czar of the Seas and tbe Emperor of tbe Country. His command was ab- 
solute law, and to the credit of these old sea dogs it may be said that the authority they 
otercised was generally ri^teous and whol es ome. 


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Government Educational Work 

Dr. •haldon JaekMn'a work In Bthalf af th« Northland— Consrvulonal Aid for HIa 
Laudablo Endwver*— Introduetlon of Ralndaar. 

THE begianiag of Govemmeiit educational work in Alaaka datei back to 1884. 
Prior to that <late no aRaiq>t had been made by the Government to provide 
(choob for the nativa of the Northland. Mimkhh had been ettablkhcd in 
varioiM parti of the diatnct, but they were xqiported entir^ hj the 'churcfaet 
which diey rtpreaented. Dr. %eldon Jackion deMrve* the credit for the initiBtive m 
Alatkan educational ymA. 

For near twenty yean after the purchaae of Alaska from the Ruiuan Govemmeot 
the country wai regarded ai a va*t Arctic moor without any commercial feature, except- 
ing the fur induttry. Ai thii ii eiaentially a commercial age it wai neceoary for Alaska 
to ibow lome valuable retourcet other than fun before any interest was taken in the snowy 
waste* of this unknown region. The country cost the Govenunait lest titan two cents 
an acre, and was considered dear at that. So when Dr. Jackson began an agitatioD to 
secure congressioBal aid in the work the churches were doing to educate the natives, he 
found Gxigresi ^»thetic and die general public interested only to tfae extent that Christiau 
societies are gaierally interested in the heathen. Dr. Jacksmi delivered 900 lectures in the 
United States on the subject of Alaska and its native population, travcUng during this course 
of lectures from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

In IM4 G>ngress passed what is known as the Harrison Bdl, creating a govemmeol 
B AUska and making provisions for scbo^ in the dislria. This measure became a biw 
Mqr 17, 1884. Under this law $125,000 was appropriated for education in Alaska, 
and Db. Jackson was appointed the general agent of education in the district, a position 
which he has since held. He began his wo^ of establishing schools in connectioa vrith 
the various missions. Seeing dte cosdilions surrounding the native m AUska, re- 
sulting in a great measure from the influence of unscrupuloui white men, and the de- 
moralizing of the Eskimo so as to unfit ban tor the work ha had been accostooted to do. 
Dr. Jacks(Hi submitted to Congress in T890 a plan for the introductioa of dmnestic rein- 
deer in Nnthwcstem Alaska. He gathered statistics to show that Alaska could htd 
8,000.000 reindeer, using data obtained from Lj^land as the premise tot his deductiotts. 
A bill was introduced in C»gress to appropriate $15,000 to make tfae experiment, but 
it hiled to pass. Unbalfled at the faihire of Congress to pass die bill. Dr. Jacksc« raised 
the sum of $2,146 by sub*crq>tion, and with diis fund bou^t the first reindeer for Alaska. 
The [Revenue Cutter Service was placed at his di^tosa) for the tranqwrtatian of tfae deer. 
Sixteen bead were purchased in S9>eria, and sh^iped on the Revenue Cutter Bear to 

Thtough the persistent efbits of Hon. H. M. Teler, United States S<sator from 
Colorado, the 52nd Congress appropriated $6,000 br the purpose of introducing do- 
mestic reindeer in Alaska. A station was establidted on Grantley Harbor and named 

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after Senator TeDer. Miner Bruce wu selected ai tiiperiiiteDclent of reindeer and took 
charge of the ttatim. Bruce't rengnation wat followed by the appointment of M. J. 
Kjellman a* luperintendent in 1894, and the herd wat tubaequentV gtvcn to Mkdonarr 
Lopp of Cape Prince of Wala. Smct then cvety year until 1903 reindeer have been 
purchased in Siberia aod ihqiped to Ala^. These accenion* and the natural increaaa 
have itodced Alaska with 6,000 reindeer. The herds are connected with some of dw 
various misti«u in Northwatan Alaska, comparatively (mall numbera of the deer being 
owned outright by the Elskimo. ^thin the past two years the Rusuan Govonment hat 
JNued a ukase prohibiting the exportation of reindeer from Russia. Ai a remTt the rein- 
deer industry in this country must grow from the deer that are now in the country, or 
else the government mutt retort to importation from the nordiem part of Europe. 

There is no question of the adaptability of thb country to reindeer. There are huiH 
dreds of square miles of territory covered with qMgnum or reindeer moss, and there are 
vast poanbilitiet in this industry at a food sun>ly, not alone for nativea, but for the thov 
tandt of white people who are just beginning to develop the mineral resources of Alaska. 

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The Native Race 

Eskimo an Opprobriow Tirm — Dr. Dall Hm Nmtn«d tho Rae« Orarlani — ^Th«lr Physical 
FaaturM and a Buggeatlon of Eaklmo Origin — Their Homea, Hablta„ Ceremonials 
and Superstitions, Eskimo Character and Methods of Livelihood— Their Rellgloua 
Belief — The Eakirae a Dying Race— Obvious Duty of ths Oevernmsnt to Thaae 
People — Eskimo Folk-lors,an Unexplolted Field Fertile WHh Lsgsnds of Absorbing 

THE Eilomo u the abonginal race of Sfwaid Peniiuula. The name by which he 
it known it an of^robriout tenn. applied to him l^ (he Indiani of the inteiior 
of Ahika, and signifies "fish eater." The Etldmo calls himteU Innuit, mean- 
ing the people. He i* not ordinarily fotiad a long diitance from the coait, and 
the greater part of hit food i* obtained from the lea. In Northwestern America his habitat 
may be designated ai the coast line from the mouth of the Yukon to the Mackenzie River. 
The Koyukukant. or natives of the Koyukuk River, aie ditferoit in phyacal appearance, 
mannen. customs and habits. They are more nearly allied to the North American In- 
diani. Dr. Dall, who was at the bead of the scientific corps of the Western Union Telft- 
graph expedition, has written a voy interesting book about Alaska and iti Inhabitants. He 
bas selected a name for the Eskimo which should be accepted and generally used. Because 
diey live on the coast and from the products of the sea, he calls them "Orariani," a name 
vrtiich is descrq>tive and has an etymology. 

In physical a|q>e«rance a resemblance of ttie Elilmno to the Japanese hat been noted, 
and superficial observers have adduced the theory that his origin is in some way associated 
with the Japanese race. I am not an ethnologist and have no opinion to o2er on this part 
of die subject Assuming, however, that uncivilized man in his travds over the earth fol- 
lowed the lines of least resistance, it it not difficult to reason out that some of the peoples 
of Asia; which wai the cradle of the human family, journeying by successive stages, which 
may have required many centuries, througji Siberia, finally reached the shores of Bering 
Strait The distance across the strait is less than fifty miles, and there are occasional win- 
ten wben the ice is frozen tohdly. It will be seen that a means could have bcoi provided 
vdier«l>y this eastern march of early uncivilized tribes mig^t have reached the northern 
shores of America. But I submit that it is just as reasonable to suppose that the natives 
of America belong to a race that in some remote period ritay have settled in Mndco, and 
developed the remarkable Aztec civilization, of which ruins are the princ9>al record, and 
from didr teat of govoiuBcnt emigrated to various parts of the North Amoican continent 
The tribal diference of the Nortii American Indian can be accounted for by environmoit. 
and there it enough rimilarity between the Indian and the Eskimo to warrant the belief that 
they originally belonged to one race or division of the human family. 

S. J. Marsh, an intelligent proqiector, who spent a winter in Alaska beyond the 
ColviDe f^vtt, says that the tribe of Eskimo inhabitiag diat region call themselves 
Numatimians, and that they have a phrase which signifies "moi who obey the sun." 
They alto have a legend of a ceremony observed when the sim returns aftn the long 

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Arctic night, and of a veiy wi*e people >tdio were dieir &iice*ton and who once in 
habited this country. The infermce that the*e people are dcKendcd from the Aztec 
may be far-fetched and untenable, but the reader will neverdieleu percove that there 
ii (omething u these (toriet tuggeriive of the Aztec The native name of Ml. f^tnier 
it Mt. Tacuma. Thi« name wat corrupted in pronunoation by the early white kI- 
tlen and pronounced Tacoma, and subcequently changed to Rainier. The difference 
in lound between Tacuma and Monte- 
zuma mi^t be die result of tribal mi- 
gratioa and the same people q>eaking an 
unwritten language in diCercnt epoch* 
of history. There is the tame suggestion 
in the name Seattle, the imperial city 
of Pugct Sound, commemoratiiig the 
name of a native chief. In Aztec his- 
tory there was an Axayacatl. Tlicse data 
are insufficient for the deduction of the 
conclutiont which they suggest, but they 
contain an intimation of a poMibility 
that the Northland tribe* and the na- 
tives of dke Northwestern Umled Stale* 
are descended from the people whom 
Cortez vaitquidied. 

F^yiically, the Eskimo it larger than 
the Japanese. ^X^hile the average stat- 
ure is not more than five feet six inches, 
I have frequently teen Eskimo that 
were six feel tail Their complexion 
it light copper color, noses weQ formed, 
eyebrows arched, hair black, coarse 
Photocraph by B, B. t>f>bb8. and Straight, bodies well proportioned 

A NATIVE or TKE NORTHLAND. „d n^cuUr. A c«p»l»t OT Jrfonrrf 

Eskimo it rarely seen. While they are not noted for their industry, they lead an active 
life even in the winter season. Nature in the far north is stem and exacting; the does not 
furnish her children with a bounteous food supply unleu they exert themselves to <^ilain 
it; so there is not much opportunity for idleness in a tribe of Eskimo. Widi the improvi- 
dence, however, of most aboriginal people, when the larder is full they cease work and 
resume it only when empty ttomacht are a spur to renewed activity. The life of hunting, 
fishing, trapping, traveling over the snowy wastes, often hundreds of miles, pursuing seals 
over cakes of ice floating in the sea. require* unusual energy and an effort that prevents the 
accumtilation of adqsose tissue. 

The Eskimo's winter home is an imderground structure widt a tod of logs and earth. 
This abode it entered by mean* of a tunnel, which b not large eoou^ to permit 
ingress and egress except by crawling on all fours. There is in every village a kozga, or 
cluUrause. which is kept for their ceremonials, dances, and at a resort for the men. Their 
dances, of which there are several kinds, are voy similar. Apparently the native v^ can 
go dtrou^ the most contortiont and jump the hi^est is the best of the dancers. AH the 
dances are accon^unied by music made by tom-toms. These musical instruments are 
bladders of seals stretched tightly over hoops. They are held in one hand by a small 

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ivory handle attached to the hoop, and the nde oi die mftnunent u (truck agaiiut a (tick, 
producing a monotonoui tound like that of a drum. The players chant a (ong Aat ha* 
but few variationt and only three or four notei. The dancen utter (harp yellt, Hke the 
bark of a (cal or the lound made by »rae other animal, and go through tba motion( of 
the hunt and capture of variou* animali. 

Their lummer homes are ientt. Prior to the advent of the white man no doubt theie 
tenU were made of (kint, luch u are now uicd by the natives on the Siberian coait 
Being of a ntnnadic nature, the Elskimo 
travel much during the lununer ttuoa. 
They go on hunting expeditions, or 
btmdling their good*, wares, household 
eflectt, dogs and families into large skin 
boats, they start to a distant part of 
the peninsula on a trading trip. TtnK 
was t^ien Ae (hore( of Hotham Inlet 
were the recognized trading ground, 
not only <^ the natives of the peninsula, 
but natives of the interior as far inland 
as Mackenzie River; and alio natives 
of the Siberian coast The Siberian 
native, being the owner of large haxb 
of domestic reindeer, brought his rein' 
deer skin*, very useful for clothinc, to 
the trading post From Mackenzie 
River the natives brought fun, and the 
inhabitants of Seward Peninsula were 
provided vnth a stock of bhibber, dried 
fish and seal oil Of course all ^ is 
changed now. and Nome u the mecca 
of the Alaskan and Siberian tribes. 
They bring their chattels to the me- 
tropolis of Nortfawe(tem Alaska and 
exchange them for i^te man's 
"koW'kow;*' for the IrinkeU and gaudy-colored raiment which seem to have a great value 
in the estimation of the uncivilized tribes. Their arrival at Nome in the early summer is 
the occasion for a celebration in which dancing on the sands of the beach is the princq>al 

The £slcimo is seldom a serious chap. Usually he is bubbling over with fun, and 
the younger generation is as full of play as a kitten. Frequently the older meiiiber( of the 
hmily will join in the pastimes, the principal of >^uch is playing ball. Their ball-playing 
is of most primitive character. It consuls simply of throwing the ball from one person 
to another, and great fun u caused by the person with the ball making a feint of dirowing 
it to some one who is expectantly awaiting it, and then tossing it to anodier person. One 
of dieir (ports is the same as the rqiorted initiation ceremony of a certain secret order. It 
consists of tossing a person in the air from a walrus hide. The walrus hide ii much 
stronger and more secure than a blanket Twenty or thirty Eskimo wiD grasp Ermly a 

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big wabw ikio, Efling the pqfomia. who staodt in the centei of the tkin uid who. at a 
•igoal is toned ten or bfleco feet in the ur. Woe betide the unlucky wight if he hil to 
ali^t on hit feci. A faihire of thit chancier compdt him to get of and give anothCT a 
chance. The moit wicccoful pcrfoimen are tfaote who can go through the moit acrobatic 
^tt vdiile b the air. The women Aow at much agility in thii tport at the umo. 

During the day the men drcuUte thrau^ the itreeti, haie-headed and usually dretted 
in native coitume. with their waret under their aimt. ofering them for tale to panera-by. 
Theae warei now-a-dayi coniiil mottly of curioi and trinlccti, mini^ure ikin boati, crib- 
boardt, made of walrui tuiLi, baakelt woven from native gran, and articlet of the andent 
Eikiroo houteboid. Their carving on ivc»y ihowi a hi^ degree <rf crude arL Their 
pictures utuaUy repretent animab aitd hunting or fithing tcenei, but 1 have teen walrut 
totb tqwn which were ibe jMctum of Mcnnen, the manufacturer of a face powder, and 
other advertiiing iDuilratiant which thqr had copied from newqMpert. The Eskimo hat 
vac price for hit vraret, and it would be an extraordinary circumstance that would caute 
htm to take a bwer price. 

The women prqwre the food and look after the hontchokL The children are under 
no rertraint, but are usually obedient and truthful The child life of the Eskimo I bdieve 
to be the ht4>p>ett Ufe of any dukhai in the workL They are not taught to fear 
anything. The Eskinw manifests a strong parental aScction. and tbou^ the little ones 
run wild, they are heMul to dwir cidcn in many ways at a very early age. The Etldmo 
mother carries her babe on her back securely fattened in die hood of her parka. 

Later in the teaton the men catch large quantities of tomcod, a hth Uiat is very plentiful 
m the waten of Being Sea. A net. sixty feet hwg or knger, it [wojected into the tea 
with a kxig tpbccd poie. A rope attached to the tea end of ttie net enablct a couple of 
men to draw it along the shore, whik the ipliced pole holdt it out in the tea. A haul of a 
few hundred feet and the net b chagged on the beach containing someOmes half a ton of 
Bih. The work of cteaning and drying the fiah it left to the women and children. This 
it a part of the winter food supply. When berries are ripe, and large quantities of sahnmi 


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baries and blue benics grow in thif unforated cotintiy, tbe women and children butjr tkeift- 
lelvet with the work of gkthehng theae fniib. The bertiei are proerved in leal oil and 
make a delicate morceau for the native. 

The Eltkimo ii vcty ingeniou*. Hit tools are nrnple in character, but wiA them he 
lecure* aitoniihing reiulti. Hii trapi for imall game are moitly nooaei made of «new> 
■uipended in luch a way that ptarmigan and iquirTcli itick their head* throu^ the loop and 
gel caught. The kiUmatowti it made of a number of linewi attached to a hutdle. ihe 
other end of each Noew bemg tied 
around a itofte, a piece of ivoiy. or 
odier heavy tubttance. An Eddmo 
will huH dte kilimatowti into a paaaiitg 
(lock of ducb oi geese, and the tincwi 
winding around die wingi of the birds 
will frequently bring down two or three. 
Etkimo boab are made of walrua 
skins. There are two varietieB. the 
kyak and the oomiak. The kyak ii a 
small boat with a hole in the center jutt 
large enough (or a man to sit in; the 
oomiak it a large family boat, sometimes 
thirty feet in length, capable of carrying 
several tons of freight. The oomiak 
cootiits of a light frame over which the 
walrus skint are stretched and tew«d 
when wet. With tfaeM primitive vctseb 
the Eskimo travel from St Lawrence 
Mand, from King bland, from the Dio- 
medet aitd from Cape Prince t^ Wales 
to Nome. They ute a tail when the 
wind b favorable, and propel the boat 
with paddles when the wind it not h- 

Their code of morals it not al- 
ways in accordance with our con* 
cqilion of ri^t and wrong. But the 
PhotoBraph by B. B. Dobba. Etkinio is naturally honest and nat- 

think mere it any nn m polygamy. 
If a homicide occurs, it it the duty of the nearest rdative of the victim to aveoge his deadi. 
This cuttmn has caused feudt to enil through many gcnentiont. He it a ttoic, and 
calmly accepts death when it comes, as something that cannot be avoided. Much has 
been published about die Eddmo't lack of bdief in a God or a hereafter, but I believe 
theae condutioat to be the result of hasty observatiant. 

A person when he it first introduced to an Eskimo village will be made aware 
through bit olfactory nerrct of an unusual presence; the tmeO of teal oil and of cbied fiib 
burdens the atmotphere. The observer will tee a good deal of Eldi, and will not be 
favorably imprested with this race of people. But if it should be hit misfortune to be 

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ih^wreckccl and cut among them he will find them moat generoin and hoqMtable. 
The beat ile^mg place in the igloo wiD be given him. The be*t food in the camp wiD be 
hit. and he will be treated with all die Idndneo and ccmuderation that he could txpeci in a 
civilized community. Initancet have been known whcK itarving and freezing pitMpecten 
have been rescued l^ intrepid oativei, \tim have braved the itonnt and bHzzardt and 
ritked their own lives in order to lave the Kve> of the white itrangen. If the obwrver have 
tlm kind <^ an introduction to the Eikimo, he wilt have a better opinion of Eltkimo character 
than the touriit whoae lenie of imell ii easily offended. 

Racial character b the bctt average character of a race ci people. If die for- 
eignen coming to die United Statet were to fudge ui by the crimmal clement, or by die 
lower and unfortunate dan of people, our character oi a nation would not be very exalted. 
LikewiK. if we fudge Etldmo character by the 
types «4ikh we cmne moit eatily in contact 
with, we miijudge the true character of thr 

During the past six years, and since the Es- 
kimo hat come in contact more freely than there- 
tofore with the white man, he has changed in 
many respects. He has left his aboriginal pur- 
suits, and acquired some of the habits ^ civ- 
ilizatioii. He ha* ceased to be the vigorous race 
that he was prior to the coming of die white man. 
It was my fortune, during die last year of my 
residence in die Northland. to come in 
contact with a better claia of Eskimo, some of 
wliMD rqiresented the old school Through 

diem I learned somediing of dieir fdk-lore, ™^ ^^^^ 

of thdr beliefa. and of their true character by which 1 behevc they should be judged. 

At a period not very remote the Eskimo pt^nilation of Seward Peninsula was very 
numerous. According to their legends diere were many tribes, and every tribe was com- 
posed of very many people. Every tribe had its stoiy teller, and it is through these stoiy 
tellers diat dieir legends have been preserved. The Eskimo have a dieoiy to account (or 
certain geok>gical conditioni. An intnision of granitic rock was caused, according to 
this explanation, by one kind of rock being hot and the other kind cold. 

In ages gone they have waged many battles with die tribes of the interior. The ruins 
of ancient fortifications at Cape Prince of Wales are an evidence oi the beUigerent character 
of the Siberian native, and die fact diat the Alaska inhabitanli were not always on frioidiy 
terms widi the people acnst dte sltait 

They have many peculiar superstitions. Thty believe, or at least they believed at 
one time, that the tides were caused by a big Urd that lit in the lea. It was so Urge that 
the di^ilacement of the waten caused the tides to come up on the shore, and w^ien it flew 
away the waters receded. 

They wiD not sew or diqilay any twine in die process of hbricating a net, or in any 
kind of work, near a stream when the salmon are running, entertaining the belief that the 
sahnoo vrill see the twine or the sinews and think they are making nets to catch them. 

Their superstition* prevrat them from catching large numbers of whales. Whales 
nm m schools, and vdien the natives have captured one, the man who has harpooned him 

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miut be blindfolded for a ceruin length of time, ud the boat in which the capture wat 
effected mint be talcen aihore and put out of uie f<Hr a certain time. In ihort. wbaling 
cqwTBtioni muit be tu>pcnded for a brief period (o that ibe Edimo can perform hi> tvptt- 
ttiliou* ccremonie), and by the time he ii ready to re>ume idling, the icbool of vrhalci 
have gone by and are out of reach. 

They believe in a hereafter, believe in ipiriti, and that theie ^iritt have great powo- 
and influence over the living. They believe in good and bad ipiiitual influence*, and th«r 
belief in this reipect diSen from Methodim only in this: They diink the power ^ Tunrak, 
or the evil ipirit, is greater than the power of Tongnuk, or dte good spirit They befieve 
that spirits are always with men, and that most things that men do are done at the sugges- 

tion or through the sdbtle power of q>irits. Before the white man came the Eskimo had a 
code of laws, and among some tribes, lying and theft were both punishabie by death. They 
have a calendar, and the year is divided into thirteen montfai or moons. Their year ends 
in October, one moon after the Autumnal equinox. Thqr knew that the eaidi is round. 
and there is a story among their legends that "i-par-ni," centuries ago, the Eskimo lived at 
a time when the mastodon inhabited the earth. Sobk of the wise old natives will, today, 
make a sketch of the mastodon, and tell you that the sketch has been transmitted from genera- 
tion to generation, from one of thdr ancestors who saw the animal. 

Doctor Dall says: "The belief in Shamanism is universal among the natives of 
AUska. Elskimo as well as Indians. Even the Aleuts, kmg DominaDy converted to 
Christianity, still retain siq>erstttious feelings m regard to it. It is essentially a belief to 
q)irits who are controlled by the shaman; who come at hts call. Impart to him the 

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THE native: RA.CB. 83 

wcreti of die future and ihe put, afflict or ceaw to afflict man by nckneu at his 
behest, and enable him to advise others as to seasons and places of huntnig, good or 
evil omens, and the death or recovery oi the licL These, howevcer, arc not spirits 
who once were men." 

All the missionaty endeavor that hat been devoted to die Eskimo during the past 
half ccntuiT hat not eradicated hit belief in Siamanism, but I do not believe diat Doctor 
Dall's conception of Shamanism is correct. The shaman of an Eskimo tribe it quite 
naturally regarded by the white observer at an imposter. He beats hit tem-tomt and 
invokes the spirits to cure the sick; he consults with the invisible world to learn the 
retuh of a contemplated journey; he makes inquiry of the spirits to obtain information 
on any subject, the condition of certain hunting grounds, the run of fish, die time to 
hunt walrut, the quantity of food die tribe wiH tecure from whale hunting; and he 
answers all the perplexing questions that may bother the people over ^om he hat 
control The mantle ^ a shaman utually detcendt in the family from one generati<Mi 
to another, but a shaman must possess die attainments of a psychic, and if he have 
not the mystic power, he mutt procure it by fatting and the practice of an abttemiout 
life, frequent isolations fr<Hn the tribe during which he is supposed to go thniugh ordeals 
which prepare him for ^>iritual illumination. Nor are all die ptychici of die Etkimo 
tr3>e confined to die shamans. Some of the Eskimo women possess ttits power, and a 
few eariy explorera and a great number of pe^le vdio are familiar widi the Elskimo 
character, tell of seances which they have witnessed possessmg all the features we asso- 
ciate with modem spiritualism. In nearly every one of diesc seances an Etkimo woman 
was the medium of the manifestations. 

I submit the foregoing at a fact and without comment My knowledge of 
tli«r rites and ceremonies would not justify advising the Psychical Research Sode^ 
tending a committee to investigate psychic phenomena among the tribes of the North- 
land; nor do I know of the extent of their occult power. But dtete factt would indi- 
cate that diey are not without any conception of a God or an after-deadi condition, 
which some of our gtxid missionary friends would have us believe. 

The Etkimo it a dying race. His story is the stoiy of die North American Indian. 
What his condition might have been had he been left in the primal condition m which he 
existed before the while man came to hit country, it purely tpeculative. It it not difficult 
lo see why the touch of civilizaticm palsies and withers a simple, uncivilized people. In the 
vanguard of civilization it the frontier trader. Frequently he it not over-tcrupulout. The 
Russian fur traders m Alaska, and later the whalers, came to this country to make money. 
They soon discovered that the natives' weakness was their appetite for strong drinL 
Whisky has debauched and demoralized the Elskimo. It is a prime factw in their de- 
cadence. What whisky hat not accomplithed has been efiected by immoral white men, 
particularly the lower class of sailors, who have introduced hideous diteases among diete 
people. The Eskimo's attempt to adopt white man's ways, and assume the garb, man- 
ricrs and customs of civilization, hat been only partially successful. At the rate of mortabty 
during the past five or six yean, the race will not five long enough to evolve to the plane of 
useful citizens as civilized people. 

To a great extent they have already given i^ their oM methods of livelihood. They 
have become Ettle isolated tribes of curio makers and ped<9ers of their wares and trinkets. 
They eat vdiite man's food. Many of diem protest Ax white man's religion widiout hav- 
ing any omception of iti meaning. The witer among them realize that thnr days at a 

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Whik there m b law to prevent the lale of alo^iol Ut nativei, and while it » a* 
ttnagentlf enforced by the federal authoiities ai it if pofiiblc to enforce it, ■omebow tbqr 
•uccccd in getting liquoT. Theae fiamlet*. big-iouled people are converted into fiendt 
incarnate by whiiky. During my ihort rcndence in Alaika 1 knew of frequent miuden 
cauied Iqr wfaiiky, and I knew of the dettiuctioa of an igloo by btt which bunted to death 
most of the occtyianli, who were itiqicfied by hquor. Naturally an iiqifoviflent people, 
they will ipend all their lubttance for whkky and face itarvation. In the hittoiy of ditt race 
loroe appalling and atrocioui incidents have occurred through the (ale <rf large quantitiei of 
liquor to a tribe. 

It it told in the history <J Bering's voyage vAtta he discovered Alaska, that a native 
chief of one of the Aleutian Islands was received on board of the vessel and given a 
drink of brandy. He q>at it out thinking an attempt had been made to poison bim, and 

with hit foUowen left the vessel in such haste and assumed such a belbgerent atbtude that 
the white men deemed it wise to hoist sail and get away. 

There are numerous misaions in Alaska representing many creeds, and an earnest at- 
tempt has been made, and it being made, by the missionaries to better the condition of the 
natives, but I question their methods. The native needs something more than spiritual 
Kghl and consolatioci. What he particularly needs is that which will minister to his physical 
comfort and welfare. He needs Government aid, given in such a way as to make him tdf- 
sustaining. Indeed, it may be possible that by siq>eTvision of the work with which he is 
familiar, and which hat been his means of sustenance for ages, he might become a produc- 
tive factor in the Beld (rf enterprise. 

I said that I questioned missionary methods. I do not want to be understood as 
questioning the methods of all mitsionariet. Two examplet will illustrate what I mean. 
I have been r^bly informed that a number of Christian natives on fCotzebue Sound last 
year declined to hunt or Bsh or attempt to lay in their usual supply of winter provisioni. 
Thcgr said ^e Lord would provide for them. In the first raiisionary work on the None 
part of the peninsula, before the days of the gokj discovery, Stephen Ivanbof, whose mother 

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wu K native »ad (Bther a RuMian, accompanied the nuMionary ai inteiprcter. An M 

native woman of thii region wai easily converted to Chriitiuity, and day by day ihe 

waited and looked (or a big, good white man with a team of dogi to come along witk 

a great nipply of food. Tliii wai her conception of the Chriit. The "'**■*[" that 

hai often been made by the miuiouariei it in trying to impart q>iritual truth* to miodt 

incapable of receiving them. The miiuonary who hai tau^t (he nativet habits of 

deanlineu, taught them practical morality, and hai been helpful to them in the Idndi 

of work with which they are familiar, 

ha> proceeded by dK only method 

by which thii native race can be ben* 

eBled by religioui auittance. 

Mr. N. O. Huhberg wai lent 
to ihii country by the Swediih Mi»- 
lionary Society in 1 893. Mr. Huk- 
berg was an artisan and a worker in 
wood and iron. He was sent to Go- 
lovin Bay to establish an industrial 
school. He came with enthutiasnit 
but when he perceived the enviroo- 
ment and ifae matenal out of vrfiich 
he was to make artisans, he worked 
with reluctance. He saw the iofuttice 
of taking the native boys from their 
work of hunting and Uung and pro- 
curing food for the family >t a time 
their services were needed, and the 
folb^ of trying to teach them a trade 
which, in thb environment, would 
never be worth a "tinker's dam" lo 
ihem. What would it beneBt an 
Eskimo Hvmg in Northwestern Alas- 
ka, if he could make a wagtm or 
forge a hone shoe? MiaioDary 
Hultberg resigned, but the work he 
did taught him aomcthing about na- 
tive needs, and he has since put some 
of his ideas into iimictical efcct. using 
his own money for the purpose oi 
ameliorating the conditions of the na- 
tives and assisting them. 
The large numbers of vrfiite men who came into this country appropriated what thiy 
could get and use <rf dte native food supply. The destruction of game by them b an- 
odier reason why the Eskimo has been compeHed to change his method of obtaining a 
fiving. Seeing ifcese conditiont Dr. Sheldon Jackson, agent of the Government Bureau 
of Education, ondertook the laudable work of introducing domestic reindeer in Alaska (or 
die use of dw native inhabitants. After much eimt he succeeded in inducing Congress 
lo make an appropriation for this purpose. The experiment in (Hie sense has been very 
successful. This country is the natural home of the reindeer. There are vast areas cov- 

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ered wilfa rdndeci mon, y/hidi k Ihe natural food tot thu aoimal. Rcnuker iknve in thk 
country u well u in any part of the globe. But I hiil to lee that the Eildnw ha* beco 
benefited to any great cxtait by die espenment. Most of the reindeer herd* in North- 
wcsteni Abika are owned by the mniion*. The r^ord to (be United States Government 

00 lhi> industry, ibow dut a comparatively unali number of Eakimo ovm reindeer. It t> 
urged diat the Etldmo it improvident and that it b necessary for him to go through a 
diree year's apprenticestiQi as a herdei before he can become an owner of deer in fee 
sinq>)e. I biow the character of the Elsbmo well enough to Imow thai there it some- 
thing in this argument He is naturally a communist, and Bterally obeys the scriptural in- 
junction of letting the morrow take care of itself. It may be that his conceptira of indi- 
vidual ownershq) of i^^mi^ makes it necessary to provide a long apprenticeshqi, but it 
is also equally true dint this long apprenticesh^) is a bar to the ownershq> of deer and the 
enjoyment and benefit to be derived therefrom. 

A perscHi who criticises existing conditions should suggest a remedy for the ills which 
he thinks he tees. 1 believe that randeer will, or should be. a vahiable aid in helping to 
solve the problem of caring for the Elskimo. I have already intimated the mediods which 

1 think should be punued to make these pet^le comfortable, if not self sustaining, and 
the possibility of making them a small hctor m the economic world. At the present time 
the Government disclaims all responsibility for their care ot maintaiance. This work has 
been delegated to the missionary societies. When an indigent Eskimo dies in the city of 
Nunc the municqiabty is compelled to bury him. When a starving ELskimo applies to 
the military post at Fort Davis near Nmne for food, the quarterroaster must refuse him or 
charge himself with the value of the food that he gives to the famishing native. This is 
a condition of affairs not in keeping with the Govemmest's dealing with the Indiaiu of die 
United States. Indiaiu are the Govenmtent's wards; they live «i reservations and in 
consideration of the lands which they claimed and which die Government has taken from 
them, they are supplied with rations and in a large measure supported by the Government 
In Alaska a federal official in any c^Midty is not authorized to extend Government aid to 
an Eskimo. 

The Eskimo should be placed under the supervision of the Government The effici- 
ency of the military in Alaska suggests the wisdom erf placing diem under this depart- 
ment. It might be wise to create reservations. I do not think it would be wise to create 
one big reservation and attempt to gather all the Eskimo on it, but a number of small 
reservations, in localities where the various tribes are now gathered, could be designated 
and used as a base of thdr worL 

They should be encouraged and aided ro the work of hunting and fishing. They are 
adepts in these lines. A very small nundxr of natives could perform the work bcident 
to the reindeer industry. The Eskimo always has obtained the most of his food from the 
sea, and the best results may be expected from him in the work of fidiing. 

The possibilities of the undeveloped and practically unknown fisheries of Nordi- 
western Alaska are great. Professor Davidson estimates the cod banks of Bering Sea at 
18,000 square miles, and while the run of salmon in the streams of diis part of the dis- 
trict may not justify the erection of canneries, the rivers that discharge mto Hothsm 
Inlet are filled widi an excellent white fish which can be made into a useful and valuable 
article of ctMnmerce. The whaEng mdustry offers another ^iportunity for the Eskimo 
to prove useful and become a producer of wealth. With his skin boats, crude lances 
and spears, ropes made of walrus skins to which are attached floats made of inflated seal 

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G. \V. PRICt-l. 

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bladdcn, be hu captured many wbalet. The white man ha* brought him better imple- 
menti for thn punuil. He now luet a boom-gun for killing whalei, but ttill utd hi* 
primitive weapon* (or the bidative. Every seaaon before the thore ice brealu many 
\^le* paM through Bering Strait into the Arctic Ocean. The native* succeed in ci^itur- 
ing a number of the*e, the Be*h being u*ed for food. With modem facililiet, and under 
the direction and ipur of a white man poueuing a practical knowiedge of whaling, a profit- 
able bduttiy might be ettabliihed. 

Without going into detail*, suffice it to say that under Government supervi*ion, and 
by Government aid at the beginning of the enterprise, the Eskimo can be made a producer 
oi wealth. Our Government ha* not entered mto the line* which are di*tingui*hing fea- 
ture* of the New Zealand Government, anc there may be an objection to the Government 
tuperviting or engaging in private indu*tries. But if thi* kind of aid i* not extended, it 
is the obvious duty of Congress to make lome provisions for the maintenance and care of 
the Eskimo. 

KsRinao FolK>l0r« 

Their folk-lore cc«apri*e* a tiory of creation, a stoiy of the flood, a Sampson itory and 
a Jonah *tory. They have otiier *tories which are similar or suggestive of Bible stories. 
But my investigation* have not been thorou^ enough to enable me to determine to my own 
sati*faction, which of theie stories may be the result of missionary teaching, amplified by 
Eskimo imagination, and which are native legends. A transcendental story, similar in many 
req>ects to the Christ story, is, in my opinion, a native adaptation of the Chriat itory re- 
ceived from ini**)onanes. 

The creation story of the r^kimo dilert from the creation story of the Bible, and if 
we attribute it to a civilized source, we mtut give (cienti*t*, instead of mistioaaTie*, the 
credit of having promulgated it among the tribe* of Alatka. According to this itory. the 
world w«* made beautiful, wa* warm and nice — azeaktuk — which meant perfection. Thi» 
perfection, however, was not immediate. At first the world was in a vaporous or liquid 
ttate: h gradually solidified, and through the proceii of many age*, reached the condition* 
which they detcribe by the word, azeaktuk. After it reached this stage man was created. 
and he wai made double-faced, so that he could walk backward or forward at will. The 
Creator told him what he must do, tkt kind of life he mu*t lead, and left him (o enjoy all 
the beautiful thing* that were m the wodd. After he had gone, Toolookakh, the crow, 
flew over the country and dropped something from hi* beak, which proved to be Tunrak. 
the (pirit of evil. Tunrak, like the serpmt in the Garden of Eden, was a req>ectable ap- 
pearing individual, and a very insinuating person, and he persuaded the perfect man Uiat 
the advice he had received from Tongnuk, the good q>irit, was not wise. I-le also told 
him that Tongnuk could not do the thing* that he said he could do. The final reralt 
wa* the Innuit'* disobedience of Tongnuk. When the good spirit came back he wa* angiy 
and caused man to fall into a heavy sleep, and while asleep he cut him apart, lo that die 
Eskimo wa* no longer a double man, but instead there were two people, and one wo* man 
and the ether woman. 

After thi* incident, Tongnuk had a long heart to heart talk with his people. They 
pomiaed to obey him, and the good apirit agreed to fttgive and permit them a continued 
enjoyment of all die -good things of the perfect world. But old Tunrak came back again 
at the first opportunity. Tunrak wa* wwldly-wi*e. He told the man and woman many 
thing* f^iich they did not know and lo which they listened. Before the last coming of 
Tunrak they knew nothing about *ex. When ttte good spirit relumed again and di*cov- 

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end that hk children had lied to him, he abandoned them to their fate. He told them 
that he would ao longei protect them or care for them, and diey could follow their 
own will and do whatever (bqr chote. Thdr conduct, without the guidance of I'ongnuk, 
cawed a change in die conditioni of die earth. The country grew colder, vegetatjon di>- 
^^teared, and the detcendantt of ibe fint man became very wicked and bad. 

Away back in thoK early dayt die people were gianti. and Ifae animab that inhabited 
the earth were montten. On account <rf the onginal disobedience and the lubaequent 
wickednen of the human family, die earth letlied and the water came up and twept over 
it, submerging the highest land. This conditioa lasted for forty sleeps, and it seems that 
everything that possessed warm bk>od mutt have perished. The whale survived because 
he was half fish and half animal, and b llie only survivor of the big animals of this anle- 
dehivian day. 

When tfie waten began to subside. Toolookakh flew over ttie land. Toolookakh 
in all of their legends is a messenger, and even unto this day the F.«Hmn have a supentiliout 
respect for the crow, so that he is a bird that diey never molest Tocdookakh saw 
something in a part of exposed land and picked it up. and was surprised to discover that 
it was a little Eskimo from whom life was not entirely extinct. He took charge of him 
and cared for him until he fully recovered. Seeing that the httle Eskimo was lone- 
some, he flew away and brought back lo him a partner; and from this new beginning the 
Innuit family have multiplied since this great cataclysm. But man, in physical form, no 
bnger has life eternal. 

The ELskimo tdl a story of a wonderfully strong man who lived in the Northland 
long ago. They believe the story implicitly and as evidence of ib authenticity aver that 
the ruins of the strong man's stone igloo, where he once lived, can be seen near Kotzebue 
Sound. This strong man, whose name is Elugunuk, was very large, and the fingers of 
hit handi were webbed like the foot of a duck. He was a great hunter and fisherman, and 
performed many wraiderful feats. He would swini out in the sea widi his ^ear and 
Idll seals, and his strength was so great that he could kill bears as easily as the boys killed 
the rabbitt caught b their snares, and unaided he could capture a whale. He had a 
brother who lived near the head-waters of die Kobuk. and he was a very strong 
man, but he did not possess the prodigious strength or perform the feats of the great man 
with hands like the foot of a duck; neither did the brother have this malformation of the 
hands. He lived inland many sleeps from the sea. 

The strong man had many wives. Hb igloo was filled with them, and although bb 
disposition was peaceable, hb wives feared him. All the people feared him. One day 
t^iile he slept he was bound with the stoutest thongs made from the skin of a walrus, and 
then he was carried to a high cliff above the sea where if he struggled he would fall into 
the water and he drowned. He did not resist, but as soon as he was left he broke hb 
bonds as easily as though they were made of grass, and plunging into the water he swam 
back to the village. The people were very much afraid when they saw him coming, and 
prepared to defend themselves, but he told them not to be foolish, and that tie did not 
intend to harm them. All that he desired was to be left alone. But thb feat frightened 
them worse than ever, and il was not long after thb until hb wives bound him while lie 
slept, and taking a sharp stone knife attempted to cut hb hands off. But he awoke from 
the pain of the 6nt gash, and breaking the thongs tM them their fear was groimdless, and 
talked to them kindly, much to their surprise. But hb wives and the pccqile ammg whom 
he lived continued to harass him until hb disposition dianged. and then when he found a 
comely woman that he liked he would kill her husband and take her to hb igloo. Thb 

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exupcntted the peopie tinti] they detcfmnwd to attack him with a Urge force. The ez- 
pedilioa itaited in many oomiaki, (lug ikin boati) and came near to where the itrong maa 
ttved. But be wot appiited of their coming and of their intention, and taking of hit 
paifai he nDcared hit body with lahnoa roe. having fint collected a big pile of ihaip locb 
near the aea tbore. Ai the expedition approached be went down to the beach and called 
lo hii enemio. faying: 

"See the loies on my bodyl I am iD, and cannot reitit you. I am at your merqr." 

And alt the people looked with aitonidtmcnt at the fataing body. Thqr laid dovm 

their ipean and bow* and drew nearer to get a better view. When tbqr came ckwe to the 

iliore. and before Aey realized the danger, he hurled the diarp ttonet at ifaem widi nch 

force that the boatt were pierced by tbem and nnk. and all the tnvaden peridted hf 

The narrative of hit advoitara coven a poiod emlmtciiig many now* after thit 
inddent He had frequent encounten with tboM thai loiight tit life, and be killed thont- 
andt, but finally hit wive* were the caae <rf hti death. Thqr succeeded in binding him 
to that he could itot gel loote, and Amb mocilettly killed him. 

Sbce the iayt of the Great IHood, vdiich tubnxrged toon dian diree-quartert of the 
entire coatt lrfl>c>. a hatred deeper dian the tea which overwhebned tfiem hat cxiitcd 
between the hill and tea inhabitantt. The tea nativet or Edimo claimed that die q^ 
river Indiant, being nearer dte pretence <rf die moon who controb ibe water, evdced that 
tublime being to the deed which dettroyed ahnott all the toden of the coatt 

Ahloka wat king of all the Eibimo. a great warriw. tavant tupreme. the ear into 
which all diipulet were qwken, and die mouth which diq>ented all the justice concening 
■ame. Unto hit fair queen wai bom a t^ceti. Many genoationi had patted linoe the 
day! of tl' tatal flood, and the flower of the varioui tribet wat presented to Ahbka at 
tuiton for the hand of hit fair dau^ter. Many were rejected: one. however, was looked 
upon hvorably by the king, who itraif^tforth acquainted the princett that it wat hit royal 
desire to wed her to Arkituk, son of Punikura. Giief of die Suib. 

The fair one had turrcptitiouily pledged ber trodi to Waunetuk. son <rf the king 
of the river hdians. In rtp^ to the desire of her father the stated the exact conditioB of 
aCain, and the royal wrath decreed that the be banidied to the realm of die Polar Bear. 
The king of dus noble ilk recognized royalty m the fair victim offered unto him, and instead 
of immediatdy devouring ber took her into the bosom of the herd and commanded that 
not a hair of her head be molested. When the state of affairs dawned upon the princett. 
and fear had been replaced by tranquility, she q>oke to the great white King of die Polar 
Bean, and acquainted him with the cause of her fadier'i action. A young bear fleet 
of foot and brave was sent to the Prince Waunetuk to escort him to the court of the Polar 
Bean. "Waunetuk." said the great king when the Indian wat pretented to him. "I have 
in my castle your fair lady, daughter of Ahloka. M^* entire reabn is at your disposal. 
You shall want for nothing. WiD you accept my care rjid home for die rest of your 
days>" Waunetuk eagdly accq>ted. and the otter robe of royalty was bestowed upon 
him and hit queen in the i^eaence of countlett noble white bean. 

In one of the native chants containing this legend Waunetuk's queen is said to hava 
given birth to a male child which had the stature and white hair of the polar bear, yet bore 
the distinct resemblance of hit father, WaunetuL 

The Eskimo have a legend that b timet more recent, or sbce the great cataclysm, 
dtoe was a period when their part of the country in the far north was warm and verdanL 
There were no winten. nor ice, nor snow, and the tundiine flooded the country most of 

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the time. Since the Innuit hu inhabited the land climatic changet have come wherdif 
the cnce tropical country ha* been converted into a land o( tnow and ice. 

The native* have a itoiy that retemble* the Jonah Kory of the Bible. They *ay 
that ii.e bcident happened a Img time ago at Big Fiih Lake, which it located near the 
head water* of the Kobuk River. This wa* a great rendezvoua for the tribe* in the mm- 
mer time who came to thi* locality to fith. One day an El*lcimo in hk kyak, while CT0*(iDg 
die lake, wa* iwallowed by a big fiih. The fi^ iwallowed man and boat The tragic 
•nent wa* ob*erved by the tribe* camped aioond die lake, who immediately built great fire* 
and heating many large (tone*, rolled diem into the lake until the water* became *o hot dnt 
the big fi^ wa* breed to the ihore, where it wa* harpooned and killed. When it wa* cut 
open the man wa* taken from hi* stomach and rewidtated. 

Bui in thi* *toiy, ai in most other Horie* of the native*, the moral precept i> lacking. 
The native *toriei are uaually die *(orie* of the marveknn and *tiq>endoui. Their only 
(toiy, to \^ich 1 give credit a* a legend, and which contain* a moral precept, ii their ttory 
of dte creation and die flood. 

SCorr Illuatrfttlntf KaRlme Ch&a>aMt«r 

An incident of the Kotzebue Sound country ilhutratei the better tide of the E*kimo 
character, and diow* lhe*e people, who are ahnoit univeiiaUy known by their &hh and 
■qualor. ai the poue**on of heart* and (oub, and the *entiment of appreciation of kind- 
neu to a degree that *ome white people would do wdl to emulate. In 1 899, vibai die 
new* of the discovery of gold in the Nome country reached the unfortunate stampedere in 
the Kotz^ue Sound region, Charles W. Thornton and hi* party determined to go to 
Nwne a* *peedily a* postible. Their camp wa* <m the upper Kobuk. Thqr whipaawed 
lumber and made a staunch boat in which they intended to go down the river and from 
Cape Bkwsom take passage on a coast schooner if connection* could be made. Faibng to 
make thi* connection they intended to continue dieir jounMy of 750 miles on the Arctic 
Ocean and Bering Sea in their crudely constructed craft 

During the winter Mr. Thornton had made friend* with an Eskimo chief by the 
name of Sholok. Soon after arriving at Cape Blos*om Sho-onoko the *od of Siolok. ar- 
rived and going to where Mr. Thornton was camped delivered a nie**age to him. The 
natives had acquired a small vocabulary of English words and the prospector* had learned 
a httle Eskimo *o that they were able to conver*e in the jargtHi of the two language*. The 
Eskimo hearing the master of a diip called c^itain, used this word to designate their 
chiefs. Sho-ODoko'* *peech to Mr. Thornton was as follows: 

"Captain Sholok he speak. Captain Charlie (Thornton) no go. Big water white 
man's oomiak (boat). Byemby oomiak-puk (big boat) come. Oomiak-puk all right 
White man's oomiak no good. Big water break him. Captain Charlie go mucky (dead). 
Captain Charlie good man. Captain Sholok no want Km go mudgr. Captain Sholok 
send me. Captain Sholok iptak." 

Tim native had travded 350 mile* to deliver this me*iage and warn Mr. TbomtM 
of the danger of attempting the long sea voyage from Cape Blocsom to N«ne in a small 
boat. At the party sub*equently learned the warning wa* timely advice. How many 
white men are there that would send a messenger 350 miles to warn an Eskimo of inq>end' 
ing danger? 

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Northland Ne^^spapers 

Tha "Etklmo Bulletin," tht Pionaer Paper, Prlntad fay Native*— I ntereating Extracta from 
thta Journal — Paper Publlahed at Qrantley Harbor by Weatern Union Telegraph 
Expedition In 1B0S-e7~-The "A irora Borealle," a St. Michael Publication Printed witii 
a Typewriter — Nome Newe, the Plrat Commerctat Newapaper Venture— Other Newe- 

THE bnt newipaper in Northwettem Alatka crtablithed as a commercial venture 
was the "Nome New*." The 6nt Dumber of thu paper was btued October 9. 
1 899. But it wu not the first newspaper of this country. In boldng up the 
record of ncw^tapen I found enough mnterial to make a short chapter. 
The first paper in Northwestern Alaska was issued Sunday, October 14, 1866, at 
Libbysville, on Grantley' Harbor. This paper was published monthly for a period of one 
year. In the absence of & printing press the ptipti consisted simply of ^eets in wiiting. It 
was called "The Esquimaux." The publishen of this paper were some of die men b 
Captain Uil^'s division of the Western Union Telegraph Company's expedition engaged 
in the work of constructing a telegraph line across Alaska. The camp in which they spent 
the winter of 1866^7 was called Libbysville. A complete file of the paper was taken 
to San Francisco, and printed and distributed among Jic members of the expedition and 
their friends u a souvenir. 

The pioneer paper of Northwestern Alaska printed widi a printing press and from 
type i* the "Eskimo Bulletin," established at Cape Prince of Wales m 1895. and issued 
yearly by the mission school. It is a ihree^ohinm quarto. I have before me volume diree. 
dated Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, July, 1897. The slafl according to the publisher's 
notice at the head of the editorial column, is as follows: 

"W. T. Lopp, editor and publisher; Oo-len-na, engraver; Ke^k. I-ya-ttmg-uk and 
Ad-loo-at, compositors." 

This paper is unique m many ways. It is the most northerly newspaper in North 
America. In all probability it is the only annual newspaper m the world. The engraving, 
typesetting and printing is done cntirdy by natives who belong to the mission. I find 
in it a number of interesting news items, iUuitrative of life and environment at Cape Prince 
of Wales, and quote the following from its local columns: 
"Pikuenna ^ot a white bear in January." 
"Several whales were seen, but none cultured." 
"In January, ^ril and May our natives were on short rations." 
"Ne-ak-^uk caught eleven seab in one ni|^t with nets placed under the ice." 
"The extremes in temperature were minus 39 in March and plus 96 in June." 
"May and June proved good months for wabusing; about 300 were killed." 
"On account of the late q>ring of '96, there were no sahnon berries last summer." 
"Nes-ver-nal's son, while out hunting in a kyak last October, was lost It is su[q>osed 
the kyak was capsized." 

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"A null biiildiiig boom (truck our town li 
graund) were erected." 

"Sokwecna while herdmg rcutdeer, found « lynx behind k toft of gran. Being u»- 
umed, be wfaqiped it with hb 1um> until it c o wered Kt hii hti, nrfiai be wu able to give k 
a Uow with hii &tt which cruihed iti ikufl." ('rbere it imt ■ niggotioB at yekw joumal- 
■Nn m thit item. — ^Editor.) 

"The whaling fleet thii jtax u compoted of ten ■teamen and one tAovaa." 

"The 'Narwhal' tied iq> to the ice here on M^ 24, and gave m the newt that Mc- 
Kinky wa* elected and Coibett defcAted." 

"Dr. Kittiben killec a fierce lymc in Januaiy, Dr. Kittiben hu traveled more than 
1.000 mites <« iledt behind reindeer lim ¥rinter." 

The p^>er contaiiw an iotenating account of the lolmg <rf Chief Kokituk. who wai 
ibot and (tabbed bjr Setartuk and hit brotba EraberuL It abo contalu a "Special to 
Ibe BuUetin." dated at Indian Point. Siberia, October 20, 1896. The "Specwl" con- 
taiM the newi that Harry De Wtndt, an EngUi eqtiorcr, who had been landed in S2>cria 
by the Revenue Cutter Bear, and after havmg been decored and aaaoyed for aevcnl 
we^ by Chief K^iora and hb pe^>le, had given up hb propoaed lri> aerow Siberia, and 
had returned to Unalaaka on the Steamer Belvedere. The diq>atch further laid that Mr. 
Dc ^K^ndt had been mitinformed about the conditiani of Ab region, hwrlng been told in 
Vancouver by a ikipper i^ niggesled the jowngr that he. die il^iper. had crowed Bering 
Strait on the ice leven times. The itory oonckide* with dtb paragrapb; 

"Eddmo croM the strait in ddo boats erciy summer. Since "90, tfaej have been 
able to cross but once on die ice. They say but hw nalivet now living aitd no whites hav* 
ever made thb fifly'^nile journey on the ice." 

Among tfte editniat paiagrai^ I find ^ foUowmg, wluch contains d>e suggeitiaa 
of « tfoiy: 

"It b to be hoped that CapL Tuttle of the U S. R. M. Sir. Bear, wil be able to 
devise measure* which wilt prevent furdier dbtiUbg here. The seizure of all the <U gun- 
baneb, kegi, casks and oil caai might give diese natives an object lesson, whidi, in cooneo* 
tion with some timely remaHcs, tliey wout~^ not soon forget" 

It b sbo noted at the head (tf the editorial columo that "Soap b becoming an article 
of exchange at the C^>e." 

The Mknving stoiy taken verimtim from the first page of thb paper b of unusual 
Thb stoiy b under 

"The (ddest inhabitants say, that in the history at the Keng^A-meels the winter of 
'96-'97 has never been paralleled for drunkenness, iborder, aitd blood-shed. Liquor has 
been distilled in ahnost every house. Some have inan<Aictured it for^.trade and others for 
'family use^' Those who had no outfits, borrowed their nei^bor's. Protracted drunken 
brawb often prevented many from taking atKanlage of hvorable conditions of ice and 
wind for seal and bear hunting. At times many were m the verge of starvation. 

"It was a common occurrence for die teacher when returning home from night school 
to meet ten or fifteen drunken men and women. On two occasimi, intoxicated men stag- 
gered into Sunday School. A five-gallon oil can, attached at the top to die end of an old 
gun-barrel, which pastes almost hwiztHitally tfarougji a barrel filled with snow or ice-water. 
constitutes the still. A fermented mixture of molatsei or tugar and flour, when placed in 

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the oil cao usd beaud nificicntly to cause the «)c<4)d to put ot throu^ the gun-burel 
wonn, producei a kind of rum. which, judging fiom the cCectt, team to have all the de- 
lired propertict o( the imported article. A bottle fuQ of 'Moomhine.' Auion boreab,' 
or 'Midnight-*UB' brand, can be leadily exchanged for a red fox ddii. Mac than 400 
gallom of chnqt black molaMO and a quantity of lugar and fioui have been uied for thii 
pnipocc. Thit lame procett of distilling ii known and med in all the targe MttlcmeBli fnm 
Sl Michael to Pt Banow." 

In thii number of the "Eskimo Bulletin" it the Lord't Prayer Iramlaled into Eskimo. 
as foUows: 

"At-U-tah, tat-pom-un-« it-uL Tane-am-uk nt-ka tel-a-gwa-ah. Oo-tuk'de 

ta-man-a. Et-e-kah cn-uk-sa-re-ak'ta man-e itHMn-e, a»ing-yah pux mume 

ifrtoo ut-im. I-tai-lig-oot oo-bloo-meen ya-na rix-iun^L Pit-ko tig-ooi wag- 

oot, ot-la seolle wug-oot- pit-ku-le-uk wug-it Az-ee-zia-uk pit-^KHtig-it, ega-yu- 

ah-lu-ta. Idl e Tin, kesc^ia e'h4>«on pe-gc ye-tin. 

Idle-vio kese-ma, sa-yak-ta-zroo uk, na-gooz-ru-uk, is-sm-ne. 
Di-meo-a iHZ-nmf-a." 

The "Aurora Boreahs" is the next ioumabstic venture in the history of this country. 
Tliis is a typewritten paper, the first number of w^uch was issued October 31, 1897. at 
St Michael. This paper had a staff that migbt have issued a Seattle daily. J. P. Agnew. 
now county auditor of King Couo^, Wadiiagton. wa* the managing editor; Samud 
Hubbard ¥nu city editor; Lieut Edward Bell society editor; E. S. E^cbcJs, ^Mftiug edi- 
tor; H. W. Winde, dnunalic editor; George Dunn, police and water front eclitor; B. B. 
Earie, mining editor; George Bdt live-stock editor; H. M. Morgan, teiegraph editor; J. 
H. Bouse, secretary, tteasurer and publisher; F. E. Earle, Hi* Infonal Majesty. Tbe 
subscr^ition price of the "Aurora Boreahs" was one Miu the copy. "Seal-oil, blubber, 
fur, and 6sh received for sufasciipticais. Ten si^scripttons for one pwter-house steak." 

In the third numbo' of the "Auma Bereab," is an interesting article by die Rev. 
Father Bamum. S. J., entitled "The Yukon Delta Region." I reproduce it hese giving 
due credit 

"Tbe Yukon deha occi^ies a much more extensive area than would be supposed 
by those «4io see <mly a small pcwtion traveled by the river steamers. 

"Tbe apex of the deha is at Andreafski Here the mountains which have formed 
an unintetnipted barrier along the northern shore down from tbe Ramparts, suddenly trend 
off towards the noidi, leaving the Yukon to pursue its course through an unbroken strebJt 
of level country. Free at last from aS restraint it would seem that the great river now 
hirly revels tn multiplying its channels, and duout^ a most perplexing labyrinHi <^ streams 
its waters wind their way to their home in the altrecriving tea. 

"The main branches which enclose the delta arc known at the Kwicfapak (great river), 
and the Kwichdilook (old river). The Kwichpak, which ti the nordbem boundary, b 
better known from the fact that a portimi of it is inchided in the route of the river tieamers. 

"A happily situated little oMiot, known at tbe Aphoon or passage extends from the 
Kwichpak northwards to Pattol Bay, thus affording a vahilable 'sbort-cut' to St. Michael. 

"(^ the left hand bank, a few miles above the mouth trf the Aphoon is situated the 
trading station of Kutlek. This post is kept by an old timer named Alexhis Kamkoff. who 
enjoys the distinction of being die last Russian exile remaining in the Yul^ country. 

"About fifteen miles above Kutiek it Moore's place, formerly known as lyton's. 

"The Brtt native village on the Kwiclqiak is situated on the north bank, a few miles 
above Moore's, and is known as Nunapikhigak. In the Innuit (Elskimo) language Nuna- 

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pik means lolid ground, in conlra-duboctioD to manh, the boggy Arctic mooTland or 

"About half way between Nunapiklugak and the next village, there b a slough which 
connect! the Kwichpalc directly with the KwichthiooL Thit ii the Apruka, and is the 
route used by all who with to viiii the KutiKak region. The current in the Apruka flows 
from the Kwichthlook, and at least half a dozen oUier sloughs ciou its course. 

"The magnitude of tbe Yukon is not fully realized until one enters the Kwichthlook. 
The great southern branch presents a magnificent si^t during a summer storm, when iu 
waters rdl in actual ImUows to the diore, and its whole expanse is covered with foaming 
white cap*. 

"Tbe Kwichthkwk it a great resort of tbe beluga <x M^ite ^ate. Scores of diese 
huge animals are frequently seen sporting in the waves, as far up as tbe mouth of tbe Apruka. 

"There is a story concerning a beluga which happened to stray away (torn its com- 
panions, and was forced to continue its way iqistream, on account of being chased by the 
natives at the various villages, until it arrived at far as Forty-Mile. This lish story has its 
counleipait in the famous yam which Jack McQuetten told to Lieut Schwatka, concerning 
the bear whkb fought widl the mosquitoes until they killed hira. "Si non e vere, e bon 
irovate," and they have the merit oi the latter clause." 

Father Bamum abo fumithet for this number 4^ the "Aurora Borealis" sorm his- 
torical notes, from which I quote as follows: 

"Ingabk it the name of the people dwelling along the Yukon from Pimute up to the 
Tanana mouth. It is probably a corruption of Inkelit, lousy oiks." 

"Koyukuk. the name of the great Yukon tributary, is ■ corruption of the native 
term Koiklotootu, meaning it curves around." 

"Unalakeet was founded in 1840." 

As narrated in the outset oi this story the "Nome Newt" was the first paper iitued 
in Nome and the Brst paper published for commercial purpose* in Northwestern Alaska. 
The first i«ue of thit paper was a four-column quarto, bearing date of October 9, 1 899. 
subscription price fifty cents the copy; pi^Ethed by the Nmne News Publishing Company; 
J. F. A. Strong, editor and manager. 

A few days later tKc "Nome Weekly Gold Digger" was ittued by Catdui N. Cot. 
Both of these papers were printed during the winter of 1 899-'00. 

In the tptin^ of 1900 the "News" became a daily sheet, and on July 29, 1900, the 
"Daily Chronicle" was established by Fred Healy. C. P. Burnett and Walter C. Kurtz. 
This paper wat conducted as a daily during the summer ntonlhs and as a temi-weekly for 
a period, and finally as a weekly. It was sold to Mafor Strong in tbe early part of tbe 
summer of 1901. He rechristened it the "Nome Nugget," and under this title it has 
been published twice a week ever since he acquired it. 

The summer of 1 903 W. C. Kurtz started tbe "Nome Mining Gazette," a uKKitbly 
.in magazine form, devoted exclusively to the mining interests of Seward Peninsula. It 
has been ittued q>otadically during the summer mondks ibce its establishment 

During tbe winter of 1 902-'03 J. J. Underwood and Leo Dumar procured a small 
outfit from the "Nome News" plant, and taking it to Council City started the "Coundl 
City News." which has been published weekly ever since. 

The "Teller News" is another journalistic venture that was started at Teller, the 
"Nome Newt" plant supplying the outfit. This paper was eitablithed by Gene Allen. 
It did not prove to be a profitable undertaking. The plant is now owned by Max R. 
Hirschberg, die enterprising manager of the Arctic Mining and Trading Company. 

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AlMka'a Contribution to the EngMBh Language — Origin of the Name Given Nome — Angli- 
cized Eskimo Worda — ReUce of RuMian Occupation — "Mueh," an Alaska Barbarism. 

ESIDES increasing the wealth of (he natiw) and adding to the »cenic featuret of 
(he world Alaska will contribute something to the Engli^ language. The con- 
ttibution may not be cx(remely useful nor very ornamental. Some of the words 
already in common use in AlasLa are the worst kind of barbarisms, but I sus- 
pect that from current use (hey will creep into the dictionaries and become a recognized 
part of American English. 

The names of physical features of Northwestern Alaska bek>ng in many instances to 
the native (ongue. The Eskimo language is interesting, but it would be a very difficult 
language for the use of a poet. It is neither soft nor mellifluent, but consists in greater part 
of harsh gutterals. I regret (hat I did not acquire more information of the meanbg of 
names of rivers, mountains, capes and bays of Northwestern Alaska when I had the oppor- 
tunity. The arbitrary action of (he United Slates Board on Geographical Names in fixing 
(he pronunciation and spelling tA Alaskan names without having accurate knowledge of the 
subject, has in many cases partially destroyed the original terms which die natives used. 
But for (ha( matter the Indian names throughout the West and Northwest have suffered 
likewise. Pioneen are not always educated people, and th^r eSorts at phonetic spelling of 
the unwritten words of uncivilized tribes have not always been successful. Alaskan names 
Hke the Indian names of the United States arc aheady corrupted, and the commit pronun- 
ciation has aheady received the sanction of authority. 

A few years ago there was a discussion in some of the Western newspapers of how 
Nome received its name. Professor George Dandson. an eminent and educated citizen of 
San Francisco, California, at one time connected with the United States Geodetic Survey, 
advanced a plausible theory which was generally accepted. He said diat in an old Eng- 
lish chart of the coast line of Northwestern Alaska a point of land some &fty miles west of 
Golovin Bay had been mapped and the topographer had placed opposite this cape the word 
"name," meaning that as yet the cape was unnamed. In copying this chart the copyist 
tailing to understand the meaning and mistaking the a for an o, wrote "Nome" and thus 
the name became Cape Nome. The town of Nome was named after the apt. While 
this version is plausible, 1 doubt it. The Eskimo word for no is "no-me." The phrase 
"1 d<»i't know" is expressed by "U^dio-me." The whalers and early voyagen to this part 
of Alaska, if they landed and attempted to communicate with the natives, and were 
unable (o speak the Eskimo language, would hear the words "no-me" and "ki-no-me" quite 
frequently. The camp was originally called No-me by many miners and prospectors, after 
Uie change of the name from Anvil Ci^ in 1 89Q. I believe that this explains the origin of 
the name Nome. 

Some of the English names of places of Seward Peninsula were given by Captain 
Cook during his voyage of ezplorati<Hi in I 776. He named Norton Sound, Cape Prince 
of Wales. Sledge Island, Icy Cape and other places. In quoting from Captain Cook's 

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log in a preceding chapter of Aat vohimc the reuon i* given for hie applying •ome of thete 
name*. Teller ic a town on Grantley Harbor which wai the fint reindeer ttation edab- 
liihed in Northweitera Alaika. It wa* named after Senator Teller oi Colorado who was 
one of the few congreMmen who caroectly advocated the introduction (rf domestic reindeer 
b Alaika for the benefit of the aalivei. The fini ilation ertabUied by Dr. Shekloo 
Jacktcm received Senator Teller*! name at a tribute to him for his woric in behalf of die 

Kotzebue Sound wai named after Lieutenant Kotzdnie, the man who discovoed 
it Eidiohz Bay and Chamino bland were named after two Jistinguiibed sdeBtiiti who 
accompanied Lieut Kotzebue on thii expeditian, 

Checnik ii die name of a ttation and a postolEcc on Golovin Bay. By bad 4>dliag 
the derivation of tfw word has been destroyed. It is a RuMtan tenn meaning tea-kettle. 
It should be 4>elled Chyaik. 

The Omilak silver mines obtained its name fmn the Eskimo language. Omilak. more 
frequently *peDed OmaMk, means duef . 

An Alaikan barbarinn and one in common uie in all parti of Alaska ii the vab 
mu(h which has its noun and adiectives. It means to go. to travel. An Alaskan will 
lay diat he "mushed" out to the mines, or that he has iust returned from a "mudi" from 
Council City or tome other F^ace. The word is derived from the Frendi "marchon,'* the 
word used by French Canadian dog driven when urpng their team to go. The American 
miner and prospector hearing the word and miumderstanding the pronunciation used the 
tenn "muih-oo." All dog teanii in Alaska obey the orda to "muib-oa." and through 
thii UK the word has crept into the Alaskan vernacular. If a penon told an Alaikan dog 
to "get out," the animal would cock hii can and mutefy say, "I dra't undcntand;" but if 
the penon laid "muih !" the animal would move away in a hurry. 

We have the word tundra «4iich conveys the idea of a k>w marshy coaital plain 
covered with mou. This ii a Ruinan word and the pliural of it is tundii Likewiie the 
word paib it Runian, forming iti plural the tame at tundra. But the phiral of this 
word ii most freijueatly written "paHdei." There it neither law nor rule for thii forma- 
tion. If we anghdze the word we muit vrrile dK pkiral parkai. Parka it a ikin coat 
made m die form of a diirt widi a hood attached to it The Eskimo name for thii gannott 
u artegi. 

Mukluk exprcMct the idea of ioM wear. It ii not the Elikimo name for boot 
But all ErkinKi boou are called by Amcricant, muktuks. The EiUmo make their 
boots out of the tkini oi hair seal and reindeer. Most of them are made from the skim of 
hair leab, and dte native name for hair seal is mukluk. 

An Edimo word m common ute in Alaika b pduL It expresses die idea of "no 
more left" "Kow-kow peluk" meant that there ii no more food. A miner will lay that 
he "routhed in bom the claim became die grub wat pehik." Pehdc it a very expresnve 
word and it not a mmgrel like the word mmh. 

Chcchako it the Alatkan eqwvaknt for the western word tenderfoot Chechako 
it tbe Indian name of a bird that goes to Alaika ear)y in the qinng and after a brief 
stay disai^tears and it not teen again until the following teaton. Sour-dough it the 
term that expreiset the idea of an old timer in Alaska. A penon it not a tour-dough 
until he hai teen the tee come and go. The appellation it due to the foct that the 
early protpecton and minen alwayi kept a batch of »ur dou^ in the cabin which 
fumithed them with the itock to make pancakes, an mdiqiens^ile part of dw break- 
lait bill of fare. 

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The Story of Nome 

I«rly Oold Dlscovcrlaa — Captain Ltbby'a Cxpadltlon— ttampada t« Kotzabua Sound — 
Flrat Mining Oparatlena at Omllak Silver Mint*— LIndabarg, LIndblam and Bryntaaon 
Maka a Oraat DIacovary on Anvil Creak and Snow atileb— Organ iutlon af Ui* Cap* 
Noma Mining DIatrlct— Arrival of tha Flrat Staamar In th* Spring of 'BV— Beginning 
of Clvle Endaavei^Mlnars Meeting DIaparaed— Oeld Found In tha Beach — Nome- 
Slnuk Cempany Cauae* Arreet af SW Minora— Arrival of tha Dlatrlot Courts 
Cenaent Qovarnment— Nomo'e FIret Wtntor— Chamber «f Commerce Provldae 
Funda far Sanltatlan— Th* Oreat Stampede of ItOO— Arrival of the New Federal 

ri ^tcovtry of fold oa Anvil Creek m Scptnnber. IS9S, by Jatet Lindebcrg. 
Eiik O. Lindbloin and John Birnteton, was the beginning of a new en in 
the hiabxy of Northweatern ALuka. Gold had been found in the peninnih 
previoua to that date, but it wa> thii diicovety thai Ml the wwld agog, 
caoaing the gient Unwpcde of 1 900, and leading to the devektpnoit of Ifaete gold fieklt. 
The year piW to 199A an etpedibon had been outfitted from San FranciKo to 
pnMpcct in the Ljolovin Bay countiy. Tliii c>|>cJiliun cooaiMed of Certain Daniel B. 
LUby. L. F. Moling, H. L Blake and A. P. Mordaunt Captain UAn had been 
a member of the Wertcm Union Telegraph conitniction coipa in thii country in 1 666-'67. 
He had obtamed piMpccta on Fiah River, and was favorably i mpr ea M d with the form- 
ation of the countiT, and with the banks of gravel vdiich he lawt but hie wo^ at 
that time did not permit him to pro^ject to any extent After the abandonment of the 
Western Lhion work, he always dieriihed a desire to return and investigate what seemed 
to him to be a promiSBig antkxA for placer gold. The great strike in the Klondike 
region forcib^ recalled his early obeervatioDS of gravel deposits in S^vard Peninsula, and 
intensified the desire which he had always cherished to return to this country. Securing 
die necessary co-opetation, he and his con^tantima took paMage for St. Michael Arriv- 
ing at St Michael a smaH achocmer was chartered for Goktvin bay. This was m the 
mmmer of 1697. They prospected on Mcshng and Ophir creeks, which they named, 
and found as hi^ as fiftetn cents the pan. 

Thqr went into winter quarters late b the season at Golovin and reHmied prae- 
peeling the foUowiag March. In the qiring of '96 they founded Council City, con- 
structing die lirst while man's residence ever buik in that town. On April 23, N. O. 
Huhberg, who was in charge of the Swedish Mission at Cheenik, and othen came to 
dieir camp, and Discovery Mining District, the Brst placer mining district of Seward 
Peninsula was organized. Its area was ten miles by thirty miles, the longest distance 
bong parallel widi the river, north and south, the southern boundary line being at Council 
City. Two days later they organized ihe Eldorado Mining District adjoining Discoveiy 
I^rtrid on the south, and subsequently wganiied Bonanza District, on Gokvin Bay. But 
the discoveries this seascm on CV™ Creek were eclipsed by die strike on Anvil Creek. 

Prior to the arrival of C^ilain Libby, N. O. Huhberg, of the Swedish Mission at 
Golovin Bay, had done some prospecting. Native* had brought him specimens of placer 

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gold From vaiiout paita of the peninsula, and this fact stunuUted him to the endeavor of a 
March for the precious, hidden mineral. In 1 696 there was a stampede to die Kotzebue 
Sound country. This ttamp«dc was caused by reports of whalers that the nadvei of 
this region had discovered gold, both in placen and quartz. A sample of quartz, given 
to Captain Cogan by an Eskimo, was takna 
to San Francisco and anayed, yielding a 
return of near $5,000 in gold the ton. Sev- 
eral thousand people went to this region 
during the summer of '98, and probably 
1,300 remained in the country the following 
winter. But they failed to make any promis- 
ing discoveries. 

The &nt mining ^>eralion in Seward 
Peninsula was for silver and lead. The 
work was done by John C. Green. In 
1661 he organized the Fish River Mining 
District which comprised all of Seward Pen- 
insula, and began the development of the 
FIRST HOUSE IN COUNCIL. Onulak Silver Miites in the vicinity of Fish 

River. Mr. Green hat extracted a large 
quantity of valuable ore from this mine. Lack of lransportati<Hi fadlitiet, and insuf- 
ficient capital to develop and properly equip this mine, have prevented its thorou^ 
eiqikiitation. Since the discovery of gold placere in this country public interest has 
been focused on gold mining. 

The report by natives of gold having been found on die beach of Sinuk River 
caused an expedition to be outfitted from Gok>vin Bay in July, 1 898. A small schooner 
was used to make the journey and to investigate the report. In this expedition were 
N. O. Huhberg. John Brynleion, H. L. Blake and others. During die voyage a storm 
forced the prospectors to make a landing in the mouth of Snake River. While waiting 
for the storm to subside, they did some prospecting in this part of the country, and dur- 
ing one of their trips crossed Anvil Creek. Gold was found here, but the prospectmg 
roust have been of a superficial character as no great quantity was discovered. Mr. 
Hultberg says that he thought favorably of the stream because he found here a better 
prospect than he had ever found in any other part of Alaska. The prospectors failed 
to stake, although it is probable that more than one of the party believed that the ground 
contained good vahies. Continuing their ioumey they arrived at their -iettination, but 
failed to find any values in the beach sands near Sinuk River. 

After their return to Golovin Bay, a party consisting of the three men who have 
received die credit of discovery of gold on Anvil, and the ones who arc entitled to it. 
fitted up a boat which was a very primitive affair, and started up die coast, the obfective 
point being what is now known as the Nome country. Effecting a landing in Snake 
I^er, they established a camp and began the work of prospecting this region. They 
found splendid prospects in Anvil Creek and m Snow Gulch, and made locatioiu on 
both of these creeks. They also prospected Rodt Creek and Dry Creek and odier 
streams. The result of panning during the several days which they remained there, was 
a quantity of gold dust valued at about fifty doUan. With the evidence of the discovery 
in a shot-gun shell they returned to Golovin Bay late in September. 1898. They kept 

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the news of the iinportuit find to themselves, but knowing the neccuity of organizing a 
mining district, it became neceuaiy for them to let other people into the secret C W. 
Price, a minet ^ e^^toience from CaBfomia. was at Golovin when they retunied, having 
been one of the Kotzebue Sound ilanq>edera. As he did not find anything in the 
Kotzd>ue Sound countiy. and not wanting to leave Alaska until he had made further 
cxploratkHU, and beaiing of the ditcovoy iftat had been made on Ophir Cieelc. he had 
come to Golovin for the purpoM of prospecting. He was selected at a desirable man to 
have associated with them. Dr. A. N. Kittilsen. who was stationed at C<^vin, being 
the Government physician for the Laplanders that had been brou^t hxim Lapland to 
herd reindeer, was chosen as another man to hc\p organize the diitrict. J. S. Tomencis 
was the other man. This party immediately returned and organized the Cape Nome Min- 
ing Dittrict, rettabng the ground so as to comply with the law, and holding a miners 
meeting for the enactment of local laws to govern the dirtricL 

Tbe district as originally laid out was twenty-five mUes square, the southeasterly 
comer being Cape N<Hne. The local laws which were enacted provided that claims 
should be in the form of a rectangle and in size 660x1320 feel, containing twenty acres. 
A rule was adopted permitting staking by power of attorney, and gjving the itaker forty 
days in which to record hit claim. A rule was adopted to compel miners to turn the 
water that they might ute back into the stream again. This meeting was held'October 
15. 1896. 

Considering the lateness of the season and the condition of the ground, a great deal 
of pro^>ecting was done by these pioneers. Ice wai forming in the streams, and the 
ground wai beginning to freeze. Notwithstanding these adverse conditions, they suc- 
ceeded in panning and rocking out of the gravel of Anvil Creek and Snow Gulch, gold 
dutt vahied at about $K600. They had brou^t with dmn the materials from which 
they constructed a crude rocker. Three houn* panning on Snow Gulch by Lindeberg, 
Lindbbm and Brynleton resulted in obtaining gold dust valued at $166. The work of 
prospecting was necessarily confined to a few days. Hi^ly eUted with their success 
and bri^t prospects the party returned to Golovin, and the winter was spent in maldng 
prqtarations for next leaton't operations. Supplies had to be obtained and tranH>OTted 
boat St. Michael, and there was much work to be done by the discoverers in order to 
be in a poaition to operate to die best advantage their properties the next summer. 

News of the great strike spread rapidly, and the few people of this part of 
Alaska were soon made aware of it During the winter the news was carried to Dawson. 
Many people came down the Yukon with dog teams that winter, so that before navigation 
opened in the spring of 1899 Nome had a population of several hundred. 

Queer and vague were the ideas of people about the Nome country whoi the 
news of the gold discov«y in Anvil Creek, having traveled up the Yukon to Dawson 
and from Dawson to ^agway by dog teams, finally reached the United Stales early 
in the qmng of 1899. Everybody knew that Nome was aomewhere in die Northland, 
Ml some way asM>ciated with the realm of the midni^t sun, and in the counHy where 
Eskimo lived in now bouses from viiuch they looked out through windows made of 
blocks of ice over a frozen country. Nome was described as a desolate, barren region 
where the nordi winds blew blizzards out of leaden skies and rioted aD winter long; 
and south winds blew tempests that lashed the shallow Bering Sea into fury creating 
an omnipresent peril to the navigators of these waten. 

The first vessel to arrive in Nome carrying passengers from the states who were 

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Toyagen to the new gold heUa wu the Guonne. CapUin Conradi wu the nuuter 
of this (hip- Theu BordMrn watcn were new to him, and the chart* did not give 
him a defiaile idea of the tituatioB of the new mining camp. The Gaioone WM an 
Englifh bottom and after landing at St Michael, the <m)y lub-port of cniiy of lliii 
fai'north counby, the itarted acroM Bering Sea in que*t of her ultimale dertinalioo. 
When the coait line of the N«ne country came into view it waa eagerb^ kiiwi-^ for 
lome evidence of the halntationa that would mark the town of Nome. Whco fcvcral 
while tcob gliatenmg in the lunli^t of a long June day were firrt *ecn diere was evi- 
dence that the end of dte journey of die argonauti wat near at hand. The vetiel ap- 
proached the roadttead at Nome under ilow ipeed. carefultr puthing \ta noae through 
the water, lailon at the bow with lead Imet tounding the ihallow tea. After ibe 
rcMel came to anchwr June 20, the weather became thick and threatening, and the 
cautioui captain, uncertain of the anchorage in the landc at the bottom of the tea, 
hoirted anchor and (teamed away to deeper water. 

When the pataengen were landed the following day they found a deaolale for- 
bidding q>ot where a few cabins had been coutruded anM»g die drift logs on the 
beach, and a number of tcnl> had been etecled by people who had come <l^wni die 
Yukon from Dawaon, Eagle, Circle and Rampart Mott of the lenti were on what 
■1 now known at ibe Sandtpit a part of Nome weit of Snake River. 'Where now 
it dte main part of die dty with planked tireett, tubatantial butinett blockt, dectncally 
lighted, and provided widi a tekphcme lervice, there wat one log cabin and three 
tent*. The log cabin wai the deputy recorder't oAce and the habitat ^ G. W. 
Price. The tent adjmning wai a rettaurant and barber thop. The next tent wat the ttore 
of tiie Alaska Commercial Company. The rooit pretentiout of the diree tenli had 
blue stripe*. It was owned by R. J. Paik and m it over a rudely constructed bar 
liquon were di^xnsed. Although it wit late in June the now had not entirely 
disappeared, and die evidences of winter itill clung to parts of the beach where the 
now had been piled in deep drifts. The beach to die tundra-edge was a chaotic 
mass of drift-wood, logs and limbers diat had been carried from the wooded regions 
of Alaska by die floods of the Yukon and Kutkokwim Rivers, and piled by the waves 
on the diore of Bering Sea. This was the beginning of Nome. The engraving pub- 

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bbed herewith it ftom k pbotogn4>h of Ae view that hu juit been docribed. Thii 
photognph wu made June 27, ud » the Bnl picture of dib camp. 

A few days after the arrival c^ the GarooDc the Roaac^ came to ancfaofage in 
the roadttead and landed her pasiengen. The probabilitie* and pombilttiet of the 
Nome gold field* were the prisc^ial topic* of diicuwion. The new arrivab fore«aw 
that the develoinnent of the mine* would mean the building of a town, and lecond 
in value to obtaining a rich mining claim wa* the tecuring of a desirable town lot. 
The North Amaican Tran^iortation and Trading Company beUeved die best nte 
(or a town was at the mouth of Nome River, three mile* or more weiteHy of where 
the camp had itaited. but thit company had failed to coniider the advantage* of the 
neareal seaboard point to the creek mine*, even thou^ thi* place poHe**ed unfavorable 
feature* for a town*ite. The town which wa* deatined to be the diitiibuting point 
and ba*e of *upplie* for Nmthwestem AlaiLa grew by accretion from the log calm 
and tent* tttat marked the landing place of the fint voyagen to the Nohm gold iieldt 
from the United Sute*. 

The Gnt dvic endeavor in the camp wa* the organization of a towniite com- 
mittee. TUi committee wa* abo charged with dutie* that may be de*igDated by 
the title "Public Safety." Thi* committee, known a* the Anvil Towniite Committee, 
was composed of R. S. Ryan, chairman: W. B. Dean, secretary; Dr. Brandon, John 
Berg and CoL C M. Sheaf. They were selected Ju^ 8, at a meeting held in Straver'i 
laloon. The place wa* luuned Anvil Ci^, and the towntile was lurveyed by Geo. 
Haibach. That there ibould be friction over town lots and mining claims in the 
beginning i* not *uipri*ing. Here were a lot of people representing all grade* of 
society thrown together in an isohtted part of the world where Aere wa* practically 
no civil law for their government. General Randall wa* m command of the military 
post at St. Michael, and a request was made of him to send a squad of loklien to 
Nome to assift in preserving order. This squad was placed under die command of 
Lieutenant Spaulding. 

Some of die new men in the camp were exasperated. They claimed that most of 
the valuable property in the country had been itaked by alien* who had used the 
Government reindeer for tranq>ortation purposes. A beHef was expressed that the 
law would not permit a man to itake more dian one mining claim on a creek. An 
exchange of opinions upon these subject* led to the calling of a miner* meetmg, which 
assembled Ju^ )0. A preamble and a set of resohitioiu had been prepared reciting 
dtal the district had not been properly organized, and that a great deal of illegal 
slaking had been done, and that it was the sentiment of the assemblage that mining 
claim* located by abent and more than one mining claim located by die came person 
on one creek were illegally segregated fnnn the pubbc domain, and dierefor open for 

A number of peopie in the camp foresaw the probability of serious trouble over 
dw enactment by the miners of these rule* for the government of the di*tTict. They 
believed that if the ground had been illegally staked that the court* were the proper 
l^ce to secure a determination of the matter Lieutenant Spaulding wa* informed of 
the proposed action of the mas* meeting and of it* probable result*. He entered the 
meeting with hb sokhen, and in the midst of the reading of the resolutions notified 
the asaemblagc that he would give dicm just two minute* in which to dispene. The 
resolutions were never pasied. The congregation obeyed the orden of Lieutenant 

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Spaulding; but there were expreuioiu of opinion about military authority that illicit 
not have been couched in the choiceit language. 

There was much condemnatioii of the action of Lieutenant Spaukling. On the 
other hand there were thoce who approved what he did and believed it to be (or 
the bett intereitt of the community. The people in the nteeting who were compelled 
to ditperM claimed that their ri^tt a> American citizen* had been abridged, and that 
the officer had overridden the Corutitution of the United States. There were por- 
lentoui muttering! in the camp, but these who muttered and protested ladced a leader 
to make the attempt to overthrow the mililaTy authority. Fortunately this tension was 
relieved by an extraordinary occurrence. A few days after the soldiers broke iq> the 
miners meeting gold was discovered in the Nome beach, and the people who felt 
aggrieved at the military authority, and who had been "nursing their wrath to keep 
it warm." forgot all about what they intended to do in the great rush to the beach 
strike; and the serious trouble that might have resulted was h^>pily averted. 

The beach diggings were discovered by two soldiers vdio were prD^>ectine 
in a place near the edge of the tundra which received the name of "Soldiera' Gulch". 
This place is somewhere near the present 
lite of the Alaska Elxploration Company*: 
warehouse. Immediately following this 
discovery John Hummell, a pioneer miner 
of the north country, began prospecting in 
the beach sands, and the result was the dis- 
covery of the roost accessible and valuable 
shallow placcn that were ever foimd. In 
a short time the beach was covered with 
men mining with rocken, and before the 
ck>se of the season not less than $2,000,- 
000 was taken from these Pactolian sands. 
Strips of ground were appropriated by the 
beach miners. These strips were a few feet 
_ in width and their length was from low 

BEACH MINERS IN 1899. . , ^^ , 

water to the tundra. 1 he work was pro- 
gressing harmoniousiy, each miner re^>ecting the rights of his neighbor, when an inci- 
dent full of action and cok>r disturbed the placidity of the conditions thai had settled 
around Nome. The Nome-Sinuk Mming Company had staked the richest part of 
tfte beach, and claimed it by virtue of location in accordance with the mining laws 
of the United States. Ncme of the beach miners had attempted to appropriate twenty 
acres of the beach, and they believed that the prior location of the Nome-Siouk Com- 
pany was invalid because the ground was washed by the extreme high tides of the 
sea. llie company appbed to Lieutenant Cragie, who had succeeded Lieutenant 
Spaulding in command of the soldiers at NtHne, for the arrest of the miners on the 
charge of tre^Mus. Lieutenant Cragie went to the disputed ground with his soldiers, 
and look into custody 365 men who marched b a body to the town. They were 
conlined in a frail building under guard. They immediately took up a subscrqition 
to bear the expense of employing an attorney, and raised $600 withb a few minutes. 
Hiey informed Lieutenant Cragie that each miner would demand a sqwrate trial by 
jury, llicy declined to give bonds for their refease and requested the oAcer to provide 

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thtm with maintoiuice. Liculcnuit Cragie wu confronted with the problem of kcut- 
ing food and tkcping scconuDodatioiM for all of hii priionen. He quickly tolved 
this problem hy going to the oficen of the Nome-Sinuk Company and demanding from 
tbem a bcMid that would cover npmmrf incuired n connection with the catc. The 
failure of the company to provide thia bond left him do other ahemativc than to dis- 
charge the men. Thui ended the fiatco <rf the company to prevent tretpai* upon a 
mining claim itaked on the beach. AH the men returned to their rocken and resumed 
dteir work of waibing gold from die ruby landi. 

T. D. Caihel wai one of the arretted minen. He wa> a clever young man 
with « legal education and die ability to exprcM hit idea* dearh' &nd conciiely. He 
attumed the leadenhip of die aneited minav, acting at dicir ^Mketman, and die promi- 
nence that he thut acquired led to hit telection by the miners at their candidate for mayor 
of Nome at the time of die organization of die Content Government later m the leaion, and 
secured his eleclioD at the first mayor of Nome by an oven^ebning majority. 

The strike on the beach came near depopuUting the creeks. Mining operators on 
die rich itreami near Nome had dificuhy b keepmg their men. Magnut Kjebberg offered 
hit employe* who woukl sUy with him through the season a bonus for evory day't wvk 
performed. The work of mining the credc cUimt was prosecuted no lest ttrcnuouily than 
the work on die beach. The men dtat organized die Nome District in the fall of 1 696 
extracted from the creek claims during tbe wason of 1699 not Icm dian $1,000,000. 
In the early spring before the frost left the ground they made shiice-boxet from lumber which 
dwy had whiptawed out of drift logi, and hauled these boxes across the tundra widi 
dogs. Tbe faciGties for miniBg and transportation were both of the moa primitive char- 
acter, and the splendid results obtained . diit teaion put the standi of unquestioned merit 
iqxHi the mines of this re^Mi. 

The arrival of Judge C S. Johnson of die District Court of Alaska was awaited with 
anxiety. Trouble had aiiten over junqiing mining claims and town lots. There had been 
a deal mcHe staking dian prospecting b die countiy. Hie people that flocked to Nome 
poiSMted the idea that there was gold in every ttream, and without attempting to com- 
ply with the law requiring a discovery tA mineral to be made before a claim can be le- 
gaiiy staked dicy went out into die country and staked all of it. There probably has Dot 
been a case of such wholesale staking in the history of any mining can^i. Ptople staked 
by power of attorney; staked by agetu?; staked for dieir relativei and tor their frioidi. 
They were called "peodl and hatchet" miners because thqr put in most of the season 
with a pesKil and location notices, and a hatchet with which to cut willows to make stakes 
to mark their claims. When Aty got dirou^ with dieir work, in the language of 
Sam Dunham: 

"From sea-beach to Al^-iine the landscape was staked." 

The staking mania became so acute that cltums were (requendy |umped or r»-k>- 
cated. The staking habit led to entan^ementt which direatened much litigation and in 
a few cases came near caunag riots. There were diqiutcs over town lots; and all these 
contentions promised a busy lime fw die federal court tqion iti arrivaL 

Prior to tbe enactment of the Alaska Code in 1900, Alaska consisted of but one 
judicial division. The teat of government wat in Southeastern Alaska, and there never 
bad been occasion to hold a term of court in any part of Northmi Alaska. But the new 
mintng camp at Nome and some of the can^x on the Yukon, ncrtaMy at Eagle, Circle 
and Rampart, created the necessity of Judge Johnson making a circuit of his district, and 

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holding a teim of court in a niunbn of new camps. The trip made by Judge Johruon oo 
diii occaiion ii of ht$toric value — not ao much becaute it wa* the fint drcuh of the court. 
but because it wai in all probability the longed circuit ever traveled by a federal judge 
in the United States. Starting from Juneau he went to Dawson, and from Dawson 
ioumeyed down the Yukon, holding court at places on the river as he came down, stop- 
ping at St Michael, coming to Nome, and then returning by way of Dutdi Harfaor, 
stopping at several places on the return trip to administer the laws of the land. Tliia 
circuit is mure than 7,000 miles in length, and nearly the entire summer was required to 
make the trip. 

Judge Johnson was accompanied by Govnrtor Brady, aitd by A. J. Daly, acting 
in the capacity of United States Attorney. Upon convenmg court in Nome tboe was an 
applicant for citizenship who when asked the question "Who makes die kvrs <^ ikb 
country?" replied promptly and with great assurance, "Youge Y<Juwhi and Governor 
Brady." The question of the right of aliens to locate mineral lands wis brought before 
Judge Johnson at this term of court. His opi.)ioa, vriach has since been conhrmed by 
the bigbest court of resort, was that the United States Govenunent is the only party that 
has the right to question the validity of such locations. Numerous af^bcatiMU for in- 
junctioos and the ^>pointment of receivers on minkig property were denied by tbe court 
at diis session. The time in which the court could remain in Nome was limited and 
judicial business had to be consummated with haste. Before leaving Nome Judge Joha- 
son appmnted Alonzo flawson as United States Commissioner. Mr. f^wsmi was i»- 
itnicted by the IDistrtct Court not to try any title cases, as under the law his jurisdiction did 
not extend to such cases. Unfortunately diis made a bad situation, as the most protak- 
ing and aggravating conditions were those that involved the ownership <rf mkiing claims 
and town lots. 

Judge Johnson's description of Nome at diis time is interesting. He saw a little 
town, of which there were more tents than buildings. There woe no streets; tbe tents 
and frail buildmgs straggled almg the devious trails, l^ere werj streets on the map of 
Nmne, but die ^server could not distinguidi them in the town. What was dien caBed 
^'^o^t Street possessed the quality of being a thorougltfare, but in traversing it the pedes- 
trian was at times uncertain v^ether he would arrive at his destination or suddenly find 
himseJf in China. Mud that was two feet deep was no impediment to travel by the 
funi-booted citizens of Nome. It was the tone of die rainy season. The clouds hmg 
low. shutting out die sunshine, and the rain fell alnKMt ceaselessly. Judge Johnson's 
first court room was a spacious tent wdiich permitted tbe rain to leak down aa tlie just 
and on the unjust alike. Appareled in long n^ber boots and a yellow sBckcr, die judge 
instructed a bailiff to convene court, and the **IHear ye! Hear yet*' was punctuated by the 
patter of nin on the roof. The litigants and attorneys sal iqMMi improvised chain and 
boxes and the q>cctat«s uncovered and remaiiwd standing, and for the first time in Nome 
the Federal Court of the District of Alaska was in sesnon. 

Before leaving Nome Judge J^uison advised the wganization of a Consent Gov- 
ernment. Such a govenunent was not an absolutdy legal civic body, but there was no 
law to permit the organization of a municipality even if the citizens of Nome had desired 
to effect such an organization. A Consent Government would be a sort of ^ipticatiati 
of the common law of the United States which recognizes the ri^ti of conimimities to 
govern themselves. In accordance with the advice of die court an election was called 
for October 16. 1699. Two tickets were placed in the field. One of dwse tickets 

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wu the mmen ticket ud the other wu in oppontion to it. The candicUte for major 
on the o)q>o*itiaD ticket wu H. P. Beeman, a lawyer. The election wat q)inte(l and 
exoting. Everybody voted. Wonten luffrage was recognized, and the votes of the few 
women in die camp were received and deponted m the ballot brxet. 

Tile reauk of die election wai the nicceM of the miners tl ket The officen elected 
were a* Mhnn: T. D. Caibel. mayor; J. P. Rudd, treaiurer and aueuor; W. M. Eddy, 
chief of police; Alonzo Rawion, munici- 
pal judge; councilmen, C. P. Dun, C. H. 
Pennington. J. W. Donovan, W. M. Rob- 
cit>on. A- J. Lowe and Geo. N. Wright 
Tlie appointive otficei were lilted by die 
foHowiog penou: Key Pitman, dty at- 
torney; D. P. Haniun, city cledc; D. R. 
B. Glenn, city nirveyor; Dr. Gregg, city 
[diyncian; W. J. Allen, chief of fire de- 
partment. Widiin twenty-four hoiin after 
the city election and die organization of 
the new government $1 .600 was paid into 
itie treanny for taze*. All taxet vnxt paid 
voluntarily. The mfertunate part of thit 
regime waa a lack of authoii^ to enforce 
die payment of taxet. These were tome 
that ihirked diia rc^wntibility. 

The public service wa* pretty expensive. 
The salary of die chief of police was 
$2,500 a year; city treanirer, $2,000: 
chief of fire department, $1,600; atnstani 
chief of fire department, $1,200; city cleric, 
$2,000; health officer. $1,500; city at- 
torney, $2,400. But when one reBects 

diat everydiing in die cuip wa. expensive. ^^^J^' j^,« m^^^,. 

one reaGzes that the citizens should have 

paid for government prices in keeping with the prices for labor and commodities diat ob- 
tained in the town. Tlie total amount of revenues received by the Consent Govemmoit 
during this winter was about $1 7,000. and 1^ the first of March the cit>- officials found 
themselves widwut funds and in debt. 

The tarty P*rt of the regime of the Consent Government was eferjve and satis- 
Victory. The town was weD policed, and an active fire department was organized and 
made as eficient as the fire ^^wratus at hand could make it The munit 'pal iudge was 
•bo United States Commissioner and his legal authority over all misdenieanir charges was 
unquestioned. But lowai ] the ckise of the winter 'eason lack of fimds, and a feeling 
of distrust in the minds of some of die people, materially weakened the power and effic- 
iency of the Nome Omsent GovemmenL Lieutenant Cragie was stationed at Nome in 
charge of the soldien sent from the military post at St. Michael by General Randall 
He contributed materially to the welbre of the community, and from what I have learned 
of the record of this young man. I feel that it is his due to give him the credit of good 

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judgnwnl and piompt kctxm in the right dtrecbon at all times when hit atfvice* wen 

Dog ilealinB wu the caute of much anaoyaDce during this winter in Nome. In the 
early hiitoiy of this country dogi were the moat meful animak owned by die residents; 
in fact, during tht* winter there were no nteani of conveyance other than dog teams, and 
ai the country was a comparative wildentess rich in poisibilibes of valnable mining prop- 
erty there was coDnderable traveling to 
various unexplored patis of the peninsula. 
The appropriation of dogs for these trips 
was a frequent cause of arrest, and of btiga- 
bon in the munidpal court There were 
cases of lot iumping in which serious con- 
flicU between the interested parties were 
narrowly averted. During Nome's fint 
winter there were five violent deaths. Con- 
sidering the character of the community the 
record for this winter is creditable. 

With the a{vroach of spring ttic citizens 
of Nome were confronted with a lerious 
and perplexing probleni. Reports that had 
reached Nome from the italei fully indi- 
cated that diere vrould be a great stampede 
at the opening of navigation. The town 
was in a very unsanitary condition. ll 
needed a thorough cleaning, and if it wu 
to be made habitable it would have to be 
ditched and drained. During the year 
there had been several cases of typhoid 
lever, and unless some action were taken 
toward sanitation there was a possibility 
that Nome would be a vast chamel houM 
when the snow melted and the warm sun- 
shiiM made festering spots and microbe incubators b the unclean places. 

The representative citizens of Nome called a meeting during the month nt March 
and organized a Chamber of Commerce. This body was officered by Captain W. H. 
Ferguson, president; Arthur T. Pope, treasurer, and M. R. Button, secretary. An 
executive committee consisting of Captain Ferguson, George Murphy. Tmn Nestor. Virgil 
Moore and Conrad Siem was appointed to provide ways and means for performing die 
work which should have been done by the numcvwl officers, and doubtless would have 
been done if ihcy had had die necessary funds. Dr. E. M. Rninger and Dr. S. J. Call 
were selected as health physicians to the Chamber of Comirrixe and their advice was 
followed in all matten pertaining to sanitation. The sum ot $20,000 was subscribed 
by the citizens of Nome. Ten deputy marshals were furnished United States Commia- 
ueaa I^waon to patrol the town and naintain order. The work of cleaning the cilT 
and carting every kind of refuse and offal to the ice on Bering Sea, and the work of 
I ditches and constructing drains, was vigorously prosecuted. This work was done 



under the lupcrviuoa of Councibnui A. J. Lowe, and the billi were paid by the Cluunber 
of CmniiKrce. The thouumdi of peo^ that landed on the Nome beach in the q>ring 
of 1900 did not redize that maiqr <ii their bve* v^ere pretetved by thi* coDcoted and 
praiseworthy action trf the dttuu of Nome rcpreaeoted by the Chamber of Commerce. 
It wa* fortunate for Nome that in the early dayt diere were a few ttroog men who in- 
ntled that the law of common mbm and justice ihould be enforced. Their work should 
receive the credit of any good report of the morals of the commomty. When the Chamber 
of Commcne was organiied fjp*»w) Ferguson said upMi being dected president of the 

"There must be no bk>od4etting in this community. We will hang the bit mu 
who umecessarfly qiilli human bkwd if we have to go to Council Ci^ to get die tree 
to hang him on." 

The manifestation of this spirit by the better elonent of the conununity has given 
Nome a commesdable record among new mhung camps. 

Before dte arrrml.of the fast steamers from the stales General [Randall came to 
Nome from the military post at Sl Michael. He was requested to lake charge of the 
town, but dn-KnTd to assume the respoodbilify unless exigcocies arose making il absohitely 
necessary. He uAi Ate ctlizena that if be took charge of the town he would prochun 
martial law. and in the event of martial law the curfew would ring every itight at nme 
o'clock, and any man cau^jit on the streets without a pass after that hour would be ar- 
rested. The Chamber of Commerce by unanimous vote requested General Randall to assist 
that body in prcMrving order. He consented to this request to the eitent of furnishing 
the city with a patrol of soldiers. These soldiers were not expected to pafana the duties 
of policemen, but there is no doubt that the presence tf the blue-coated boys had a 
deterrent eiect upon the criminal dement, and contribated in no small measure to tlie 
peace and welfate of Nome. The nufitaiy force in Nome was augmented, and f^ptfin 
Fmch was placed in commaitd. 

In the beginning of the open seaMm of 1900 there was a conflict of dvil autfaori^. 
Mr. Swindkart. a United Stales Commissionrr bn Alaska, arrived and noti&ed Qiief 
of Police Eddy that he would be prosecuted if he made any more arrests. He opoted 
court and wore die ermine fw about a week when he rdinquidted the job. Former 
Governor McGraw, of die State of Washington, who held a commiNion as a prednct 
^idicial oAcer in Alaska, was one of the early arrivals at Nome in this qmng, but 
after viewing die stuation he did not attesapt to exerdse any legal authority. Judge 
Shcphard, United States Coraroissioner at St Michael, came to Nome and opened 
court Judge Advocate Bethel, of St Michael military post, abo had quarters in 
Nome. Between Judge Shcphard and the Judge Advocate the pressing legal matters 
to be determined were examined and adjudicated. 

The bit steamer arriving at Nome in 1900 was die Jeanie. She came in May 
23. and was soon followed by many others. By June 20 the larger part of the leet 
had arrived. A few of the earlier vessels had discharged their cargoes and vrere homo- 
ward bound. At this date the roadstead in front of Nome was a busy scene. At one 
time during the nuNith of June seventy vessds of all descriptiotts could be counted by 
die mquiring obeerrer. Thqr inchided Ug steamer* and sh^M lying at anchor, and tugs 
and gaaidine schooners busily dmwing barges loaded with frei^t from the vessds to 
the hmA. The beach wia covered with piles of freight. A city of white tents gkded 
the seashore, and the white lenb of nuaen extoided far ig> and down the beach. Nome 

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wM a flecplcM town. Tliroii^ tU the day* and Mskb tbere wu the ooiMtuit cbmyw 
of Mwi uid huDinen. An anny of Vmffitottatat, — •*-r*i~tt in P*'^ o^ P^^f^ ^"bo had 
worked at the counting dcik and had fc^knved profeiaopi, wck handling tm^ ott 
the beach. The nght of a man wboae appeannc« indicated that he had not been ao- 
cwtomed to bard phyiical labor, Aaining hit nnaclea under die wci^l of heavy btoes 
«r bales of goods, walking die gangplank from the barge to the beacb, told a pathetic 
•toiy. The wage* iheM men feceired woe $1.50 die hour, and benin WM tbe io- 
ccolive for people to do tbe kind of woik to vrfiich thqr wen not accvtomed and for 
which dtey were incapable. 

There were inadequate bote! accomnodalioot and a lack of place* for people 
to sleep. Fortunately the weather was ^ and warm, and fortunately diee was no 
flaiknest. Even in die unccaang ilayli^t there were many petfy'iarce&y tbeAs. Had 
there been daikneu to cover their w<^ the criminal dement would hare reaped « 
harvert. Restaurants did a diriving buniess. Tbe price of bam and eggs and a 
09 of coffee was one doHai. If • man's lubativeneM inclbed him to a stranger drink 
dian water he paid twenty-five cents a drink for his refreshment Beer coa one doUar 
the bottle. To brief this part of the story the price of every commodity was (rom 
two times to ftve timet the price of nmilar articles in Seattle or San Frandaco. 

According to Captain Jarvit' estimate 16,000 people airivcd in Nome this season. 
Possibly 15.000 landed during the month ol June. To all these peof^ die coontiy 
was new and the envirmunent strange. The continuous daylight was queer and 
outre. Tbe conditions surrounding die people created excessive nerve tension. Evey- 
body was in haste, and this haste made it impossible to consummate ctfoit with despatch. 
Fraght twas dumped on the beach in an almost inextricable confusion. Peopk <fid 
work in a hiiny and had to do it over. The season was well advanced before Nome 
setded down to the serious business of tbe work which die people had in view when tbqr 
went diere. A great many of the new arrivals pitched their tents, sat around, cooked 
and ate vp their food, and later in die season, like tbe Arabs, "quiethr folded their tents 
and stole away," without accomplishing anything or trying to acconqiliah anything. 
The crude sidewalks of Nome woe securely held down by a great aimy of men i^k> 
discussed mining, the resources of the country and tbe prospects of ttie town, but never 
went to the creeks nor hit die ground bard enough to kill a snake. Sanguine but inex- 
petieoced men, whose only resemUancc to miners was dieir garb, hastily put together 
peces of new'fangled devices for mining. Their story was told later in the season wfaea 
tbe beach was partially covered with abandoned nondescript mining machinery. There 
were other men with pack trains. These pack trains, loaded, could be seen nearly emsy 
day for a fortnight or more starting from Nome <n pro^tecting trips to dw great interior. 
Men had arrived in Nome to follow the directions of fbrtune-tellen and sooth-sayers; 
others had quiet tips purporting to come from early Government surveying expeditions; 
die truth is not stretched in the assertion diat nine out of ten of the people that arrived 
in Nome during the summer of 1900 were visiooaiy and inqiracticable, lacking knowl- 
edge of mining and of minmg methods. They failed; of course diey failed; and they 
•bused the country. When they retwned home they told their tales of vrae to new»- 
p^ien, and Nome unjustly received tbe reputation of being an unsuccessful mining 
camp. The people were to blame and not the country. The developments of the 
last bve years have demonstrated condusrvely the proof of this assertion. The country 
has Steadily progressed, and will continue to progress for years indefinitely. 

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One of the imporUdou to Nome in the ipnng of 190C wu naaU-pox. mkI 
when it wu diicovered in the canq> a great deal of aUnn wai manifetted. The dieadcd 
diicaM wu found aboard aome of the vetieli, and thew iteamen were pronqitly put 
in quarantine and tent to Egg Itland near St MidiaeL Forttmatcly for the town 
there wai a ilTong nan in the conimuni^ wfaoM connection with the revenue cutter 
(crvice had taught him to cx e rcite authority in all oigencie* that mi^t ari*e in Aladu. 
Thit man was Captain D. H. Jarvit. He immediately took charge of the lituatioD, 
and applied himielf diligently and with consummate executive ability to the itamping 
out of the disesM. He did not Mop to inquire for legal authority, but lin^ty obterved 
the time-honored prerogative of the department of the United Stalet Government to 
which he belonged; and diat wai to exerciie common tenie in dealing with all Alaikan 
meaturet. He caused an hotpilal to be erected, and immediately iiolated all pcnon* 
known to be afflicted with the diiea*e, and all sutpectt were carefully watched. Within 
a few weeki all danger of contagion had been destroyed, and widi the recovery of ths 
last of the patients in the hoqiital the building and all of its fumi^ings were burned. 
Cq>tain Jarvii deserves the everlasting gratitude of the people at Nome for his prompt 


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and eftcienl nwtbod of prevrating the 4>re«iing of imsU-pox in Nome duting Am 

The uriva] of the newly appointed federal oAcen of the Second JiidkiBl Divwoa 
ioaugurmted a new regkae of afain. The new federal oAcen were Arthur H. Nojre*. 
dirtrkt judge; A. Vawter, United State* Manhal; Joe Wood, United States Attoroey. 
George V. BorchMniiu. clerk of the court, and S. N. Stevcnt, United Statei Conuiii»- 
•ioner. Immediateti' upon their arrival the reint of govenuncat were turned over to 
than. The anival of the Diitrict Court marked the beginning of a (egal battle th«t 
laited all summer. This atniggle wa* An taatt important and rcsaarkable &gfat that 
ever took place in a couit of jutticc. and is told without mabce, alteration or p er ver si on 
of the facts of record in anothei chapter of this book. 

A term of court was advertised to convene August 21. but the court sitting in 
chambers started the regioie of the injunction and receiver July 23. Soon after court 
was convened the judge, 'ipoo a petition from the nH^— * of Nome, called an election 
to decide i^xm the question of incotporation. The election was duly held on November 
6, and the measure was defeated by a vote of 3 11 for incoipor a tifcn and 384 against 
incorporation. The large commercial conpantct and tran^wrtation coapanie* rallied 
ihdr forces to prevent incorporation. Most of the papulation were apth et ic. 

Among the many things that occupied the attention of the District G>urt was 
the hmning of mining dirtricts. and the apposatment of commiisianen and recorders 
for these districts. The opinion prevailed at this time that gold in paying quantitiea 
would be found in every part <A Notdiera Alaska, and a conunissiooenhq> was regarded 
as a plum which was eagerly sought after. Some of the commissionen appointed ex- 
pended BMiNy for equ^mient, and tramportabon to their destination, and never re- 
ceived anything like adequate payment for the eipense and labor incident to reaching 
their seal of government Nor was this entir^ the fault of the country, but more the 
result of the newness of the country and great distance ftoro a base of supplies to the 

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PholDBraph by James & Bushnell, Seattle. 


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Injunction and Receiver 

Raglma of Iha FIrmt FMtonI Juda« of tha Sacond Judlelar Division— Sarloua Litigation 
Ovar Mining Proparty that Thrtatanad tha Pa««« of tha Camp— Rocalvora Ap- 
pelntad for tha Most Vatuabia MInoa In tha Noma Country— Rofuaa I of Judga 
Noyaa to Allow Appaal From HIa Ooelalen — Writ of auparwadaaa Qfontod by 
Appollata Court— Fallura of LowMr Court to Knforeo tha Writ, Raaultlng In Pun- 
' lahmant for Contompt of Judga Noyao, Alawindar MeKansIa and Othor*— Davoi* 

opmont of tho Country notardad by tha Action of tha District Courts 

THE failure of a Federal Katiict Court to obey the mwidate of a hiiJier couit it 
an uniHual iackkot in the I1MI017 of juriaprwlence. And the trial of the 
judge of the lower court and hii convictioB and puny»nent for contenifH I7 
the appellate court wbose order he had dnrefarded, it a natutal lequet of 
Mich an incident The facta that led up to this di^paccful dmouement make a chapter 
in the hirtofy of None, and I widt that 1 did not have to write it A tale of di^tMwsty 
and human weakneai ia not to my Udng. There ii much of goodness in the world, and 
the leaven of altruism would work divinely if it were not for the luit of gold. What if 
there that has not been done for sordid gain? Mtmey bought the betrayal of the Mafter; 
it makes Conscience dumb and Juatice blind. And if it were not a srif impnsnd duty to 
narrate die important facts within my knowledge concerning die history of Nome, I would 
iparc the men who made it neceiaafy to write this chapter. The itoiy tells of the unlawful 
and wrongful acquisition, possession and operation of mining properties worth "'■1*'«m of 
doUan. It mi^t tdl more than this, but I diall try to confine the narrative to facts of 
recmd. If there be a suggestion of consiwacy or intimatioo that mm of political csninence 
tried to use a federal court for private gain and to subserve personal ends, I shall make » 

Arthur H. Noyes received the appointment to the position oi the first federal judge 
of the Second Judicial Division of Alaska. He arrived at Nome July 19, 1900. The 
citizeM of llus community welcomed his arrival, net because things were in a chaotic con- 
dition, nor because dicn was an absence of law and order; but there was need of a court 
and the exercise of the civil authority with which a court is vested. During die sninmer of 
1699 and the ensuing winter mraers meetings had attempted to formulate rules, military 
audiori^, represented by a squad of soldien from the post at St. Michad, had assisted 
in maintaining order, a conseet government had been organized and had conducted the 
affairs of the town, a chamber of CMnmercc con^iostd of represoitative citizens had done 
its ^re in providing hmds fw necessary municipal work, and had exercised a whole- 
some moral force. In the fall of 1699 Judge C. S. Johnson had made his long and 
memorable circuit of Alaska, and had hdd a term of court in Nome, but the exactions 
of hii office made this term necessarily brief. He left a United States Conunissiiwer at 
Nome, who was selected by the Consent Government at the municipal judge; but he did 
not have jurisdiction over any title cases. Disputes over town property and mining claims 
had to await the coming of die new federal judge for their adjudication. Throu^ the 

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eCort> of the mifiUuy Mithority a tUtui qno of ihew dnputa ivu miintoipcd. bUd it 
Mt been tor the aoUiiat, the deputy manhal left «t Nome, wkI the pc^ice fnce of the 
CoDMiit GovcmRtent. probably there mi^t have been loaie lenous confiicts over proper- 
ties in ditpute. It wai the proq>ect of a lettlement of theae contention* that made die ar- 
livaJ of Judge Noyes rn occanon of nomenL 

Seldom did a c^iit have >o much woik to do, m a better OKHMtunity to make a 
record diat would win for it the ntpect and crteem of die community. There i« an old 
laying about "the fat jumping from die fiying pan into the Gre," and thii deKribes the 
condition of afain prior to and tubsequoit to the anival of Judge Noyet. Inttead oi an 
adjustnient of the conditimu which threatened the peace of dw camp, additioBal naris 
vrere put in die tangle of contention and liligation. Upmi hit arrival Judge Noyct an- 
Bounced hi* intention of going to Sl Michael, which bad been dwignatcd ai the teat of 
hit government, to q»cad hit appointment upon the recofdi. He infonned attorney* that 
court would not be held until hi* return, and until after the publication in a newipapa' for 
the ital-tory time of a notice announcing the term of court Notwitfaitaading diit an- 
nouncement be heard an cat parte complaint in chamber* immediately after hi* arrival asd 
granted a temporary injunction and amiointed a receiver on one of the riche*t mining 
claim* in the country. Thi* wa* the begbining of the regime of injunction* and tccavers. 

To begin at die begirming of tfaj* ttory: In 1899 there wai a great deal of di**atis- 
hction over what wa* called irregular mediodi of (taking minmg claim*. It wa* averred 
that Swede* and mi**ionaria traveting by the aid of the Govenunent reindeer and (tak- 
ing for diemseivet and by power of attorney for "their uncle* and their couwm and their 
aunt*," had acquired the mott valuable property in the country. It wa* aho averred that 
(lake* had been removed to afford people the opportunity of re-locating p nptxty. Threat- 
ened law luitt resulted from these contention*. Among the lawyen of Nomr were the 
firm of Hubbard & Beeman and WiBiam T. Hume. These gentlemen wae the attor- 
ney* for the contestant* of moat of the diqnited claim*, notably of propoaed conle*!* for 
valuable pnpaty on Anvil and Dexter Creeks. Mr. Hidibard had been a clok in the 
Attorney General'* oAce during President Cleveland's administTation. In the fall of 1 699 
he went to Washington taking with him the testimony of the plaintifi in these cases. 
PiioT to hi* departure a combination had been effected by the*e attomqr* to that the firm 
name wa* Hubbard, Beeman & Hume. Their intere*!* bcsng mutual thqr deemed it wise 
and expedient to form thi* partnenhip, and thereby pool die iisucs which were to be Mib- 
mitted to the court. 

I have Mr. Hume'* datement that Mr. Hubbard nibmitted the evidence in hvor of 
their client*, which had been gathered in tbe form of afidavit*, to a |HiMninent federal 
official of the law dqMTtment at Washington, who informed him that the testimony was 
sufficient to secure a favoraUe verdict. The record* of the Federal Circuit Court in San 
Francisco show that Alexander McKenzie, an eminent politician of the Republican party, 
went to Nome a* the preudcnt of the Ala*ka Gold Mining Company, tor the purpose of 
tecnring the*e mining claim*. Tiit record* abo *how the method* by M^iich he attempted 
to get these properties. There i* in these records an intimation that others, higji in the 
council* of the nation, were associated widi McKenzie. There is no evidence that the 
Alaska Cold Mining Company ever existed. McKenzie was president and Hubbard sec- 
retary of thi* rqiuted organization. Machinery for mining operation* wa* brou^ to Nome 
by the preaident of thi* so-called company. It proved useless and wa* iub*equently un- 
loaded on one of the large mine* where a receiver wa* in charge of die pr^ieity. If he 
did not represent the Alaika Cold Mining Company he was "tarred with the same stick.'* 

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According to Mi. Hume'* lestinKwy, prior to the arrivBl of the court he had carefully 
l^epued the compUintt in the cue* that were to be lubmitted. When Judge Noyei 
came a«bore McKenzie vinted Hume's t^ce and uked for the complainti. They were 
given to him and he took them away, and returning after the lapae of an hour w more, said 
lo Mr. Hume; "Judge Noyei taya ihcte complainls are not properly prepared." MdCenzie 
then told him the kind of paper* that Judge Noyei wanted. The order delivered 
by Mr. McKeozie necenitated the imiaoce of new conqilainti, and Mr. Hume and hit 
tteBographer were kept buiy for thirty-*ix bow*' continuout work m order to accomplith 
ibe Ia*L At a retult ai thi* hurried vroik theie complaint* were crude, not properiy 
prepared, and tome of them were lubmilted to die court umigned. The |Hopertie* in 
diipute wen No*. I and 2 below Diicovery Claim cm Anvil Creek; Not. 3, 9, II and 1 2 
above Di*cov«ry on Anvil Creek and a claim tm Nikkilai Culch. After McKenzie't ac- 
lival ft *uit wa* in*tituted, entitled Chq>p* vt. Undeberg et al., for the posiettion of Di*covery 
Claim on Anvil CreeL There were not any valid ground* for the inttitution of thi* nut, 
«• die plaintiff had iumped or re-located die propoty while the defendant* were working 
it The defendant* claimed the property by virtue of fati location and abo by purchaie 
from a jumper who had located the property after they had acquired it, and whote right 
and title they had bou^L But thi* wat a very rich property, producing a large quantity 
of gold du*t every day. Mr. Hume my* that he proteited againtt the beginning of thii 
luit a* there did not appear to him any ground i^on which the ca*e could be won. But 
the fir*t gun of die receiver and injunction fight wat fired over thi* property. 

An injunction wa* granted and Alexander McKcnzie wa* appcanled receiver of this 
claim. Hi* h6a6 wat fixed at $5,000, although the complaint averred diat the ground 
wat producing not leo than $1 5.000 daily. Armed with the authority of the court Mr. 
McKenzie immediately went to the claim and took poMeauon of it. He had a team wait- 
ing, and WM ready to *tart a* soon at the order wa* *igiied. Later Judge Noyet amended 
the ortler *o at to give Receiver McfCenzie poMe*iion of all the penonal prnpaty on the 
claim. Tbit order wa* lo broad that McKenzie could have taken pot*etHon of the per- 
sonal propoty of a itranger, in no-wi*e connected with the mining claim, who might have 
happened to have been on the property. Under thi* amended order the receiver took 
po*ie**NHi of the *afe and the dust it contained, the sluice-boxes, mining implements, tent*, 
piovisiMit and cooking utenaili. All of thi* wa* contrary to the law, as the Alaska Code 
did not permit of a receivenhqi for penonal property. But this was a case like the incident 
of the man in jail who. when hi* friend said to him with mdignation over what he character- 
ized a* an outrage, "They can't put you in here!" replied "But they have got me in here, 
Aeverthetess. ' 

The court wat buiy teverat days granting injunctions and appointing recoven, and 
in a veiy short time Alexander McKenzie wat operating the most valuable claims on Anvil 
Creek. When he went to take potteiaion of die Anvil property owned by die Wild 
Goose Mining and Trading Company, and under the supervision of Mr. C. W. Price, he 
arrived at die cbum at midnight. The night ihift were just ready to partake of dieir mid- 
night meaL Mr. Pike was asleep. He wat awakened and notified of the order of the 
court, and the receiver and the officers accompanying him sat down to the board and ate 
Mr. Price's food as diou^ they were honored guests. Mr. I^ce was a law-abiding 
citizen. He obeyed the order of the court, left the camp and returned to Nome. 

The defendants in tbete catet were not idle. They were represented by the best 
countel in the North, and there were lome able attorney* in Nome. The principal defend- 
ant! were Lind^Wg and hit paitncrt. tubaequendy known at the Pioneer Mining Company, 
and the WM Goose Mining and Trading Company. Their counsel wa* WilHam H. 
Mel*on, Samuel Knight, Judge C. S. Johnson, Albert Fink and Kenneth M. Jackaon. 

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They endeavored to obuin *. q>eei}y heftiing in order to get the iniunction dtitolved, but 
there wu a deUjr cauied by Judge Noyet going to St. Michael to attend to the biuineii 
vrfiick he announced at the outaet raiul be done before he convened courL When a 
hearing wu finally obtained the court rehiaed to diaiolve the injunction, notwithitandiBg 
the condunve nature of the totimooy introduced on ^ehalf of the motioD. In the caae oi 
Chipp n. Lindcberg et al., it wu drawn, u heretofore laid, that the defendanb owned the 
property by virtue of purchaie from another jumper, ai well ai by hnt locatioD. About 
all the good that wai acconqtliahed by the defendant* in the firrt bout was an increaie of 
die amount of the receivei'i b(»d, but even with the increaie thii btmd wa« wrboUy inade- 

Failing in the eCort to diwolve the injunctioo, an application wai made for an appekt 
to the Circuit Court of Appeal* in San FranciKO. Judge Noyet ruled that thit wu not 
an appealable cate, and refuted to grant the prayer. By thii time, if they had not prev- 
iomly realiTed it, the defendant* *aw diat they were "up again*t*' a roott cxtraordinarr 
proceeding. The tummer aeaMKit at Nome are ihort and the twihght nigfati were growing 
dark when it became obviou* to the lawyen that their <mly redrc** mutt be obtained from 
the Circuit Court of Apptait in San Francitco. No bme muit be lott if the matter wu to 
be determined before the doae of the *ea«on. The aecauiy paper* were prepared ancft 
immediately detpatched to San FranciKO where they were preientcd to the appeUale court. 
Upon a hearing thii court imied a writ c^ nipertedeu. Thii order, u quickly u iteam 
and *ail cculd bring it to Nome, wu preaentcd to Judge Noyet, but he declined to enforce 
it. claiming that the appeUate court had taken the matter entkely out irf hit hand*. 

Thii wu the beginning of the critical part of thit famoui Etigation. Nervet were 
keyed to a high teniion. The people aMociated with theie ca*ei carried gnnt. Detectivea 
on both tida were vying the movemcntt of principnlt and attorney*. There wat lup- 
preiied excitement, and the wonder i* that thete day* pawed without blood*hed and riot. 
There can be no *troager tettimony of the law-abiding character of thi* camp and die 
ditpodtioD to avoid a conflict which mi^l have re*ulted very *eriou(ly, than the fact that 
the people *ufered. 

"The law* ddayt, 
"The inaolence of ofice." 
and patiently waited for justice, although they knew tliat it would not come from the court 
at Nome. 

When Judge Noyet wu atked to enforce the writ of the tuperior court, h" firtt took 
time to CDOtider, and conferred with the receiver. He tubeequentty announced dial the ' 
Circuit Court had taken the matter entirdy out nf hit hand*, and diat Mr. McKenxie could 
do u he pleated in regard to obeying the writ. The attorney* for the recover raited the 
quetlion that a writ of *uper*edeu did not destroy the tUtut quo. The contention of the 
defendants' countel wu that the writ had the efect of dittolving the injuiKtion and dit- 
charging the receiver, but without an order from the Diitrict Court, they could not enforce 
it At diit juncture a requett wu made of die military to enforce the writ of the Circuit 
Court. Maj. T. J. Van Orsdale wu in command at Nome. He addreated a letter to 
Judge Noyes, who replied that he would confer with Mr. MdCenzie and endeavor to find 
a tolution of the diftcuhiet which confronted them. The reaidt of the requett made ot 
Maj. Van Ortdale wu a conference held in the Major 'i oAce in the barracb. between die 
princq>alt and their attomeyt in thit case. At diis conference a conflict between William 
H. Metsoa, leading attorney for the Pioneer Mining Company, and Alexander McKenzie 
wu narrowly averted. After the arrival of the writ of supertedeu the defendant* had taken 

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foiciUe poMCMMo of Ducoveiy Claim ud thfre wai $8,000 or $10,000 in duil on the 
property which the recdver denundetL Maior Van Ondale declined to execute the writ* 
utd the defenduiti detcnnincd to hold the ground and pttvtnt the receiver from removing 
the diut. At tfaii cmifcrciicc MdCcnzie accuted Mr. Metion of ilealing die dwt. and laid: 

"You have kept me d^iping and I will fix you for it" 

Mr. MelMNi replied: 

"Turn her looee. right nowl" 

Both men aroae, but the proa^rt intervention of leveral peraou prevented trouble. 
Tlie incident over the dutt wai adjtuted Mtiifaclorily by the agreement of the defendants 
to place it in the cuitody of the military. 

When the conference ended Mr. Metaon ttepped outiide the door and Mr. McKenzie 
walked out beeidc him. The tension due to die incident diat had jutt occurred had not 
entirely relaxed. Mr. McKenzie laid to him, "WiH you go to my office with' me?" to 
which Mr. Metton auented. Theie two men who had come m near crowing twordt a 
few minutes before, held a long conference in the ofice of the "King Receiver." Thi* 
conference wai barren of reauhi. Mr. McKenzie talked compromiae and Mr. Metwn 
declined to meet him on any of theae groundi. 

Another incident of tfait conteat occurred in the Alaika Banking and Safe Depoail 
Building. Some time elapicd after the appointment of McKenzie aa receiver (or thii 
property before the defcndanti learned what di^Kwilion waa made of the gold dut taken 
from die mine*. John Brynteaon, one of die Pioneer Minmg Company, went to McKenzie 
and aaked die privilege of teeing the duat diat they mtghl have endence that it wai within 
the juriidicticm of the court. McKenzie took him' to a vault in the Alaaka Banking and 
Suh Depoait Con^iany and showed him the duiL There waa a large quantity of it aa the 
receiver extracted from the propertiea of die Pioneer Mining Company near $400,000 dur- 
ing hii management of thcac daimi. When the dwt had been located a guard wai placed 
over it Iqr the defandanta. A aoldier waa on duty at the bank all die time, but the guard* 
that were placed over the duit by the defcodanta were men wMi dwtguna and Winchealcr 
tile* in an upatain room in a building on die oppoaitc nde of the ttreet They had tn- 
iliuctiou to prevent anybody whmn they auqiected of bekwging to die McKenzie chn 
from taking poke* of gold cfaiat from the bank. While thit guard waa ovei die bank Mc- 
Kenzie and one of hit men went to the vauk and took out a poke. Several men rq>r^ 
aenting die defendants in theie caiea were appriied of McKenzie'i action and immediatelr 
entered the bank building. McKenzie waa told that he could not take the poke from the 
bank. He became greatly ezdted to much to diat he was not hicid in hit rcmarb. He 
declared that be waa an American citizen and demanded that the doon should be i^ened, 
diat he was restrained of hit liberty. The man diat was with him had the poke on hit 
shouUer. It proved to be dust extracted by the receiver of die Topkuk Claim. This 
did not interetl the pceople who were endeavoring to prevent them from taking dutt that 
might bekmg to die Pioneer Mining Company or die 'WAd Goose Mining and Trading 
Company. However, McKenzie did not lake the dust out <rf the bank on tfait occasion, 
and fortunately this critical situation wai patted widiout injury to anybody. 

This incideBt occurred just after the arrival of the vrrit from die Circuit Court of Ap- 
peab, and the extraofdinaiy tension waa due to the bet that -die defendants brBeved 
that die receiver wat trying to take die gdd dutt outside die juritdiction of die court 
There were other incidents in which there were critical situatiMH. C. D. Lane, die man- 
ager of die Wild Goote Mining and Trading Company, was cMwtructing a narrow-guage 

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railroad (rom Nome to Anvil Ciak. He wuted to take tome Uilragi from a n 

hk company owned, and whkh McKenzie wai working ai receiver, for lue in () 

the railroad. Meeting McKenzie on the ttrect near the po«toAce m Nome ooe day, he 

told him what he deured to do. McKenzie obiected and Mr. Lane, who it a i^ani- 

mannered man, in language more forcible than ornate, told the recover what he thought of 

him. Friendi of both Mr. Lane and the receiver were preient, and if trouble had (tailed 

tomebody would have been tcrioutly hurt. 

When it wai evident that neither Judge Noyes nor Alexander McKenae intended to 
obey the order of the appellate court, another long ocean voyage became Dcceuarr. Bjr ttiis 
dale the leaion wai growing late. The application tot appeal, which was denied by Judge 
Noyes. wai made Augu*t 15. It wai Sqitember M when United Statci Manhal Vaw- 
ter lerved the writ of tupenedeai on Judge Noyet. On Sqitember 1 7, Judge Noyei had 
not made any order in recognition of the writ of the tuperior court. On Scptonber 1 9 
\l^lliain H. Metion and Judge C. S. Johuon offered an affidavit to the court in which 
it wai dqMMed that the receiver had taken out of Diicovery Claim on Anvil Creek the mm 
of $130,000. Judge Noyet vm hearing a trial at the time. He permitted the intei^ 
ruption by the attonieyi long enough to hear the afidavii, and then directed the trial to pc^ 
ceed, taking no further notice of them. 

Another roenaiger wai on the high leai g>eeding to San FranciKO. Aaotber Ofder 
of the Circuit Court wat needed to secure iuitice in these case*. Ai the dote of navigMion 
at Nome it never later ttian November 1 , and more ohta from October 1 5 to Octoba 20, 
il became necemaiy to excrciie haite. The aecond writ from the Circuit Court arrived m 
due lime. It wat an order for the arreit of McKenzie for cootenqM. The Circok Cowt 
■est officers to serve the warrant and make the arretl. When they arrived Mr. McKenzie 
wat in the dining room of ti>e Golden Gate Hotel. Mr. Metson suggested that in order to 
prevent a scene, he should go mto the dining room and quietly inform McKenzie of the prca- 
ence of the oficen with the warrant for hit arrest McKenzie received ifae informatioii 
quielly and wat placed in cuitody. The gold dutt that he had taken from the properties 
wat itiD in hit poNetnon, and a demand wat made upon him for it He taid thai be 
didn't have the key to ihe lafe deposit vault where it was ttwed. and that the key was 
in the posseaiion of Diitricl Attorney Wood. The key was not produced, and the de- 
fendanU and their attorneys acyompanied by die oftcen and ttte manager of die bank, broke 
the lock of the deposit vauh, and obtained the dust. The tota! value of the toU durt 
extracted by McKenzie during his regime as receiver amomited to near $600,000. 

This was ttte end of the first round <^ the moat notable and notorious legal fi^t m 
Alaska. The tecood round wat fought before the Circuit Court of ^>peak b San Fraa- 
dtco. When McKenzie wat brou^t before the court and cited to ihow cause why he 
should not be punished for contenqit for refuting to obey the order of the court, he failed to 
purge hinueif of contempt, wat adjudged guilty and sentenced to one year's im prisonment 
in the Alameda County Jail. 

Judge Noyet subaequentiy received a notice to appear before the Circuit Court oS 
^>pealt. A conimiision wai appobted hy the court to hear testimony. This cemmis- 
don exercised a great deal of latitude b the testimony admitted, and listened to anything 
diat would dirow li^t on the case. It inquired bto the poitible motive that die District 
Court could have b refuting to obey the order of the hi^cr court II heard evidence of 
the general condition of affairs at Nome; made inquiry mto the method by which Judge 
Noyet received hit appointment, and obtamed all the factt of McKenzie's relation with 

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Judge Noyct and h» influence over him. The report of thic tectimony ii voluminoiu, die 
record of the proceeding! nwldng more than 2.000 printed pages. 

This report ii biieAy and ably •ummed up in an c^mioii rendered by Judge Gilbeit 
in paxing sentence on Noyet, ai folbwi: 

"Much of it tend* tttongly to •bow the exi$tence of a criminal conipiracy between 
(ome of the respondent*. McKenzie and other*, to uie the court and its processes for their 
private gain, and to unlawfully deprive the owners of the mine* who were in possession 
thereof, of their property, under the form* of law." 

The review of the teatimony conchides by saying: "The record and the evidence of the 
proceedings show from &i*t to lait iq>on the part of Judge Noyes, an aj^jarent disregard of 
the legal ri^t* of the defendant* in the cases in vs^ch McKenzie wa* I4>p^ted receiver. 
The procedings upon ^^ch die receiver was anwinted were extraordinary in the extreme. 
Immediately after hi* arrival at Nome in company with the man v^ it seems had gone 
to Nome br the expres* purpose of entering into the receivership business, and who boasted 
to odiers that he had secured the appointment of the judge and that he controlled the 
court and its officen, upon papers which had not as yet been filed, before the issuance 
of summon*, and before the execution of receiver'* bonds, without notice to the <)efeodanl*, 
widiout aJlording them an opportunity to be heard, Judge Noye* wrested from them their 
mining claim*, ot which tticy were in full poiMssion, the sole value of which con*i*led of the 
gold dust which they contained and which lay safely stored in die ground, and placed die 
claim* in die hand* of a receiver with instructions to mine and operate the same, and diis 
widiout any showing of an equitable nature to bdicate the necessity or propriety of the 
leceiveiship. or the necesnty for the operation of the mines by a receiver, in order to pro- 
tect die prt^Mity or to prevent its injury or waste. When the defendant* undeito<A to ^>- 
peal from die order*, their ri^t of appeal wa* denied them. The receiver so appomtcd wa* 
permitted to go on and mine these claims on an exiennve scale and extract from them their 
vahie. According to the testimony some of the mines were "gutted." The i4>potntmeot 
of die receiver wa*. in the case of Ch^ip* v*. Linddjerg, ahnost immediately followed by 
an order authorizing the receiver to take into his possesnon all the personal property of the 
defendants which was found upon the claim, including their store*, provi*ion*, tools and 
lent*. The order so made was so arlHtnuy and so unwarranted in law as to baffle die 
mind in its effort* to coii4>rehend bow it could have issued from a court of justice. That it 
was not inadvertent i* shown by the fact diat before maldng it. Judge Noyes was reminded 
that the suit bvohred the [dacer mining claim only, and by the further fact that the order 
wa* preceded by the threat to "tie tq>" ttie defendants and take away their property, and 
wa* followed three week* later by the deliberate executiMi of *iinilar wdett in the other four 
cases. The appointroent of the receiver in each case was m direct vk^tton of the Code of 
Alaska, under which the court was organized. 31 Stats.. 451, section 753, wliich provides 
a* follows: 

"A receiver may be ^ipointed in any civil action or |»oceeding. odier than an action 
ffff the recovery of specific personal property — First, provisionaily, before judgment oo tbp 
applicatkm of cilher party, when hi* ri^t to the property v^iich is the subject of the action 
or proceeding, and which is in die poweision of an advene party is probable, and the 
property or its rents or pn^t* are in danger of being W or materially injured or impaired.' 

"There ts evidence of other arbitrary and opprewive action of die court in McKcnzie's 
hror in case* in which he was receiver or wa* interested, notably, the case of the Topkuk 
mmc. It i* shown that two of the original locaton of that mining property went to Judge 
Noyes upon hi* arrival at Nome and complained of tfie action of certain trespassers, and 

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that be referred them to hit prtvak tecttUry, Wheekr. uying Am the Utter wu tbowt to 
rengn tit dBce ud take iqi the pncbcc of the law; that thqr Wfsl to Wheekr, and diat he 
prapoaed that if they would give him a one-half iMomt in the Bune, he wo«M aecure them 
the full poNemon of their property wilfain twenly-fbur bown; duU tbqr icfwed diii exothi- 
taiit demand, and after aome dJKUiiion were about to fngur tit ttmcn in cooadentioci 
of a one-eighth interest, yihta ncsotiatiofia were dropped for the reaion, it ia HHQriliil itt 
die evidence, diat MdCouie bad become totereited oo the olfaa ade. An action of 
etectment wai then cmnmenced by the pcnont whmn the k>caten complained of. and one 
Cameron wa« munediately appointed by the court receiver of the mining piq;>crty upon a 
bond <A $10,000. I-Ie proceeded to operate the mine upon an exienive acale, refuted 
to uae the machinery which the owncn had placed there at an cxpcnie of )6.000, and 
inatead rented machinery fiom McKcmzie at the rate of $50 per day aitd bought n^ipliea 
of him to the amount of $7,800. The ownen attempted to protect their intcteA. They 
challenged the MiAciency (rf the bmid and the ability of the luretiet to ropood. but widiout 
avail. They ^tempted to watch dte ciean-ivt, but their right to be preKnt wa* dented 
by the receiver. They applied to the court for relief, but the only relief they could obtain 
wai an order that one of their number, who wai dengnated by name, be permitted to be 
preeent at each dean-i^ umuhaneoudy wtfa one of the plaintifc The evidence ii that n 
conaiderable portion of the time the plaintifi dechned to be preMnt. and thereupon the 
receiver denied the right of the deaignated defendant to be preiaiL When the defendants 
BnaHy eataUithcd their title to the property by die verdict of a jury, and the recetver wns ' 
diicharged. hii accounU showed that he had taken out of die mine $30,000. while his 
^itprmn wen largely in exccM of that amount. The owners contoided that he had takes 
from the mine more than $200,000. Upon a reference of die rcceivci's accounts to a 
referee appointed by Judge Noyes, it was found that the receiver had taken frmn die 
mkie $100,000. and diat his expenses were no more than $35,000. The evidence shows 
that neither the receiver nor hb boodimen have any property which can be found to apply 
upon this large deficit of $65,000. All dtete matters were properl y shown to diis court 
upon these proceedings, to threw light upon die transaction, to show the animus of Judge 
Noyet in those cases and to aid the court to mtcfprel the nature of hit conduct in tbe matters 
upon which contempt ii charged." 

The sentence in^Msed upon Judge Noyes was that he pay a fine of $ 1 ,000. He 
escaped the stigma of a jail sentence "in view of the fact that be holds a pidilic efice." 
District Attorney Wood wu found guilty of contempt and sentenced to four months isn- 
prisonment in the county jail of Alameda County, Caltforaia. C. S. A. Frost, the special 
agent from the department of justice, who, soon after his arrival in Nome became the ns- 
nitant district attorney and later Judge Noyes' private secretary, and who ipent Government 
money hiring detectives to gather testknony in these cases, was also found guilty of con- 
tempt of court and sentenced to inqirisonment for twehv moodis in the coun^ jaiL Judge 
Ross in his concurrnig opinion says: 

"I am erf the opinion that the evidence and records in the case show beyond any 
reasonable doubt that the drcumttancca under which, and die purpose for ^t^iicfa each of 
those persons committed the contempt alleged and so found, were far graver than is indi* 
cated in tbe opinion of the court, and diat the punidiment awarded by the court is whoQy 
inadequate to the gravity of the oCcnses. I think the records in evidence show very cleaHy 
that the contempb of Judge Noyes and Frost were comnutled in pursuance of a comgit 
cMispiracy with Alexander McKcnzie and with odiers, not bcifme the court and therefore 
not necessary to be named, l^ which the property involved in the suits mentioned in the 

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opinion, among other propertiei, were to be unlawfully taken, under the (ornu of law from 
the po>*c«ion of those engaged in mining them, and the properties diereof appropriated by 
the contpiraton. For thex shocking olfenscs it is apparent that no punishmoit that can be 
lawhiily imposed in a contempt proceeding is adequate. But a reasonable punishment may 
be here imposed, and I am of the opinion that in the case of the reqiondenl Ardiur H. 
Noyei, a sentence of imprisonment in the county jail for eighteen months should be im- 

Judge Morrow concurred in die opmion of Judge Gilbert, which became the opinioD 
of the court 

The effect on the country of this maladministration of the law was baleful. Here 
^vas a new region, rich in the ptomise of gold, and capital was needed to build ditches 
and construct railroads, to install improved mining machinery and do the "dead work" 
that must be done before mining claims are put ia a condition to produce gold. But 
there is nodiing that frightens capital more easily than uncertainty of tides. Capital with- 
drew from Nome, and the bankers In Nome dcchned to make loans on mining pnqxrty. 
Many mine owners would not attempt the development of their properties, fearing diat 
if Aey found rich pay on adverse claimant woukJ tie up their claims and burden them 
with law suits. With capital, that might have sought bvestments in the countiy, 
frightened away; widi d>e money in Nome locked t^ and declining, on account of 
insecure titles, to assist in the development of the country; with mine ownen afraid 
to proq>ect claims, lest a valuable discovery InvtJve diem 1 a law suit — under Uiese 
conditions it is obvious that serious injury was done to tne Nome gold belds. The 
develc^ment of the country was retarded at least tvro years. But confidence has been 
restored, and the 6eld of industrial endeavor is now the scene of enterprise and activity. 

While these extraordinary court proceedings slowed the wheels of progress, they 
did not inflict a permanent iniury on the country. Tliere has been a delay in providing 
the best facilities for the developmesit of this region, and in this delay lies the only 
miury that has been done the country. Had the District Court recognized the fact that 
die gravel deposits of this region were the best receiver for all claims in litigation, the 
injury done to mine owners by his regime would not have been more than the injur>' 
done to the country. 


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Wreck of Iha 8k«okuin. 

Wrackas« at Mouth of Boak* River. 

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The Story of Nome 

Th« Big •Wm •aptombar 19— OM^gatM talaetMl to Oo to W ■•h I nflton— Nome's 
•ooond Wlntai^-BrHkinfl Up a Oang of M«l«f«ctor« tacond Attempt at Inoor- 
paratlon •ucoaiaful — Opaning of Navigation and Raaumptlon of MInlnfl Oparatlotio— 
Judga WIektraham Oaalgnatad to Tamporarlly tuooaad Judga Nayoa — Hia EfTaetlvo 
Wor k taoond Muniolpal lloetlon— Arrival of Judga Alfrad 8. Moora— Tha ttoiy 
of Noma from 1902 Until 1909. 


N the early part of the nunmcr of 1 900 the weather vraa warm and dry. There was 
not a feature of the dmate luneative of the hi^ latitude of the Nome count]?. The 
lack of rain wa« a detrimait to mining opcratioD*. The tundra became to dry that one 
could walk from the tea to the foot-hillt widiout itcpping from tuMock to tuaiock to 
avoid the twamp and mire. The (un ■hining all day Uled the air widi a aumnMr heat 
and the vfljrant atmoaphere carried one back to <Mte'i acboolbosr dayi wfaoi in the vcmf 
time one fek ifae ezubcranl ioy of Ufe ■whiie lying in the new gran of the meadowa aad 
watching the '^■■^■■g air. fWty w3d flowen decked the Arctic moor; there woe 
young duck* in die nqaeatered poob of the tundra, and the ptaitnigaa led their ihy 
iHoodi afield over hiU and plam. The weather was ideal, and the people woodetad 
if thit were a Mnple of the Northland lumnMn. 

But if the tmuner wai icrette and beautiful the autumn wai the other eilieaw. 
The rami fell ahnotf comtanlly, aod leveral furiow alormt nnpt Beting Sea. The WMtt 
of thete itiHmi began on September 1 1 . Thii wai the aevereat and moat dim tro ui 
■torm in the hittory of Nome. The wind from the aoulhcait blew a hmpcat out <rf 
■uUen tkica, and for two dayi piled the waten of Bering Sea higji on the beach. The 
wave* broke over ifae Sand^Mt, hoildingi b Nome on the wala front were demoMie d . 
himdredi of ton of coal, ptoviwo w and general *upplie* were fwatkiwed by the tea, 
and Tcweb unable to ride out the storm dragged their anchor* into the wrf wboe they 
were pounded to piece*. Snake River, (wollen by the flood, ovoflvwed il« banb. and 
cabin* on the waten' edge were nnpt into the itream. The moat notable of the vew tl i 
that came aahore wa* the %Dokum. an imroen«c barge that had been contlrocted in 
Seattle, loaded with a va*t miKdIancout cargo and lowed to Nome. The wreck of the 
Skookum fuBidied fud to many of the reiideoU of Nome during the (oHowing winler. 
The damage done by tfaii itorm ha* bees — *i™»*«^ at thrceKiuarter* trf a railfion dolan. 
It tau^t the people « leaion, and showed them die imnunent danger of the tea. If the 
wind had coatinwed blow i ng from the tame quarter twen^-four hour* longer most of the 
town would have been washed away. At the cKmax of the storm the waves washed 
Front Street. 

Drift-wood ii piled on the beadi at the tundra-edge, and is to be found in streams 
where the devatioo is greater than the townitte of Nome, indicating that at some lime 
Bcnig Sea has been storm-awcpt until the waters have been forced to an devatioo dukt 
woidd now wg>e Nome ot the face of the earth. The natives tell a story of a storm 
whidi pnbably occoned m ihe early part of die last century. This storm destroyed 

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levoal of their vilUget. It occuned «t the bcginiung of the cold weather. The wata 
that flooded their igbo* froze, and the honei of the nalivei wbk thereby rendered 
munhalntable. A great many EtkinM periihed from bang finced out bto the Bclemoit 
weather with iuufidtBt food and clothing. 

Before the clow of navigation the citizni* of Noom took ttepi to have lome kiod 
of a rcpreMntatton in Waihington. The town wai rent in twain by the two fa ct jona, 
one rcpreienting the minen and the people, and the odier rcpreaenting the federal ofice 
holden. A general (eehng exirted diat Alaika needed an improvement b her lawa, 
and the object of tending repr ea e n tativet of the judicial di*tiict to Waihington wa* to 
secure, if potdble. the needed legiilation. A mau meeting wat convened for the par' 
pcMc of chooting three delegatei. and a itraggle encued over the lelection. The citizem 
oppoied to the federal regime uiumfAed and elected Dr. El. M. fUningcr. George 
Knight and C^^tain G. B. Baldwin ai delegate> to Waihington. The Chamber of 
Commerce met, and appointed George Murphy u the repre ie ntativc of that civic boclr 
to go to Waihingtm and work for the hot inlererti of NorthweMem Alaska. To dkCM 
gentlemen, and particulady to Mr. Murphy, i* due die credit of leveral changes in dw 
Alaska Code, which have been he^>ful to Alaska. Among diese amendments are the 
foUowing meaniret: The estabbfhment of a life-saving station in Nome; giving miimo> 
ipabties the right to use for mumcq>al purpoaes dte federal licenses collected widiin A» 
incoiporale bmiti of the city. An attempt wai made to secure a revision <^ the mining 
laws, but diis wat unsuccessful. Originally the Alaska Code provided for the col- 
lectioD of licenses from every class of business conducted in Alaska. The licenae tax 
on saloOTis was $1,500 a year. The aggregate of the Mfral license money ctJIected 
in the second judicial divisicm in 1 900 was near $ 1 00,000. All of this vast sum taken 
from the people as a tax on the commerce of the camp was converted into the federal 
treasury. The first amencfanenl — secured largely through the etforts of Mr. Murphy — 
provided that one-half of the license money m the muntcipabties be set aside for the 
maintenance of public schools b the town, A subsequent amendment gave all die 
license money to the municipality to be used for municipal and school purposes. A 
still later amendment provides that the federal license money collected m Ala^ oirtMde 
of the bcorporated towns shall be used Ua building roads b Alaska. 

The citizens of Alaska have prote».ed against what diQr deem dte injustice (rf dna 
license lax. They claimed that it was in conflict with the provision of the ConstitutioB 
which says that all federal taxes and imposts m the various slates and terri t oties of the 
United ^tes shall be uniform. They claimed thai as Alaska was the only part of 
the United States that wat burdened writh this federal tax there was an unjust and 
illegal ditcrimination against them. But the court of highest resort decided that Alaska 
is neither state nor territory, but a provbce of the United Stales, and a country 
v^ere the Constitution does not follow the flat;. I^nce ^e citizens of the district mint 
be burdened with diis lax it u a recogiulion, allhougji tardy, of their righu and equities, 
that the money they pay the United Stales for the privilege of ccmductbg business in 
Alaska shall be expended b the district for the betterment of the country. 

Prior to the last sailing of steamers from Nome thu fall the Men] officers heU > 
rodeo, and "cul out" a lot of bad and undesirable people and tranqMxted tkem lo dsc 
stale*. There was anxiety b the town over the large number of indigents who, unlcaa 
the Government furnished d>em with transportaticn, would be breed to remab b Nome 
and become a burden to ihe citizens who would have to provide for their support. 

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h reqxme to a requot from Nome the Govemmait wot a tniuport lo uke honu those 
who were unable to pay their (are on the regular tieamen. Notwithstanding the de- 
pottabon of the Urger part of the criminal etemcnt there were enough diireputBUet left 
in the town to menace locicty during the winter. Frequent robberies and an occasional 
liold-up convinced the federal officer* ^t the bad characten had organized and were 
lyftemalically working their nehrious profeuion. Detective A. J. Cody was called to 
consult with the federal officials over the situation. He told ^ manhal and the judge 
and the district attorney that if he were given carte blanche he would promise to 
Iweak up the gang. He requested ^t warrants be issued whenever he required them, 
and that when he had a pnoaa m jail that vrrit of habeas corpus be denied or delayed 
until such time as he could perfect the evidence needed to secure convictioii. His yntk 
was effective, and vrhen navigation opened in the Following spring fourteen convicts were 
sent lo the penitaitiaiy at McNeil's Island, 

The vtinter of t900-'0l was exceptionally severe. The snow-fall was heavy, and 
furious storms were frequent. The worst Utzzard that ever swept over Nome occuifwi 
on January 19. A few hours after it began ttte air was filled wnth a cloud of snow. 
People got lost while crossing the street, and belated travelers from the hills found the 
town <mty by taking thcsr bearings from the direction from which ifae wind was blowing 
and liolding a steady course. Some <^ the experiences in this blizzard were thriOmg. 
Travelen were frecjuently blown from their feet, and they reached camp only by the moet 
heroic endeavor. Fortunately there were only a few serious results from this blinding 

Most of the population were people in a new envirODment They never had been 
accustomed to ttie blizzard, and while an eSort had been made to make cabins snug and 
dry, a great ntany persons suffered frosn the rigor of the cfimate. Fud sold at a high 
price. Many trf the dealers in commodities regarded other people's necessity as Am 
opportunity. At one lime the price of coal was $100 the ton. Odier supplies of which 
there was a reported scardfy commanded price* that i^aced them beyond die reach of the 
poorer people of ihe cMMap. An organization was formed, composed ttf the best people of 
the town, having for Its object the care of the needy, and a great deal of beitevoleot woifc 
was done in Nome during diis winter. 

The court calendar wu crowded and the court wwfced incessantly. The avil 
business that required adjudicaticHi was voluminous, aixl a large number of criminal cases 
were heard and determined. Judge Arthur H. Noyes may deserve all the condemna- 
tion to be found in the record of the injunction and recetver cases in the summer of 1900, 
but his faithful and effidenl wwk m the succeeding winter is to his credit and in mitiga< 
tion of the diarge* against him. 

A call was issued for another election for a vole on incorporation. This election wa* 
hdd April 9, 1901, and resulted in favor of incorporation by a vote of 695 to 168. 
The first municipal oficcn of the incoiporated town of Nome were as foDow*: Conn- 
dknen, G. L. Rickaid. W. E. Geiger, J. B. Harris, J. F. Giese. S. H. Stevens. Jr.. W. 
H. McPhee and Chas. E. Hoxsie. The council organized by electing Mr. GicK presi- 
dent and ex-oScio mayor, and ^^xitnled the foHowing city officials: B. J. Mc^mk. 
dty clerk; George L. pMh, treasurer: John L. Thornton, dty attorney; R. J. Watsoo. 
asMMor: Dr. S. J. CaD, heahh officer^ J. J. JoDey, chief of police. The school board 
selected at this dectkm was composed of Dr. J. J. Chambers, Miner Brace and Cofa 
Beaton. The council provided die d^ with a splendid fire department, equipped *fMi 
mtfdem fire ^iparatus. streets were planked, and the work done during ifae year of ihw 

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Rgiine entuled an eipeve of $90,000. TIk ia«nov«nMnli made wen nlnbfe, bat 
ibii GotnicO left the dly loufed with a debt from wfaidi it it notiret unbardencd. Al tUi 
poiod it wu beBeved that Nome't dcvetopiiKnt would be more rapid than it hat beta. 
The number of people tliat aimed ia the coimHy in the ipnig of 1901 wat nodi 
tmaller than anticipated, and the ravcnuet were much kit than the calcuIalioBa which 
fonned the baiit <rf the eapoHlilunt. 

There wai a late teatoB in 1901. "Winter Imgcrcd in the lap of vcing." The 
heavy HKiwfalk of the previoui winter did not <ntirely disappear until late in the cummcf. 
July 4 1 travded over a inow-baok on the tbore of Sahnon Lake. Thit bank of now wai 
fifteen feet deep and a mile lang. Ice on Betini Sea did not part from itt Aon iKt3 
June 4, and the ice in Snake River did not break votil June 16. 

The early part of thii tummer wat cold and niiqr. Swuhioe wat infrequent, and 
while the cotiditioni were hvorable for maitac operationt, work in the cold rain wat veqr 
ditagreeable. Ditappomtmeatt of the previout year had done the country an iniiny. To 
repair tfaii injury required lime and tlie patient, penittcnl wwk of the people who knew 
tomething about the mneral proqwctt and reKHircct of the penintula. 

Frank H. Richard*, a former State Senator of Wathingtaii. wai appmnled as the 
nicceitoT of United Slate* Marthal Vawter. He arrived at Noom in the early part of 
thia (ummer, and took charge of the ofice. 

The diitrict wa* now provided with civil law. Alaika had a code and hdeial 
<^ccrt to execute iL Nome wat incorporated, artd had duly elected oAcert to make 
and execute the lawi of the nuucipality. EaHy in the aeaion tiM Judge of the Dirtrict 
Court of the Second Judicial Divitioo irf Alatka wat dted to tppear before the appcikle 
court of San Francitco. and purge himaelf of contonpt in failing to ober the writ of the 
higher court la obedience to the inttructioBi of the Attoraey General, Judge James 
Wckertham of the Third Judicial Divitian of Alatka came to Nome to hold a term 
of court The great length of time '■™'""»*^ in hearing the tettimooy in the coatoqpt 
proccedingt bef<ve the Grcuit Court of Appeah of San Francitco con^dled Judge 
M^ckerdiam to occig>y the bench of the Second Judicial DiritioB until the following 
tummer. Hit work wat characterized by the mamfeitation of unntnal energy and great 
executive abilify. He rapidly unraveled the tanglet which hia prcdecetmr had left, arx) 
brought to an imte and determination a great amount of legal bunnai. 

One of the firtt thingi he did wat to empanel a grartd artd petit jury in Nome mkI 
lake them together with the court ofidak to Dutch Harbor to by a murder caie. The 
rcaton for empaneling the jurort in Nome wa* ihe inabiti^ to tecure juron al Dutch 
Harbor. The population of dtit wcU-lmown Alatkan itation wat not large enou^ Id 
fumith the rcquitite nundxr of qualiBed citizen lo tit i^ion a pny. Fred Hardy wat the 
man accuied of committing the murder. He killed Con aitd Roeoey SuKvaa on Unimak 
bland June 7. Hardy wat convicted and lentenced to be hanged. He wat brou^t to 
Nome and confined in the federal jail, and on September 19. 1902. the icntence was 
duly executed. He wat the firtt man hanged by dK edict of a court of law in ibe 
Dirtrid of Alatka. 

The general appearance of Nome underwent a great change ihit year. The iruuB 
Mreet of (he town wat planked, sdewab were conttructed in the retidence part of the 
town, ditchei were dug, provid in g better dramage. and tboutandt ol cubic yardi of gravel 
were uted to fill t«i nnsflbtly mwOiolet. The gold product of the penintula thit tummer 
wat $4,542,168, and the dote of navigation found the camp in a better con<Gtion from 

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"Implores the PeiBlns Tribute of i 


nuuy pnnti of view than it ever had been. Several notable buiineo enteipn*et had 
beta inaugimted in ihe peninniU. On November 6 of thit year Mr. A. E. Boyd began 
die building of a long diitance telej^ne line from Nome to Council City. During the 
I»eviout year T. T. Lane had eatabliikcd a telq>hone lyrtcm m the town of Nome, and 
die Moonlight Water Company had conttructed a conduit from Moonligjit Spring! 
to Nome. ThcM water work* nippKed the city with pure water, and in quantity adequate 
for domettic ute and &re purpoae. The lum- 
mer of 1901 witnetted the beginning of ditch 
conctruction for the puipoie of providing 
water for mining b tiut part of Alaika. The 
Miocene Ditch Company constructed teveral 
milet of ditch during thit (ea*on, and used 
dte water for nicce»ful hydraulic minmg on 
Snow Gukh. I conuder this die beginning 
<rf the moat important enterprise in the country. 
The building of ditcbet that wiD furnish 
water for mining OTrration* will hasten the 
develofMnent of Seward Peninsula more rap- 
idly than anytfaiug ebe. 

The succeeding winter was cnnparatively uneventful. In April. 1902, die aecond 
municqwl election was held, resulting in the selection of die follow^ officers: Council- 
men: Wittiam Tiemey. A. L. Valentine, W. E. Gieger. W. B. Goodrich. Sam Arcber, 
J. D. Jourdes and S. H. Stevens, Jr. The council organized by selecting Mr. Valentiiie 
for mayor, and appomted the following officials: City clerk, T. D. Cathd; treasurer, 
C G. Cowden; city attorney. Volney T. Hoggatt; assessor, Thoa. While; heaUi 
officer. I>. Tiedentann: chief of 6re dq>artnient. Captain G. B. Baldwin. The 
school directm selected were Dr. S. J. Call L. L. Sawyer and H. O. Butler. 

There baa been a qiirited c«itert in every municipal eledicHi hek) in Nome. These 
eleclioiis occur near the doae of the kmg winter and fumidi diveitisenieni hx many citizena 
wbo have been "cribl)ed. cabined and confined" until inaction make* than welcome 
aiQifaing they can do with zest to overcome the ennui which is a natural concomitant of 
hibernation m Nome. During the wrinter the gregarious characteristic of the human animal 
to herd in cliques is noticeaUe, and before firing there i* often a lot of unnecessary iU- 
feeting engendered, and the social atirwqihere of the town b turgid with jealousy. The 
municipal elections are a vent for this obnoxious atmos^ere. preserving the heahfa and 
peace of the community until the opening of navigation and the resumption of industrial 
work give the people something to think about beside* the aAur* of dieir nei^bon. 

The ice OR the sea parted from the shore May 27, The first steamers brought 
large cargoes of siqiplies and materia! for building of the Council City and Solomon River 
Railroad, and die work of ctmstructing this line was immediately begun. J. Warren 
Dickson was the promoter <rf this (Btaprise. The money was furnished by New YoHi 
capitalists. On July 14, 1902. Judge Alfred S. Moore arrived in Nome. He came 
bom Beaver. Pa., and had been appointed to succeed Ardiur H. Noyes as Judge of the 
Second Judicial Division of Alaska. He was accompanied by Geo. V. Borchaenius, 
who had bees selected as clerk of the court Mr. Borchaenius was the first clerk for the 
Nome District Court, but as he was not in sympathy widi the court in the famous in- 
iunctioB proceedings that terminated in the contempt cases before the Circuit Court of 

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Appeab, hn migiution h«l been accqvted in 1901, aod H. C Sted, one of the owmen 
of Um Nome Newt, hnd been appointed lo (be ponboo. When Judge Moore aMumed 
the dutici oi office Mr. Borduenhn reniined die work he had begun under Noote's &nt 
dittnct judge. Another new federal atficUl in the pcnon of Cokutel MeKin Grigibjr. 
appointed to lucceed Mr. Wood at diatikt attonejr, arrived in Nome tfaii Muan. The 
feding thai oirted toward the former federal officers wai replaced with a lentiinefil 
of feficitation over the telectioo of new men. 

The product of the mina thii mmcki wai greater than in any previow year, and 
thoe wai every nidication that Nome had entered upon an era of pro^terity and uib' 
■tantial FwogieM. The injury done the country by the great stanyede of 1 900 bad beeo 
partiaSy repaired by the development work of the nicceeding waKtm. Capital diat had 
timidly kept away becaoie of the uncertainty of tklei renilting from methods of die 
firrt federal judge of the District Court, wai encouraged to leek invettmenb in the None 
oountiy. People who had lived b the country incc the q>ring of 1900, or earliei, 
became belter utii&ed with the proq>ect <d Seward Penimula'a minetal wealth. Serend 
ditch cnterpriw* were begun this leaaon, and improved machinery for mming wai «*''rt**^ 
to Nome. Rcporti from the United Slatei anay oAcei indicated that the gold outpal 
from the penimula tfaii year wai $5,100,000, and in all probability the product was 
more than thk. Minmg opt adona wtfe conducted late in the fall, ai winter did aot 
arrive until later than unial. ' lie hut steamer to leave Nome tfaii leaMMi wai the Corwi^ 
She sailed November 1 2, the laleri sailing date of any tteamer from this port She nusiit 
have left several dqrs later as he sea was not frozen imtil the latter part of the month. 

There are two V'-iy bu r timet in the calendar of Nome — one is the dale of ifie 
arrival of the lint sleriners, aL I the other is the date oS the departure of the lait vetaeb. 
At thete tmtet the town ii a iccr" of great activity. The itreeti are filled with people, 
and the recently over-worked word "strenuous" detcribet the general conditions that 
prevail at thcae times. The iticnptioa of one wtnter in Nome is a fkaciiptioa of all 
of them. A large part of the population is on the wailing list, and with not much work 
to do there » plenty of animation in social life. However, during the winter of 1 902-*03 
a great _deal of work was done in the winter dig^ngs. The discovoy <d rich gravel 
depoaits deep beneath the surface had made it powUe to profilahly mine during the winter. 
In the vidnitT of Nome there wai considerable groimd that could be better pro^iected 
in the winter time than in summer. This prospe ctip g was done by the aid of tfaawert 
in HnkiDg ihrou^ the frozen earth. The discovery of ancient channels beneath the frott 
crust furnished miners with an opportunity to engage in drift mining, and to pile 19 dump*, 
from which the precioui metal was washed when the snow melted and furnished water 
tor sluicing. 

At this early date Nome was a city poasesttng many conveniences and puUic utSities. 
An electric b^t plant had been established, there were three churches in the town, a modem 
weD-equippcd pd>lic school bouse, telephone and meis^ger service, and mercantile houses 
that kept m stock aO the necessaries ot life and many of the luxuries lo be had in the centers 
of civilization. 

At die municipal election held in April. 1903, John Ruttgard. Chas. E. Hoxsie. W. 
J. Rowe. Dr. Ed. E. Ha 3. H. Stevens, Jr., Jack Galvn and W. H. Bard were 
elected as ir-mbers of the common council. H. E. Shields was elected to the office of 
municipal magi^ate. This office had been created by an amendment to the Alaska 
Code. The council organized by sdecting John Rustgard as mayor and appointed R. T. 

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r,R K, M. I{I.\inl;;:r 




Chonut, city clerk, anewor and lax collector; C. C Cowdea. treauurer; Noble Walluig- 
lord, chief of police; Ju. W. Bel!, city attorney; Geo. Chapcnan, chief of fire departmeal. 
and Dr. Ed. E. HilL health oAcei. Late in th« leatoit Mayor Riutgard went to the 
Statei. and the council idecled W. H. Bard to fill the chair of the pretiding dBcer and 
ditcharge tbe dutiet of Mayor of Nome. 

In 1903 ihe mineral pnductioa of Seward Penimula had a value of $4,465,617 
Of thii Mun $28,000 wai nKrer, Hie leaion'i mining ^>erat>oni demonttralMl more 
conclwivdy dian ever die Mcevity o( clitchei for mining purpoMt, with the icnilt 
thai a great many ditch cnterpriw> were planned. The succeeding winter found Nome 
a community compoaed of people who had been acclimated, and who had grown m> 
familiar with their environment that they liked the conditioni that lurrounded them. It 
wa* a staid community possessing neither more nor less virtues than many towns of 
simitar size m the well settled parts <rf the United States. 

During this year the council inaugurated several things for the betterment of 
the city and the improvement of conditions, notable among them the buiUing of a City 
Hall, the construction of a bridge acro« Dry Creek, the acquisition of a conetcfy, and - 
the prdminary arrangements for the securing of a patent to die tovmsite. This last 
mentioned work was delegated to P. J. Cotton, a prominent lawyer of Nome, wboae 
former coiuection with the Land Department of the United States, general kno¥riedge 
of the matter in hand and recognized ability, qualified him for the work he had to do. 

CoL Mclvin Grigsby vacated the oAce of U. S. District Attorney and Henry M. 
Hoyt <rf San Francisco was appointed as his successor. Mr. Hoyt brought to the 
oiiice high tcstimimiab of honesty and other neces»ry qualifications to discharge hit 
duties accqitably to the petqile of Nome. 

Tbe municipal election b A^, 1904, resulted in the sdectim of the foDowing 
counoknen: H. P. King. J. S. Coply. E. G. Will John Brannen, David Gilchrist, 
S. H. Stevens, Jr., and William Huson. Mr. King was elected mayw, and the foUoW' 
ing persons were selected to fill the appointive offices: A. McGettigan. city clerk; 
Charles Jewitt, chief of police; C. G. Cowden, city treasurer; George Schofield, city 
attorney. The school board was con^wsed of A. H. Moore, L. L. Sawyer, and Captain 
Storey. C D. Murane was elected to the office of municqial iudgc. 

In 1905 the council chosen by die people was J. S. Coply, H. P. King. S. H. 
Stevens Jr.. Andy Anderson. W. S. McCray. E. a WiU and W. R MiBeman. 
Mr. Coply was elected to the office of mayor. The city clerk, chief of police and 
city attorney were reappointed. C. B. Todd was elected as the custodian of the city 
funds, and Dr. Sloane was appointed health officer. Under a new amendmcsit of the 
Alaska Code the council i^ipointed tbe municipal judge. Mr. MuraiK received this 
appmotiueat. The school trustees elected were: Major BaUwin, J. W. Wri|^ and S. 
T. Jefreyi. Miss Kittie Cordon was a candidate for school trustee and poQecI a large 
vote, birt did not obtain eiMMigh ballots to secure die election. 

Tbe aeasmi of 1905 opened very auspiciously for die Nome Country. The ifxing 
clean-up of the winter dumps was much larger than it ever had been. The product of 
the winter diggings was near $3,000,000 — three time* the production of any previous 
vnnter. This increase was due to tbe wonderful production of the minn of Lkde 
Creek and vicinity. 

These discoveries are dw greatest ever made in Alaska; they eclipse the 
fabulous richness of the greatest bonanzas m the Klondike region. Gnvd was found 

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from which $1,200 wu waihed (ram m nngle p«i. Thit wu not a picked pan, but if 
it had been carefully (elected from ttw richcit ipott on bedrock the luin of (3,000. poa- 
■ibly $3,000 mi^l have been obtained. Tbe work of coMtructinK not Icm diao ooe 
hundred milei of ditcbei wat begun tfaii leaMn ; and there n every reaton to bdiera 
ttiat the gold production of the peninsula will be greater thit year dkan ever before. 

Benda poMCMing modem public utilitiei, Nome ii a town with educational, rcKgioui 
and (ocial advantage*. The equipment of tbe pubBc icbook it excellent, three churches 
miniiter to the ipiritual need* of the commuoi^, and numeroui fraternal ordert have lodges 
or dvhu in Nome. A description of thete intlitutiont may be found in Part II of thit 


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Part II 


Preface to Part II 

The nuteiial in Put [I of tlw book was prepared hr a 
Popular E^tioD. The object d thit edition it to impart 
infonnatioD about the couotiy'* nuuveloui mineral leaources. 
Twenty thouund copiei of thit edition have been printed. 

If the read^ of thi* volume find in the foUowinf pages 
any repetition of diought exprested in the chapten devoted 
to histoiy, he will know that the repetitioa b due to an ef- 
fort of the author to make the Popular Edition at compre- 
heniive ai q>ace would permit. Thii explanation teemed 
neceMsry on account of frequent reference to historical facta 
which I have endeavored to fully cover in the | 

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Wonderland of Wealth 

Ollmpae of C«mni«rclsl ind Scenic Almcka— Ssward Ptnlniula, lu Ar«a and OstMral 
Phyalcal P«atwrea— Description of the Seasons In Northwestern Alaska— A Winter 
In Nems. 

ALASKA » a wonderlanil of wealth. It it an immenM depoeitoTy <A vak.aUe 
and [H«cioui minerak. In restikled areat there are agncultural pc n a b iK tiw . 
Trees, principally ^>ruce and not the best ui die world for making limber. 
forest a thousand valleys and as many mountain spun. Some day these forests 
may have a commercial value. Millions have been made out i^ die fur mdusby of diis 
country. Sncc the days at Russian traders, not long after dte discovery of this land bjr 
Vitus Bering 164 yean ago, the fur industiy has been pursued and has yidded huge 
profits. The many riven of this vast region, and the blets, bays and seas, w^iich 
make the coast line 26.500 miles long, bounding this territoiy on the west and north, teem 
widi fish. Abeady die salmon fisheries (^ Ala^ are die most inqwitant in die world, and 
die thousands of square miles of cod banb in Bering Sea and die North Pacific Ocean are 
unczploited and ahnost unknown. The whaling industry in die waten that lave the 
shores of Alaska has produced a revenue of more than $100,000,000. 

But the principal commercial value of Alaska is in its minerals. Gold has been 
found in extensive areas in every natural sub-division of Alaska, from Juneau to Kolzebue 
Sound, from the Canadian boundary line to the sea. There are devel^ied gold mines in 
the Cook Inlet country and the region of the Oqiper River. On the easterly skipe of die 
McKinley Range diere is a mineralized zone comprising more than 30,000 square miles. 
which includes (he now famous diggings of the Tanana. The water-sheds of the )Cuiko> 
kwim comprise a vast and comparatively unexplored region, known to contain gold, sihrer, 
co|q>er, lead and cinnabar. In the valley of the Yukon are the mining camps of Eagle. 
Circle and Ranqiart North of the Yukon is the Nc»ne country and die Koyukuk dig^ngs, 
and beyond this region is ihc Arctic slope where gold has been found in many of die 
streams, from Good Hope River to the Colville, and where minen are now working rich 
claims in ground dial has been frozen for ages. 

Besides the placer gold of Alaska there b gold in ledges. In Northwestern Alaska 
there is tin in commercial quantities, and a proqiect of the most productive and profitable 
tin mines in the world. The minerals in Alaska which have an economic value, and which 
exist in commercial quantities, arc gold, silver, copper, lead, cinnabar, tin, coal and petrt^ 
leum. Alaska has beds of bituminous coal of die best quali^ ever found in the West, show- 
ing assays of seventy-nme per cent carbon. There are many other minerals in die couatry, 
among them graphite, mica and bismuth, which some day may have a commercial value. 






And in addition to all these ii the probability of diicovenng loine of the rarei and very 
valuable nuBcnb and precioui (toae*. 

Thk is a glin^Me of commercia] AU*ka, but there b another Alaska. It it a countiy 
of nagnificent area and gorgeous sceseiy. The native name it AMa-at-ka, "the great 
ceuBtij." Thii Alaika conlaint an area of 591,000 tqnare milei and has a coast Kne 
scaler than tbe drcumference of the earth. It reaches Arough twenty-one degrees of lati' 
tilde, and in extreme width cooqwiics Gfty-^ur degrees of longitude. The meridian pass- 
Bg through Nome lies more than 300 miles to the wettwmrd of tbe Sandwich Islands. The 
eKtrame width of Alaska it as great as the distance between Savannah and Los Angeles, 
and tbe extremes ct latitude represent the distance between Mexico and Canada. 
In Ihit great extent of Alaskan territaKy are many natural scenes both of beauty and 
^aadeur. Tbe gtacien of Southeastern Alaska are the largest in the world. Coaq>ar«l 
with these great ice riven the gjaciers of Europe are as insignificant at the fire that GuSvar 
extingiudMd in the Palace of UlipuL Majestic Mt. McKinley, its summit capped widi 
eteraal snows and rising to an altitude <rf more dian 20.000 feet, b tbe hi^est mountain 
OB tbe North American continent The president of the United States GeognpUcd 
Sooely. reoognizng tbe value of Alaska from a commercial pomt of view, hat said diat 
die inincqw] asset of this wonderful country it its scenery. A more definite idea of (he 
vast extent of this Northland may be obtained from corapariK». Alaska it larger tban the 
combined areat of Cafifomia, Nevada, Arizona. Oregon and Washington; and today there 
arc leas than 50,000 white inhabitantt m this big country. 

Alaska is a paradis e for sportsmen, b that great and at yet unexplored country south 
of tbe Yukon, particularly at die head-wateis of the Kusk^wim, and near the base of Mt. 
McKmky, are many kinds of game. Here may be found a q>ecies of dte gfiuly bear at 
large and ferocious as those diat iiJiabited the wild West of the United States fihy years 
afo: here are herds of mountain dieep; bands of caribou diat number hundreds; the moose. 
Iba most stately game of the wilderness; grouse in Socks of thousands; rabbits, including the 
arctic bare which grows to dw size of a imafl Iamb; and fiih in every stream. Then it alto 
a great variety ^ fur-bearing animab. many wolves and foxes. The principal variety of 
fidi mdigenout to die ttreamt of Northern Alaska is grmyling, a gamey fiifa that furnishes rare 
sport for the angjer and a delicacy for tbe table. 

Such it Alaika, but an attempt at a minute description of die country, itt features. 
reMMirces and gotenJ conditions, necessitates a division of the t'"'*if area. The fentwes 
aad rsaources of this big, new country are too diverse for description in one itory. There 
an some parts of the country dtat are widiout aDuring scenic featuros; tbcfe may be parts 
that are barren of resources. In a terriliKy so large as diit dme b afanost every phase of 

The divition of Alaska which it b the province of thb vohmie to diKuis, b not noted 
for ill natural scesery; but diere b compensation for die lack oi diat which pkaaes die eye 
in tbe imm e n se minetal weakh diat bes hiddoi in the frozen ground; and dib suggests the 
pwtcst nnpedimcnt to the devekipaienl of the larger part of Alaska. The climate b not 
favorable. The winten arc long and cold. In Northwestern Alaska die mow covers the 
ground seven months t^ die year, and aldiough die nm ibmes afanost cootmuoutly in dib 
high latitude durmg die thort tummer he b unable to extract die frost of ages which has 
p«t a bck. hard to open, <hi the gold in die grey oM hilb of thb region. No one should 
think diat becaute thb country contains prabaUy die greatett minetal wealth aS any limflar 

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PhOtOKraph by B. B. Dobba. 

Uade In Assay Offlce Alaska Banklnc and 8af« Deposit Cn. 

aru OR the earth that thit wealth can be had without hard labor, infinite pain* and the tur- 
mounling of diAcuh obctackt. In a countty where the leaion of active work doet not com- 
prite mofe lluu) one hundred dayt in the year >t ii apparent that development of the retowcei 
mivt be (low. If man't ingenuity and inventive geniui could overconie the winter condi- 
lioai to be found near the Arctic circle thi* country would be a veritable cornucopia of 
gold. But the impediment* King Kro*t ha* rul in the way of the miner neceiiitatei a greater 
amount of labor to extract valuable mberal*; and the *low development will make thit 
country valuable at a time in the remote future vihtn it* mineral depo*iu would have been 
worked out had they been more favorably Mtuated. 

The Nome country comprices Seward Peniiuula, but there it a large conliguou* terri' 
toty which may be diicus«cd under the topic that form* the caption of thi* book. Seward 
Penintula i* ihaped like a great flint arrowhead, the point at Cape Prince of Walet, the neck 
being the portage between Norton Sound and Kotzebue Sound, a dtatance of about levcnty- 
6ve mile*. The penintula ha* an area of 22,700 iquare mile* and in extent it about one- 
eil^th of that part of Alatka north of the Yukon river. 

An idea of the topography of the country canitot he conveyed in any general term. 
To a penoD who vioti Nome and leei for the firtl lime from the deck of a tteamer the 
Nome country, there it very little in the penpective that po*te*MS feature or color. He tee* 
a moM-covered plain called tundra, from three to four mile* wide, extending back from die 

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•ea to the low, roiind-to(q>ed hilk; beyond Inex monotonout hilb. which «re without tree 
or ihrub, it « range of mountaiiu tome thirty milet ditttuit. Thete mounUuiu have the 
native name of Kigluaik. but to the protpectwi they are the Sawtooth Mouotaint. Thii 
name luggettt their ragged appearance, the ihaip outlinet being granite peaki. Ml 
Oiboiiie. the hi^ietl peak on the petiiniula, it in thit teriea, and bat an altitude of 4.700 
feel. Northeait of the Sawtooth range are the Bendeleben Mountaint; trending in a notth- 
eriy direction from Norton Bay are the Daiby Mountaint, and north of Port Clarence are 
the York Mountaint; but none of thete give l!ie country a nigged appearance. A great 
many ttrcami of water, lome of them called riven, have their tourcet in the higher ahitudei 
and flow through the narrow valleyt m the hilli to the tea. Near their tourcet tome of thete 
riven have a rapid detcent, making rapidt, but at they approach the low landt they 
become thiggith and flow tlowly through great gathet which they have cut in the tundri. 

The water-thedt of the penintula are many, and itreamt flow toward all poinit of the 
compati. An area ht>m Golovin Bay northward to Cape Prince oF Walet. a dittance of 
200 milet and having a width of from thirty to fifty milet, draiiu into Bering Sea. Anodtcr 
large area, compriiing what it known as the Council City region, it drained by the Foh 
River and ttt tributariet into Cjolovm Bay. Several riven How into Norton Sound. Tlte 
Arctic ilope of the penintula tendi ill waten into Kotzebue Sound and tl.e Arctic Oceuu 
Water counet are numerout in a country i^ere tummer raint are heavy and for leveral 
ntontht almoit conitant; and where the winter tnowt cover the ground to a depth of ftota 

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tout fMl to ten feet. accnmuktiBg in caayoo drifu to a ilepth of from fifty feet to one hoa- 
dred feet, there mint be raaay ttreum for dninage. 

I have noted the gtoeniiy bald and deiolate appearance of the countiy. but in the 
Noitoa Bajr region there ii a laite area covered with q>nice tknber. Br procfaunatiOD of 
Prendent McKinley tfaii timber land has been converted into a forett reierve. Councfl Ci^ 
ii in a timber countiy. Council City is eighly odd mile* inland from Nome. In the nStyt 
of (event of the principal itreanu on the Arctic slope there it timber, notably oa the Kewalik 
•ad the KobuL Thii timber k moitiy qiruce, and treei attain to the sizo of fourteen or 
(ixtecn inches in diameter. There ti some cottcmwood and tcnoe aldeT. Every water goutm 
of any importance in Northwestern Alaska b fringed with wiBows, in sodk places grovrini 
to a hdght of et^t feet or ten feet and a diameter of from four inches to six inches. But 
the willow growth is usually stunted, occurring most often in dense duckets. These willows 
furnish the only fuel, for prospectors and miners hi away ftom base of suppHea, to be had 


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never oitiTely diiappeen until late n June. From tlie lint of Mey until tbe middle of 
AugiMt the dayli^t it conlinuout. At None b die AaiteA day the nm it hidden lew 
than three houn, but it lo near the horizon the land it flooded with a lofl li^t lo that one 
can tee to read ordinaiy prinL Thii continiiout dayli^t leug th eii i the ordinary working 
tenon, at there it no cettatton of work cauted by nisht- At the mina the K-jm of machJnwy 
never ceatet. The early part of the tumtner icaioa it uiually clear and dry, and the Utter 
part filled widi ttomu and abnott conttant rain. I have not mentioocd tpHng time as, fudg- 
ing by the nuial tigni, there it no tuch period of the year in Northwetlem AUika. We 
have but two teatmu, a thoit tunvner and a long winter. A more beautiful and nhibriout 
cbnate could not be deiired than the wdinary early tummcr at Nome; nor could one easly 


imagine a more tempettuout climate than the latter part of tome of the luroracrt which have 
been experienced in tbii region. 

Evidencet of the approach of winter are teen late in September, tometimei in the 
latter part of August. The hnt frottt change the hue of the landscape. In October ice 
fbnni on the ttreamt. a patting cloud bringt a tnow-tquall. nunen begin to have difficulty 
with frozen water in their sluice-boxes, and by the fifteenth or twentieth of this mCMith 
mining operationt are pretty generally su^>ended. The mow after thit uiually oMnem 
to lUy; nights are cold and the days growing shorter, to that tbe tun does not have an 
opportunity oi undoing the work that King Froit doe* during the night. The waterc 
vS Beting Sea become mushy hom partial congeab'ion, and great floet, which are formed 
farther north and have been detached by windt and currents, float down the sea m front 

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o( Nome. They ntmy attach thcuMeKcs to the thwe to be broken again by wind and waves 
and fkwt away. Before thit occun, however, the Uit (te&mer ha* oiled from Nome, the 
imall craft have been brought bto dte mouth of Snake River to their winter qu.irten. and 
niuneroui lighters, lued for trantferring freight and pMtcngen from iteamen to the land, 
have been brought to the ^re and beached. The roacbtead, in which there were tteamen 
all Hunmer long and which dtuing ihit time wu a icene of great activity, ii deserted. On 
a morning usually in November, but sometimes as late as December, the inhabitants of 
Nome awaken and look out from their homes over the tea of ice. Winter has begun b 
earnest and the conununity realizes that for the next seven months it is sequestered, isolated. 

Photocraph by B. B. Dobbs. 

PbotOKrmph Tsken a.t Uldnlsht In June. 

and shut of from the baUoce <^ the world by banien of ice and snow. From this time 
until the tee goes out, their only meuw of communication with the outside world aie dof 
teum and the telegraph. Thanks to r.«p>«m Wildmau, of the United States Signal Corpa. 
last winter Nome for the 6nl time was in direct idegraphic communicatioD with the states. 
This coounuiiicatioa was established by the winless system between St Michael and Pori 
Safety, a distance of 100 m^es. Two winters prior to last winter the telegraph Ime wras 
completed akmg the Yukon, and Nome f e fidtaled itidf in having a telegraph staliaii, 
Unalaklcet, only 240 sniles distant. 

Wh3e the wintss in the Nome coimtty are long and oM ibey are not so serve •• 
one would imagine. In a few yean a person becomes acclimated and all dread of the coU 

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At Nome dw tbcnnMnetcr wmctanci fdk to fortj Jeinti bekiw zoo. b- 
ImkI. • ditUiicc of iiftjr iiiScs or more, ike thenMMcter ikopi mnch lower, taaelBei incfi- 
c rtto g Bllj^i||iit o e ycct cc M&ty below zero* Tam teespentuR ■ oioimbie by AooptB^ 
die Bttne dicH of fur puka and wing fek Aott, at iniHii^. die native tkin boot, taA pfo- 
tectinc die tiMKk widi fur mKbam. Pcof^ tnvd fnoi one put of die pcakMib to maeAm. 
CemmcTce between die cup* of the iiiiibiiJi ii n ln m i t e d onljr by bfizzutk. It it wliea 

niuMratlnK tba "Awful DuIcimm of tba Arctic Nlcht" 

die wiod blow> thai there it danici on die trail Between Nome and Council Ci^ hot-wr 
ftagcs run pretty regularly, die fchedule being interrupted oaly wbcn die blizzard blows. A 
low temperature doei not cauK great inconvenience to the man «dio ii properly clothed, if 
die air be Milt, but die cutting blact of die Uizzard in zero weather cannot be widnlood lor 
any great length of time. BKzzarib am of frequent occurrtace. and diey ofkn come md- 
denly with Kttle or no warning. The men viho have loit their livei in die bHzzaidi of Norlb- 
wwtcm Alaika generally were peof^ vdio did not underMand the lore of die land or eJw 
eicfdMd poor judgment in atten^ling to travd at a pciiloni time. Since die Mtdcmcnt of 
die country and die cstabblunent of road-bowcs along die traiW the danger of freezmg ii 
MM eerMNM. A thaw in midwinter iddoM ocan. The nuner prcpue* a cacbt for im 
menti and inch itmca ai wSI not be iivured by freezmg, as the Nottfaland it winter ii a 
voy mccesiful cold itorage plant 

At there ii almost omtinuoui day b June lo there ■ almost continuoui night in De> 
csnbcr. In the ihoitett day the tun de tcr Jies an arc m the sondtcm heavens of about ea»- 

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eighth of hit circle. He ricei in the louth ud leti in the louth, and it lo (u away that 
tiicK i* icarcely a trace o( coronal rayi. He locJu like a big diik of buraiihed gold, ana 
hk ray* fiimith a weak bgjit but no pcTccpt3>le heat. Id the winter there i* an abience 
of akiKMt all color except white, lave in the moniinei and cveninsi. Before tunnie and at 
MittMl frequently the louthern tkiei are flooded with the moat gorgcom coloti. If one hai 
not (een a (unriie ot a tumet in high latituda one cannot imagine the inteniity of the colon. 
and it it utelcM to attempt to dcKribe them. With die exception of tliese colw interludet 
the pcr^>ective in every direction, landward or teaward, it an unbroken white. The white 
level tundra reachet back to the white hilk. the white hiD> to the white mountains, and over 
all "That inverted Bowl they call the Skf" it gray and cold. 

At Nome a winter day tee* a city partially covered with *now. Smoke from a thou»- 
and chimney* curl* through the cnp air. A door of a itore or a laloon it opened and ttw 
warm air ruihbg from the interior <^ the building make* a fog at it ruahe* out The water 
vendor*, *ome of them (till using the primitive coak>il-can a* a receptacle for the wata vdiich 
they have taken from hole* made throu^ the ice of the river, may be leoi driving thor froit- 


covered team* through the ttreett. Men with dog team* are icurrying akmg the traik, up or 
down the beach oi acroM the tundn. Out oo the ice of Bcimg Sea may be teen a dozen 
or a hundred (tthermen faidifuUy bobbing throua^ hole* in the ice for tomced. 

Ai there i* but little work to do during the winto- feaaon d>cre i* pleaty of time for the 
•ocial ainenitici cf life, and the rettdenta of Nome devote a great deal <^ time to locial en- 

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loUmments. Dancet, tocidi. 
fain, amateur theatricali, ami 
evoything and anything that w9 
rebeve die lediuin of the lonf 
winter niiJiU receive a UMial 
diare of attention. Nor it there 
a lack of out<loor q>oTti, the prin- 
cq>al of which i* iloing. Nome 
hai a fid chib. and toumamenls 
are held during the winter whea 
prize* are awarded both for 
jumping and q)eed. Indeed, bnv- 
ebng with aki it a favorite method 
of going from town to the creeka 
at acroM country to neighboring 
camp*. It it an blereriing picture 
lo tee a man on iki labtHmii^ 
atccndiDg a hill until he gain the 
lummit, from where to ibe baae. 
with tid pole between hit lega n 
a brake, he tkimt down the white 
detcent like a bird, die tki pok 
cutting the mow into minute par- 
ticle* and making a feathery trail behind him. Slei^iing behind dog team* u a favorite, 
beakhful. and invignvtiBg recreation. Ladies tnugly wrapped b their fun, liltiag in a 
■led bdiind a team of hu*kie(. the driver running behind, holding on to the handlebus. 
jumping OD the runner* and riding whenever it ii convenient, i* a very common lig^ at Nome. 
The petite in Nome live comfcxtably durmg the winter, having made provition for 
the long cold ipell through which they know they have to go. Many retidencet aitd tbon 
buildingt are provided with heaten, or baaebumcr itove* in which anthracite coal b burned. 
Even thoM who Bve in cabint are utually "inug ai a bug m a rug." No hankfaip nor in- 
convenience it experienced in thit north country during the winter by people ytito do not 
liave occanon to travel, The hcakhfuheai of the country it one of it* marked features. 


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Dig'iizcd by VjOO 





Mtcrobet c«n live in ice, but dunng theii hibernation they are innocuoui. Docton lay that 
wouncU ol any character quickly heal by int iatention, and that it it an excelletti locality in 
which to perform turgical operations. While the extreme cold of the winter ii very low 
temperature it must not be inferred that all the weather ii of thi< character. There are many 
dayi when the thermomet« it above zero, but a winter thaw it bfrequent. 

B^re die clow of navigation all tu^liet neceuaiy for the winter use are shipped in 
and stored. In Nome there are great yards filled with coal to that there never it any danger 
of a ^rtage of fuel. ProvisiMU of every land are kept in stock by the merchants, so that 
the retidenU of Nome have plenty to eat and of good quality. We are ihort on green ttuff, 
but a hot-bouse on the Sandtpit acrow the liver from Nome it a recent innovation, and fresh 

Pholoaraph by B. B. Dobbt. 

Two MllM Of 90UA lea Batwaen Noro« and Opan Watar oa Berloa Saa. 

vegeUblet are enjoyed by those who can pay the prke. A cucumber flower hat been tolJ 
ivT one dollar, and the purchaser took his chances of the flowo' developing mto a cucumber. 
Eggs at the approach of ^>ring are mellowed with age, and better fit for a reception of a 
bad actor than for domestic use. Many gastronomically fastidious people kite their appe- 
tites for cold storage meats late in the teascm, and everybody it surfeited with canned goods 
before the arrival of the first vessel in the spring. But considering the environments and coa- 
ditions Nome people live well and cnioy thesnadves in the winter. 

When the soaton of spring approaches, the season when grass greens the fields and 
the hill slopes b a temperate zone, when orchardt bloom, and tbe robin sings, and flowers 
bhuh by the wayside, the people of Nome begin to look forward anziously and longingly 
tar tbe arrival of the first steamer. The tun hat patwd the vernal equinoz, aitd the longer 
bri^t days are malong a percq>tible efect iqxin tbe vride r'p'i'f of snow-covered earth. 



The wn b begmnbg to un- 
lock the icy (etten of die 
itnuBa. and the iMi^tnen 
that &lk the days it m dazzUng 
diat Ktow bliadneM it an aiP 
mcnt which mint be guarded 
agaoMt White ii itill Ihe only 
color in the penpective. There 
hai Bol been enou^ heat to 
mek the now le at to reveal 
a bare ipot of earth. The 
now birdi, the first feathered 
incMcnger* of the warm tea- 
na, have not yet returned. 
Nor ha* there been tea ai yet 
a Dorthen fti^t of water fowl 
wfaicfa a few week> later will 

b. Cpic^H. . kw mik. ■"*= "=' QOIETI-V rl^ATS AWAT." 

■oudi of town and jut above where the wavet and tides, atsiited by the warm day*, are 
bieakiag up ihe ice of the tea. 

After the now ha* partially melted, and the streami are running in torrent*, the ice 
on the sea break* from the shore and quietly floats away. During some bri^t day, or in 
the dimmer light of the night, early in June a keen-eyed Eskimo raises the ihout, "Oomiak- 
pukf'whichiihii language for steamboat. Bellt ring, whittki blow.and cverybody,Do matter 
what the hour may be, rushes out and seek* a poution where the honzMi of the sea can be 
tcaaned. The anrval <rf the first steamer in Nome every spring is an incident tA great 
moment It mark* the clo*e of a long period of isolation and the beginning of renewed in- 
dustria) activity. 


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The L^nd of PAy 

Dwcrlptlon of the Mining Dirtrlcte, Nome, Council, Keugarek, Port Clar«nee and Fair- 
havan — The Kobuk Ragion and the Far North Country— Th« Country Adjacant to 
Norton tound — The Noma Baach — The Kuakokwlm, • Contlgueua and Comparatlvoly 
Unknown Ragion* 

. RIOR to the diKOveiy of gold Seward PcnintuU wmi a bancn dcaoUle regioo, 
inhabited by a few white men who were either traden or miwininfiri, and nalm 
ttibe* that Gved in villagea. The gold diKovety whidi proclaimed to ^k wotld a 
new (irike wai made oo Anvil Cre^ in September, 189ft. Thicc pnMpecton, 
Jtht Liodiberg, Eiik O. Lindblom and John BiynteMui. were the fortmate mn who 
OMide the diKovety. G. W. Price wu rctuining from the Kotzebue country, then havinf 
been a atampede to that region in thii year. He had come down to St Michael for A» 
pmpote of invcMigating a report of gold proq>ectt ia ihe Golovin Bay cowliy. At Mi. 
Pike wat a practicat mining man the lecrct of the great itrike wai in^Mrted to htm. and 
bii co-operation waa toHcited in order that the property diacovered mi^t be properly itaked 
and the diriricl organized according to law. The proapecton returned to Ac (cene of the 
strike, and although the leaion wa* growing late, die ground freezing and now faHing, they 
MKceedcd in a few dayt in panniBg and rocking out under advene cenditioBi gold dwl 
vnhied at $1,800. No atten^il wu made to wwfc the ground during the wiilcr «f 
"98 and '99. The following qwing a great many people came down die Yukon from Dtw- 
•OB. and many who had heard of the itrike and were annou* to be eaijy on ibe ground, 
came by tteamert from the dates. The work that wu accompbhed in the teaaon of 1 899 
bf the crucle method of liuice-boze* and ihpveEng ihowed unmittakably that the diKoreqr 
wii a bonanza. During the lummcr of '99 gold was ditcovcred in the beach and thii 
Aike waa unquettionably the greateat poor-man'i diggings ever found. 

The output of this season cauMd a great stampede in 1900, and 15,000 people 
woe kitded at Nome within a fortnighL The teats of a while dty sprung up Bke mml^ 
rooms, but unbrtuitately for the country most of these people were not miners, and many el 
them never could be ninen. They brou^t with dtem every coocctvaUe device of im- 
practicable mining machinery, and dtey failed. Their tale of wroe was a serious detriment to 
die development of the country. Nome received the rcputatioo of being a faihae as a 
minmg camp. But notwithstanding all the knocb it iccctved, horn people who were to 
blune instead of the country, llteie has been a itendy progress in the developoNnt of tins 
region. Tboae who are best qualified to know beKeve diat Seward Peninsula m ifae granl- 

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ttt and mcMt valuable area of gold placen in the world. There are valuet abo m quartz. 
and there may be tin enough in thii country to can the earth. 

Tha Nome District 

The Nome DiitHct ii that area lying between the wetterly WBter-«hed of Golovin Bay 
and the caiterfy water-shed of Port Clarence Bay, and extending nordierly to the Sawtooth 
Mountain!. It embracet the wonderfully rich diggings on Anvil Creek, Dexter Creek, Dry 
Creek, Glacier Creek and Snow Gulch, which have yielded millioiii of dollan. The fonaa- 
tion of thii country it v, ii known at mica-ichiit The goU i> found b the bedi of ftreama 
where it hai been concentrated for age*. It ii alto found m ancient channeh which are 
known u bench digginBi, and it k found ahnotl everywhere in lexer' quantities in the tundia 
and (cattered through the hillt. 

Anvil Creek ha> been the grestett producer of all the ttreanu of thii lection. The yield 
from Anvil Creek hai been more than $6,000,000. Nor it thit ttream by any means worked 
out. No one can look bto the ground and tay how much gold remaint there, nor will the 

Photoxrapb br B. B. Dobbs. 

Property at O'Sulllvan and WLIkena. 

total vahiet in thb batin be determined until all the benches are wathed dovn and the tail- 
ittfi from the workingt in the stream are re-waihed. Every yew oew diKOVeiies are being 
made in the benches on the left limit of Anvil CredL Three old channek have been found 
which carry gold in large quantitiet. It ii not safe for a writer to assume the role of prophet. 

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ThiB Stream Has TIetdrd More Than 1e,ch)0,D00 of Gold. 

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hrom a oca m gou ana icaneruig uie precioui 
minetal all around it Late in die teawn of 
1904 Mr. J. C. Bniwn, proipecting a tniall 
itreani, called "Little Creek,*' and properly named, near the louthwedeni baie of Anvil 
Mountp-n. dncovered the richest ipot of placer that ha* ever been found in the penintuU. 
Pant of gravel from bedrock yielded from $150 to $180 the pan. and die product of Am 
mine for winter of 1 904-'05 b eitimaled at $ 1 .000.000. A diowand mben and proa- 
pectors had wralked over thii ground, lome of them repeatedly, and had never contidered it 
of Mificient value to wrarrant the linking of a bole. It ii a part of the timdra and it an 
evidence of what may be found by people who dig in aome unlikely looking place*. 

Since the ttrilce on Little Creek the Pioneer Mining Company hat struck it rich in tbe 
Portland Bench, a piece of (undra ground a thort dittance *outhea*t of Little Creek. Ad- 
vicei received this winter from Nome by Mr. Lindcberg, president of the company, in- 
dicate phenomenally rich diggingt. Mr. Stevenaon, the manager during the winter of the 
F%>neer Company, writes that three pans of gravel taken from bedrock yielded respective 
2.5 ounces. 4.80 ounces and 8.10 ounce* of goM. On February 27, 1904, the aittdant 
manager panned two pan*, one jnelding hx ounces and the other ten ounce* of gold. The 
moit valuable pan of gravel taken from this mine contained gold of the value of $ 1 ,200. 

Tliese strikes are not far from Cooper Gulch, Holyoke and Saturday Creeks where 
valuable diggings have been worked since 1900. Bourbon Creek is another itream that 
hai its source in this vicinity and at the bate of Anvil Mountain, and it contains pay. Diy 
Creek ha* its aource on the eatteriy side of Anvil Mountain and both the stream and its 

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beocbei have shown tome very vaiuabte mines. Just acrou the divide, going north (rom 
die head of Dry Creek, is Dexter Creek, having its source at the northeasterly baie of Anvil 
Mountain, and thit is one of the rich creek* of the peninsula. Dexter Creek flowt in an 
opposite direction to the course of Anvil Creek, and between the head waters of the two 
itreams there it a ridge several hundred feet high and a mile or more across. In this ridge, 
or bench, are the famous deep diggings of the Nome country, the Snow Flake and Sugar 
claims and others, which have produced many thousands of dollars. In these claims ibe pay 
has beoi found at a greater depth than 100 feet below the surface. It will be seen from 
this description that a complete circuit of Anvil Mountain has been made. 

A mining expert of large e^>erience and 
recognized ability told me that be bdieved he 
could stand on Anvil Mountain and that within 
the range of his vision there lay an area of min- 
eral land containing more placer gold values than 
any other similar area in the vrorld. Between 
Nome River and Snake River the distance is not 
more than six miles and from Nome to Glacier Ae 
distance is about nine miles. The cotmtiy 
within these boundaries may not be the richest 
*pci in Northwestern Alaska, but the quantity 
of gcdd that will come from thb area wiU be 
ANVIL ROCK. ^^il^ [ ^„ ^^^ the manuscrvt of this 

book the news comes from Nome of a great strike in the timdra within the city Kmtts. An 
old beach hne was discovered several seasons ago in the tuodra east of Nome, and profitable 
mining has been done in this locality. The old beach was located first at Hastings Creek 
seven miles east of Nome, and vahies have been taken out of this ground in qwts from Pehik 
Creek in the outskirts of the town to the place of the first discovery. Part of the town of 
Nome is built upon a depont of beach sand carrying good value*. Trades people who have 
excavated for cellars have washed up their dumps, and got more than enou^ gold out of 
ifaero to pay for the excavating. 

West of Nome arc Cripple River and Sinuk River. While no very rich deposits 
have as yet been found on these streams there is a wide area of vdiat is called low grade 
ground. What more thorough and systematic prospecting may uncover remains to be seen. 
It is known that there are evidences in this region of a very large ancient vraler couiae. 
There are great gaps in the mountains filled with gravel and in the most likely looking places 
prospectors never have sunk to bedrock. Hydraulic operations are planned for this part 
of the country, some ditches have been constructed and others are under way. The known 
values are sufficient to make operations on a Urge scale by hydraulic methods profitable. 
Among the notable features of this part of the country is a vast gravel depotil known as 
Irish Hill. The finest grade of gold ever found in Seward Peninsula has been taken from this 
hilL The question that confronts the miner of this particular part of the Nome country is 
the need of capital to build flitches and utilize the water in such a way that large quan- 
tities of gravd may be woriced at a low cost. There remains the possibility during such 
operations of uncovering ancient channels where the gravels have been concentrated so as to 
make the deposit very rich. 

East of the Nome river are a number of streams that cany gold, but like the country 

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oi the Sinub aitd Crif^le Riven, tlw vahio in the gravd neccMiUle the use of hydraulic 
or other iraproved inethodi of mining. The tqtpcr Nome River tnd the tqtpcr Snake River 
counlrie* have been the fcene of tome mining ever lince the hnt difcovery. Rock Creek, i 
tributary of the Snake River north of GUcier Creek, ha* produced comidcrable gold. 
Boulder Creek and iti tribularie*, flowing bto Snake River from the wett, have been mined. 
In fact rood of the rcgioo drained by Snake River and Nome River contabi valuei in gold 
that hydraulic or improved machinery methods may extract at a probL Thii fact is recog- 
nized by the corporation* which are actively at work coiutructing dilcbe* m thb part of 
tlie country. 

Thirty-five mile* eait of N<Hne it the Solomon River. Thii stream it thirty mile* long 
Bowing through a narrow valley in the hilli, which broadem at it approacbet the tundia, aad 

PhotoBraph by B. B. Dobbi. 

Opcratlona of (he Miocene Ditch Co. 

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Diglizcd by VjOt./^t'y^^^ 



Photoxrapb by I 

dirou^ [qui or five mile* of tundra before it deboucbet into Bering Sen. Tbc town* of 
Solomon and Dickioii are on either tide of Solomon River at iti mouth. Dickion it the 
■eaboaid terminal of the Council City and Solomon River Raihroad. Before leaving Alatka, 
and late in the reaaon of 1 904, I viiited thii part of the penintula, and wa> turprited at the 
extcnnve preparation* bnng made fcHr nuning on a large *cale. Three large ditchec were 
partiafljr coDtlrocted, hydraufic Efb were intfalled and in operation, and from the moudl of 
Solomon River to Eait Fork, a diitancc erf lixtecn milet, active mining operationi were 
under way. The pay-itreak in Solomon River ii broad and m placet it very rich. That 
which imprctied me mott here at ebewfacre was the extent of the gravelt in i^^iich gold it 
found. A dredger had been tuccettfuUy operated in the itream, pay had been found in die 

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benchet, c-id the brond B*t valley through which div itrewn Aow> after leaving the fbol- 
hilb coouint gold. 

Some of the tr^utariei of Solomon River are itreami of coniiderable importmiice. 
notably Shovel Creek, where leveral minci are in opcratioD. I believe that gold bu been 
bund IB every tributary of Solomon River fram the mouth tA the itream to Elait Foriu aw] 
when the ditchet planned for thii lection of the country are completed, when the dr cJgua 
in proccM of conitiuction are initalled, and the hyflraulic elevaton are in operatioa, the out' 
put will be u turpriiing to many roident* of llw part of the NoithUnd ai it wifl be pleaa- 
ing (o the cn(erpri«ing citizen* who are now invoting many thousand* of dollan in ditches 
and improved mining machinery to be u>ed in thit region. 

The railroad from Dick*on up the Solomon River and acroM to Council City, cob- 

Fhotoaraph by B. B. Dobbi. 

Or«v«l Bank, Flume and Ditch of Topkuk Dllch t 

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•tnided aad in opcntton u hx u EmU Fo^ lut teuon, will accdenle the d»- 
vtlcfKoml of diii put of the peaimuU. SoloraoD » already a thriving Iowd, third in nzc 
Wkd nrqiortaBce of the towns of Seward Pcnintuk, and Dicboo i* a thrivnig village where 
die lukoad hai its headquarten and ib ibopa. The esteni of mining operatimii in ihii 
aectioii it indicated bjr die vofume of boHDCN which it ii necewary to tnniact to inainUin 
towna or baaet of nqiplia at large at Solomon and Dickion. 

Some notable diacovcnet of quartz veint have been made in the Solomon River region. 
Homdi Quartz mine dropinng twenty ttampi and yidding a nice monthly revenue to iti 
owner, it on hiurrah Creek one of the tributariet of Solomon River. There are odier quartz 
|»«ipecti in thii vidni^ that look very encouraging. A deKriptian of thli quartz mine and 
of other protpectt wiH be found under the captioD of "Quartz" on other pages of ihit volume. 


Soulheatterly from dte Soloawa River country, • dittance of about twenty milei, ii 
the hmont Topkuk region in which it Damek Creek, one of the richeit ttreami in North- 
wertcm Alaika. The fonnalion here poai ew ei the peculiarity of an imrocste bani of gravel 
in a imcalooe bedbock. Very rich beacJi diggingt were found here in 1900. thioi«h 
which Danieb Creek lowt. The itream it very diort not being more than a mile k 
Uaglh, but the vahia that arc found in iheae graveb are rcmariuibly rich. A ditch hai 
been OMatmclMl bnoginf water from KotcheUok twenty-two milet dirtani to thete minet, 
and Intt aeaton wat the beg i nn i ng of operatiow in ihtt locality by hydraulic mdtodt. Ba- 

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tween the Topkuk regioa uid Solomoa River are leveral itreunt in which gold hu been 

From Bhif at the moirth of Danidt Creek to Sinuk River the ditUnce ii nnelf-Cvi 
mila, Nome being fori; mile* eait of Smvk and fiftjr-five mile* wert of Bhif . I hare nolad 
that the water-ilied of thii area extend* back from the coast about thirty mile*, and tnm 
the detcriptiont I have endeavored to give it will be aeen that a verr large area of ifaii tit' 
ritory ccmtains valuable depont* of gold placets. Neariy all of (hi* 3,000 iquare mile* ot 
man u mineralized and much of it will be wo^ed. Tlie gnmdchildren of the pn*cnt 
generation may own valuable mine* in ihit lectim of Seward Peniuula. 

Tho*. Reed it the United Sutei G>mmiMioDer and Recorder of the Nome DirtricL 
The recording office ii at Nome. 

TK« Co»a«ll DIstriol 

The Council City country hai the dit- 
tJnctioD of being the pioneer mining di*- 
t^ia of Seward Penimula. Cold waa 
firtt diKOvered here by Daniel P. Libby. 
Louii Mdnng. Hany L Blake and 
A. P. MordaunL The Council Di»- 
trict wai organized before the ttrike wa* 
made on Anvil. Mr. Libby wai a 
member of the Wettcm Union Tele- 
gtaph Company 'i expedition in Alaika 
in 1 666-'67 at the time when diat com- 
pany WM attwi^tting to construct a 
telegraph ime acro« Alaska to be con- 
nected by cable acroM Bering Sea with 
a Sabcrian line. The completion of die 
Atlantic cable and its success earned the 

company to abandon the work after Photocrapb by a B. Dobba. 
$3,000,000 had been expended. Mr. the sphinx of ophir crbbk. 

LS>by spent dte winter of '66 and '67 at Grantley Harbor, and in the coune of hi* ex- 
plonilioBB vrtiile connected with dte company found colors and Ukdy looking gravel baab 
in the FUi River country. For a k>ng time he cherished the desire to return to diii repoa 
on a prospecting \np. The great Klondike ttrike of '97 intensified this desire and he te- 
cnred the attittanee necessary to equip himtcif widi ■ thre»^rear outfit. He anired at 
Golovm Bay in die hll of 1897 and proceeded up Vrnk River to Ophir Credc, now 
one of die most famous streams of the pountula, and made a discovesy of gold. Ha and hi* 
conpaoions establislied the town of Council and bidk the Bnt white man's residenee m die 
town patterning it after the Eskimo igloo. He was prospecting in this vicinity wben die 
Anvil strike was made. 

Council District it unlike die Nome country in that it is forested. In the enlae None 
District there is not a tree, nor a shrub other than wiBow. In the Council District dure is 
fAtaty of qiTuce timber for domestic use. The mines of Ophir Creek are ammig the most 
valuable in Nordiwestem Alaska. There are places where the pay-streak is 700 feet wide. 
and the gravel deposit twsity feet deep. Ophir Creek and its Ufc uta iies have produced a 

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iDUl of about $4,500,000 of sokL Ahhou^ diW cnek conlaini voy lidi i 
poMb minine opentkmi by crude mdliodi were not wcceMfuL The e«Hy m uJ tioi wilfc 
wlach tbe nuDer had to ccpe made it impo«Me br him to conduct hW boHDCM lo a* to elk- 
lain the pro&ti dwt ihould come from sround containing luch high vahwt. He {wmd it 
BcccMary to dig ditches to ai to provide watei nippljr. to uee madiiiKiy and eatafl apcaaea 
not widiia the meani of the ordmaiT proipectoi. The finl operationi on 0|^ Cnek wctc 
not profitable and claimi containing vait values were aold at moderate piicei. Moit ol thm 
crack ii owned by the Wild Gooee Mining and Trading Co. Thii cotDpany acquired dw 
property by purchaie paying a large mm for it But the company ha* extnctcd ftom one 
mine. No. 1 5 Ophir, a turn more than tvricc at large aa it paid for it> entire bokSagi on 
the creek. The company has coMtrudcd near forty milet of ditcbe* to bring water wiA 
vduch to waih the gravel* of il> Ophir Credc property. The main ditch ii the largert m 
Seward Paunwla and ii big enough to loat a rnul river tteamboat 

Besidet Ophir Creek the other gold bearing itreama of thii icgtoa are Dutch. Sbo«p- 
ball, Albion, Crooked. Sweetcake. Warm. EUwni. Gddbottom, Richter. NciAkik. Mda- 
mg. Myitery, Oxide, 1 X L. Big Four, Willww, Ruby, Gook, Quartz, Canycn, Boulder, 
DixoB, Dry, Damaon. Banner, Johnaon, Sunifune, Curtiw, Kingdey and Camp. So far 
a* hat been ditcovered Ophir Creek hat the diitinction of having tbe largetl pay ttnak of 
any tiream in Atatka. J. M. McDoweU it tbe CommimioneT at Council 

TK« KotatfaroK District 

The Kougarok if the great interior mining diitiict of Seward Pcnintula, Diacav- 
erie* were fan made here in the ipiing of 1900, but tbe couBtry hat been only parliair 
pratpected, and hat not beoi dcvckipcd to any extent becaute of iti great dittUKC fnm 
bate of tiqiplict and tbe duficuhy asd expcnte of tnuuportatkm. But tbere have beem 
proipecton and minert who bad hkh in diii country, and they have paid hundredi of dolavs 
the ton for food, most of the expenie bemg for trantpoi tation, and have ttayed by the cotBtry. 
tome of diem winter and mmmer, working patiently until now the developmenli warrant 
tbe CMUtructiMi of exientive dilchet. F^ant for dieae ditche* have been completed ifai* wm- 
tci. The Kougart^ fUver it a Urge itrcam with many gold bearing trlwtarie*. The 
richetl pay ha* been found on Dahl Cre^ Two hundred and twenty-five dollan the pan 
hat been taken from No. 2 DahL It wat picked out of frozen ground. 

Gold hat been foimd in tfte Kougarok lUver for a dittance of twenty-five mika. h baa 
been found in the ttream* which Bow mto the Kougarok from either tide, and alto in dte 
benchet. In order lo give a definite idea of the MZe of ihit gold bearing area, it may be 
ettimaled at twenty-five milet long and fifteen milet wide. The name* of the itreamt whtre 
pioipect* have been found, and b many catet good pay, are Dahl, Quartz, Neva, Dan. 
Gakin.Coarte CokLArizona, Artie, Henry, Hometuke, Tayk>r and il> tAutariet, Wmc)y. 
Kougarok. including tbe left fork and the north fork, Madiaon Gulch, Dreamy Gulch aad 
TwoUt Gulch. Gravel hat been found in thit region b the highett mountab of ihe country. 
On tome ttreamt tb alto hat been diacovered. 

Tbe prbdpal work hat been done on Dahl Cre^ by Jerry Galvb, Grif YanteO and 
olben. T. T. Lane hat done much development work b thit region and demooatrated to 
hk talitfaclioB that the ccHintry carrie* good value*. Next tummet he wil fiaUi the woib 
of ctmitructing ditchei begun m 1904, for the operatiiHi of hi* cxl<a«ve holding* m ihia 

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niatOKTaph b7 B. B. Dobba. 


diilricL If he H ael tbe fini, he k one of the Bnl niinen to deraofutrate die vahx of ibe 
beachei n ihe Kougarok Dittrict 

There it every tndicatioa «l ihn wiitinB dwt Kougarok region will be ■ tcene of greal 
KCtWity (he coining (URuner. Not only ve there big dhch cnterpriies planned for thii 

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regioii, but it if among tbe probabilitiet that « raiktwd linf from Nome will enter thi* part 
of the countir toon. It may be two or thiee yean before the country attaiu prommence as 
a gold-produdng region of Seward Penintula, but tboe ii no doubt of it attaining ptominncc 
when trauportation hat been made ea>y and conpaiatively cheap by mean* of a railroad, 
and the necetuity ditche* have been comtrucled to that the graveb of thti area can be vndied 

Lan Gundenon i* the United State* Commimioner and Recorder of the Kougarok Dia- 
Iricl. The recording office ii at Mary's Igloo. 


Port Clarvaso Oiatviet 

The Port Clarence Dirtrict ii ibe largett of all the mioioi diilnct* of Sewaid Paiinnla. 
nylif/faig the former dirtiictt of Port Clarence, Blue Stone, Agiapuk. York and Good 
Hope. The recording office of thti dirtrict it at Teller, and S. C. Henlon !■ the United 
Statet ComnuHioner and Recorder of the dirtrict The York tin region and dte Cape 
Prince of Wales tin ledgei are in thii dirtrict 

What ii known ai the Gold Run or Blue Stone country, a part of the Port Claroice 
dirtrict. gave jntxniie m 1 900 of being cme of (he lichert parti of Seward Pctiinnila. But 
the digging! were found to be "tpotted," and the tubeequcnt devdopments woe diwp- 
p<Hnting to many. The gold found wai coane and many nuggeti were diKoveied. At the 
mouth of Alder Creek $20,000 wai taken from the graW in one setting of ikoce-boxei. 
Coar>e gold ha* been found in the bcDchei. The great desideratum here k water. WA the 
minen of tbii region it ha* either been a "feart or a famine." ^R^ien the ratni came Ae 
ttreami grew into tonent* and dam* were washed away. In (he eariy part of the seaion 
there wai not mffident water for mining operatioB*. When water it utilized by mean* of ' 
ditcbei and made available for all part* of the open isaion, this region wiD produce its quota 
of gold. 

AcroM the haibmr from Teller, Max R. Hitschbog, raanags of die Arctic Mining and 
Trading Company, hat coutructed an extennve ditch, bringing water from the Agiapnk to 

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work the gravek of Suiuel Creek and hu pUnmd extennve amiing t^erationi to begin in 
the Kami of 1905. 

That part of the Port Clarence Precinct 
formerly known ai the Good Hope Mining 
Diftiici coiq>riae* an exleuive area bounded 
on the north by the Arctic Ocean and lying ; 
to die westward of Kotzebue Sound. The 
main river of thii region i> the Serpentine 
which dtKhargei it* watcn into Shiimareff 
Inlet While comparativeiy little proqiecl- 
ing ha* been dmie in tlut part of the country 
gold hat been found on tributarie* of the 
Seipentine River. The itreami in which gold 
in paying quantiliet hat been diKovend are 
Dick, Bryan, Eldorado, Hogum and Rein- 
deer Creeki. Dick Creek ii a tributary of 
Bryan, the latter Bowing into the Serpentme 
River. It promitet to develop bto one of 
dte very rich creekt of the penimula. Cold 
wai diKOvered on thit itreani in 1901, and 
■isce that dale not more than twenty men 
have protpecled in thk part of the country. 
Dick Creek ii five milei long, and the pay hat 
been located itt entire length. No work of 
any contequence hai been ilone becauie of 
tbe lack of water, but proq>ect helet dial 
have beoi dug on a number of claimi indicate 
that Ac pay-tlreak it from twenly-£ve feet to 
tix^ feet wide, and it may have an extreme 
width much greater than thii. The pay 
gravel on the lower part of Dick CnA it 
eitiJit feel in depth and yieldi an average of 
about five centi the pan. Out of a hole fif- 
teen feet iquare oa No. 1 above Diicovcqr 
$278 worth of dutt wai taken, and tbe woric- 
men did not get within a foot of bed rock on 
account of water. Elxtcniive opentiant are 
planned for Dick Cre^ thit leavn by a 
company widi adequate capiul for the de- 
velopment of die rich placn depoiitt in thii 

In order to operate thit property lucceit- 
fuUy it ii neccwary to conitruct a ditch line 
leveral milet in length. The available water 
m Dick Creek fumiihea a nqiply for tluicing 
(Hily a few hourt a day during the moti 
lavorable part of the te>K>n. ^^^ g„ojjg line near Bl.rFP. 

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TK« rftlrbavan OlslHcl 

The Fairhaven Mining DiilHct comprint «n area on the Arctic slope ol 150 miles 
parallel writh the cout of Good Hope Bay and a dittance back into the interior of the 
country from the coait averaging fifty mile*. Thii vast are* ii at yet only partially proapect- 
ed. Up to the doae of navigaboo m the year 1904, thii dirtiict had produced a tola) 
amount of gold duat vahied at about (700.000. The ■tieaini that have produced gold are 
Candle Creek, Inmachuk River, Old Glory Creek, Hannum Creek. Rex Creek, HtnnlxJck 
Credc. Native Gutch, Bear Creek and the beach diggbgi at the mouth of Native Cndt. 
Comparativdy little wc»k ii ilone on theM itrcami m the Mmuner leaion ud dtey are knowm 
ai winter diggingt. The output of Candle Creek chirmg the winter of 1 903-4 waa ihfmtt 
$70,000, and an eatimate made lait faD placed the |Moduct of ihit ttreain for die wintcr 
of 1904-5 at $100,000. 


The Inmachuk River i> the most prmniiing itrcam of the Fairhavai DirtricL The out- 
put of the minei on thia stream hai been about $200,000, most of it coming from dunpa 
taken out during the winter by means of ihawen. The gold <^ the Inmachuk is black. 
The limil of the Inmachuk pay-streak hu not been determined, but it it known to have M 
great a width a* 1 30 feet. The average depth to bed rock it tixteen feet, and the pay ia 
found in a stratum of gravel having a depth of from two feet and a half to seven feet. 
This pay-streak hat been pn^>ected a distance of ten mile* on this stream. Pant of gravel 
yielding at much at twenty-five dollan the pan have been taken from Inmachuk. Repoib 
of $70 pant from Inmadiuk River during thit winter, 1904-05, have been received. The 
average pay of the best gravel it estimated at fiom twenty cents to thirty centt the pan. 
The indicati(»s are favorable for an immense deposit of pay gravd in this stream. This 
gravel lacks the dep^ of the auriferous deposit of Ophir Creek, but when the minet of thia 
river aie clevek)ped to the best advanUge the product may place Inmachuk River in tbe 
category of the richest gold bearing streams of Seward Peniniuk. 

The princqwl work on this stream hat been done in the Dathley claims, the Polar 
Elear group and property owned by John De Fries. Gold was discovered on this stream 
B 1901, by John De Bdir and hit associates. Among the pioneers of this district are: 
John De Buhr, Wilbun Fee. (Mitaouii Bill) William Davis, Fred Sandttrom, Z. E. 

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FoMer. P«t MakHKy, Jack McCutney. R. L. Howie. J. M. CUrk. J. M. McConnkk. 
J. R. Todd, Henry Fcldmen. Frank SulUvim. D. Ckmgh, Jcm Ptnnell. Jack Fuller and Red 
Miler. The 6nl Conunimoner of the dirtrict w« T. C Noye*. He wu niccMded by 
W. J. Mikoy, who wu (olktwed by C. S. Aldnch. The prcMol CommiMioper ii Albcd 
S. Kcpnci. with headquulen at Candle City. 

Imnacbuk River m thirty mile* long. It ii a linuout itream flowing throu^ a narrow 
vaBey which broaden* to a width of about foor nulei near the mouth of the river. Numer- 
out tnlutriet of Inmachuk River are gold bearing, notably Old Glory and Hannum Cre^ 
From one claim on Old Glory $24,000 wai taken out in one featon. Very little work hai 
been done in the beoche* of thii ttream, a« the ground i* frozen aolid, requiring die uie of 
thawert to sink proq>ect bole*. The need <rf thit country ii available water, and thii can 
be n4>pfied by constructing a ditch from Lake Imuruk which ii twoi^ milet dktant ud at 
an altitude of 800 feet above the lea. Thii lake will fumiih an ineihauctible tupply of 
water, and a ditch from it will haiten the dcvdopmuit of thit part of the Arctic tiopc. 
Survey! for the ditch have been completed, and the work hat been planned. 

Candle Credc ii a tributary of the Kewalik River. Gold wn> ditcovered on tlw (tream 
late in the teaaon ^ 1901. The ditcovciy had every appearance of a phenomenal rtrike, 
aa extraordinary values were taken out of the bed of the ttreonL But tince the ezhauition 
of the value* in thii easily accessible ground the camp has not prospered to well, although 
it bat produced connderable gold every year. Here, at on the Inmachuk River, vrattr 
under pressure may be the meant of developmg some very rich ground in the benches. 

Betwecs Candle Creek and Inmachuk River is the Kugruk River. This npem was 
bat noted for its coal iepOKt*. A vein of coal more than 1 00 feet wide has been discov- 
ered on Chicago Creek, a tributary of tbit itream. This coal mine it operated by the Mc- 
Iilodi Brothers and their aiK>cialei, and supplies fuel to the mioen on Candle Creek and 
Inmachuk River. During the winter of 1903-4 gold wai found on the Kugruk m quon- 


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titic* dut make b a promiwig ttiike, ajxl pro&uble minms wu done dial winter hf taeuam 
of thawen. 

TliM part of Seward PoiinHila u not eaiy of acccM. S n ylici muit be diiiipcd in froa 
Nome hy meaiu of coaat ileainen, ibrough Bering Strait to the Arctic Ocean and to KoCze- 
biM Sound where the cargoes are ditcharged. From the i^ace of (lebail»tion wippliet 
murt be poled up itream m boats, or hauled by freight teami. The great coit of keepnig 
hones in this remote region make* fra^tiag very expcsBve. and the wwk of poling or 
towing a boat vf> stream is extremdy laborious. Considering the conditions, the dilficiihy 
and expense of getting stqiplies bto this part of the countiT. the wonder is dtat so much 
work has beoi accomplished. 

TKo Ko^lon oflKo KobsaK 

There is another part of Kotzebue Sound country which is very ivomising. During ibe 
past two years a few miners have beoi prospecting on the Kobuk River and in 1903 a 
strike v^iich promised to be of magnitude was made on the Shungnak, a tributary of the 
Kobuk. It attracted a lew venturesome spirits and tiDce that date there probably have 
been one hundred prospecton in this far-away part of the Northland. Gold has since been 
found on several streams besides the Shungnak. Tlie Kobuk is a large stream (our hun- 
dred miles in length, having its somces in tl>e range of mountains not more than fifty mSes 
from the head waters of the Koyukuk, the tatter stream Sowing in a southerly direction to llie 

This part of the country possess ei some striking and unique feature. The Noatak lUver, 
■ short disUBce east of the Kobuk, flows in a parallel direction vritfa it ifarout^ predpsbNn 
mountaiiu, resembling the mountains of Colorado. This is the Docthern e x tre mi ty of the 
Roc^ Mountain Range. It is well knowrn that these mountains are mineralized, but tbesr 
great distance from a base iA suppBes has been a barrier to any except the most m>fffif i al 
prospecting. A great many ledges have been found m dm repoa, and assays i n di c a te 
phenomenal values. Gold, silver and copper are m this part of the country, very rich ^>ecs- 
mens of float having been found. From mterviews with proipectmi who have been in this 
region I am led to the conclusion that the dme will come whoi very valuable quartz miBca 
win be located and dcvdoped here. 

There are abo exceOent quartz prospects on the UKter Kobuk River. Jade Mountain 
is near the Kobuk River, and is, I believe, the only place in Alaska where iade is (ouskL 
The Kobuk River country is wooded. It has a growth of timber amf4e for fuej pw 
poses and for building. 

The country is weD stocked widi game and die rivers abound with fidi. AMtou^ diis 
is very hr oordi, and the winters are extremely cold, in some re^wcts the coodilioRS are man 
favorable than diey are at Nome. The natural food st^tply of the country ■ betia, aad 
there is an abundance of timber. 

This region is mineralized from RMmn Creek at die d^ of the Kobuk River to die 
head-waten of Kobuk River and the Noatak, a distarKe of 350 milea. The widdi of ix 
country from the Kobuk River to the eastern water-shed of the Noatak is from sixty miles to 
seventy miles. The area of diis mineralized regtoo b about equivalent to die area of Seward 
Poiinsula. Between the Kobuk and die Noatak is an old. weD-trodden trail used by ibe 
natives and supposed to be an old mooM trail. 

Many ledges are m die precipitous, rugged mountams drained by die Noatak River. 

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PhotDfnph by Courtaay of B. O. Llndblom. 

Shunsnmk, & Northerly U. a. PoitoDlce; Native Camp on Kobuk at Datal Creak; Placer 

Mlnlnc on ahnncnak: LucIq- Three Ulnlns Compaiij-'s Rleamer: FrelKhtlnc Up the 

Kobuk; DlacoTerr Claim, E>ahl Creak. 



Moal of dme ledgn tbal have been diicovcred arc bue ore cmitainiiii gold, lilver and cop- 
per. A ledge fiffy feet wide hai beea diKovered on the KobuL Tlie mmmy* 
of iclccted iaiq>let of diit rock have ihown at much as eichtjr-teven per cent, copper. Am- 
other «May of rock from An ledge ihow> thiity-nkie per cent copper and $3.60 dte ton m 

It wat a ■aiiq>le of ore from thn part of the country obtained bjr Captain B. Cogan iwotn 
Ibe native viHage of CbeMEk on the Noatak thai wat inttrumental in cauttng tlie Kotubuc 
Sound ttampede in 1896. Captain Cogan took the ore to the itatet and had it at e a jfa d . 
The retuk of the attay wat $4,700 the too. The native vrho gave the captain the rock toM 
him tltere wat a mountain of >L Thit aHuring tample wat ukimati4y the cauie of Capf in 
Cogao'i death. He tpttil teveral yean in thit bleak, cold country in a fruM w i taarch for 
the ledge. The tlory it pathetic Sufice it to lay hae that the ledge never baa been 
ditcovered. and mincn of Northwettem Alyka are indmed to datt thit itory with die 
tloiy of the "Lott C^md Mik," and Ae ilety of other rich findt wfaidi have bea loat and 
could not be re-ditcovcred. There it no quotian. however, of the vahie of ifae piece of 
quartz given to Captain Cogan by the native, but where the native got the quartz It3 ro> 

Wrmm^ tho Noatak to tk« Bo«ndarr Lin* 

The country lying between die NoaUk River and Ae Canadian boundary line ia vaat 
in oOent and ahnoat unknown. The CoMDe River Bowi throu^ a batm m whidi co«l 
and petroleum esiit — to what extent rcinaint ha future pnipecton to ditconr and folare 
gcBcratioot to devekip. The Nome country, and the part of Alatka eontiguout thcnto. 
liM work to be done that will not be «— «m.Mfjl within the next century and it will 
be a long time before the retourcet in the extreme norlfa are expk>red. 

TbeCohriOe it a big rivtr teveral hundred yardt m width and fed bynumeront trbiMar- 
iea. The current it ttroog. Bowing in the i^iper part of the itream at the rate of nx milea an 
hour. The moudi of the Cohille I^er it like the mouth of ntany Aladu ttreamt. The watos 
find dior way to die tea over a wide reach of flatt where ttranded ic d xarg t gblai in the 
tummer tun and are mow-covered hummodn in the winter teaton. It it imfintiiiif for a 
vetiel of any tize to get into the river from the ocean. Inttde the bar the tticam it navigable 
(or die largett river vcttdt. 

The valley of the G^vile ii couqweed of b>w bairca luDt. Thit vaOey it fifty unlet to 
100 milet wide, extending from the rugged mounlaint of the Noatak to the tumnul of the 
eatteriy walcr-tbed. The Ii3>ularie> of the CoMDe have cut through and tipoecd maqr 
vcmt of coaL Proipecton from thit regtou have told me that diey have beca able to mak 
canp firei with the float coal diey have found in mott of the ttnami where they have 

Between the Cohille and the boundary line are teveral riven which have been recently 
put OB the map of die United Slatca. Five of thcte riven were dSieovend by a pio^>ecldt. 
S. J. Manfa. who wat in diii coimtiy in 1901-2 One of diete itreami it 300 unlet kwg. 
AD thit country it devoid of timber and it covered with mett. Bemadi thit vegetatiM the 
ground sever thawi. Mr. Manh tayt it it not a mineralized country, but it a fioMHsM 
formalioik and geologically it a recent t^XSt 

South of the country which hat been previouily deict3>ed, it a large area of Akifca 

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from which the wfttcn drain into the 

Yukon. The Koyukuk River ii one o( 

the ttreanu of ifaii region. Several en- 

terpriung mining campt are etUbliihed 

on the Koyukuk. and gold was mined 

in this part of Northwettern Alaika be- 

fore the diicavery of die Nome country. 

Tlie Chandlar and other itream* are 

great water wayt that coDtrlMile to the 

Boodi of the mighty Yukon. But in 

all ihit immenM region there are cmljr 

a handful of white mm and moit of 

tbem are in the campa of the Koyukuk. 
The area of Alaika north of the Yu- 
kon ii near 200,000 iquare mile*, and 

the viiatt papulation of thii immen«c 

country doe* not exceed 1 0.000. view of fish river. 

There u one man to every twenty 

(quaie mile* of territory. Mott of theie people are gathered in mining campa aitd 

town* of which Nome ii die largest. It ii apparent from thii fact that there are hundredi 

of iquare milei of lerrilory wtkeie there are no white men and where there never has been 

a white man. An army of 1 00,000 ptotpeclon would not be able to explore all tbii vMt 
' region m half a cen- 

tury. The little van- 
guard that i> i4> there 
DOW blazing Iraib can- 

But the ( 
have been made and the 
difcoveriei dial will be 
made will be an incen- 
tive for othen to join 
the ranks, and the tine 
will come when there 
will be a great nKhntrial 
army in Northwertan 
Alaika devekiping the 
wonderful minenJ re- 
lourcei of a country 

CLOUD8 HANG LOW O'ER BERING SEA. *™™ * T^ ?»««««> 

wai regarded a> drear 
and deiolate. 
Tha Morton Bound Klnan 

On the other tide of Norton Sound from Seward Peninnila placet minei have been 
dtKovered and lucceNfuUy operalecL The principal work hai been done on Bonanza 
Creek without other facililiet than ihiice-boxei and men widi ihoveb. Thii creek has 
produced probably $200,000. Thit itream bet between dte Yukon and Norton Sound. 

Gold hai abo been found on itreami flowing into the other itde of Norton Sound, nota- 

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b))r tbc Ti^KiktuUk and the ICuik Riven. The penmwla betvreen Norton Sound mkI G^ovb 
Bay and the country lying to ^ cutwajd, although eanly acccM3>le:. ha« mt bees voy 
tboiou^ly proqiwcled. On thk pcnuwuk a few roilet weit of Norton Sound ia a wd 
defined contact of granke and shale. Some proipectt have been found in the vicai^ of 
ihii contact, but pay ha* not been devek)ped. Thk u a bkely k>oktng country for c|aartz. 
A number of ledga have been found, but ai yet nilBcient developmcDt work has not been 
done to aacertain their vahia. There are alK> d cp o ait t of coal in the Norton Sound ceontty. 

•t. MlsK»*l rr«clB«t 

St Michael ii one of the oldeM ftalioni in Northweatera Alaska. It was esUbEUied 
by the RuKian-American Gxnpany in 1637. It is at die mouth of the Yukon, amd is the 
place where all goods consigned to Yukon River points are tran»-sh^ped. The town con- 
sists only of the stores and warchouKs of twra of the large Alaskan commercial companies, 
the militaTy post and a few cabins and cottages. There are no mines in operation in Sl 
Michael Precinct. 

The development of the upper Yi^on River country, especially the work being done 
in the Tanana diggings, creating a demand for a greater itqiply of provisions and miscd- 
laneous goods, will quicken the business pulse at Sl Michael. 

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TKa N«m« B«M9K 

Nome beuli prabsbly wu the greklett ihatlow pUcen ever dkcovcred. It ottni u 
opportunity tor « large number of men to make k nnaU stake qukkly. Po«ft»ly mote val- 
luUe dullow diggmp have been d»coveTecl,but I am not aware if then ia anodis place 
m die hiitoiy of gold mining v^tcre wck satiahctory lenilti weic to quickly obtained. 

Beach '*'Bt'''F were not Auck until welt along in the teaMn of 1 699. There wm a 
genera] ttanqtede <rf unwcccMful mmen ftom the creeb, and of the people who were in die 
town of Nome. Not Im than live hundred moi ezliacted dust to the value of $2,000,000, 
or an average of $4,000 to the man. 

The beach tm a diatancc of forty mi)e> from the easterly part of Nome to Sinuk River 
carried values, but die best pay was found in die vicinity of Nome, and juit west of die dty 
limits. In this locality two men rocking three days have cleaned up as much as $3,800. A 
story of a wonderful investaient iOustrates very forc3>ly the great values of the beach sands 
at tfaii time. In the firing tU 1900 Arthur Baldwin came to Nome from St Michael 
Before leaving Sl Michael be was advised to take a rocker wkh him. He found an 
Elskimo who had two dilapidated old rockers which he bought for 25 cents a piece; he 
also brou^t widi him to Nome a small quantity of quicksilver. Soon after his arrival die 
beach strike was made. Everybody was excited and anxious to get to work in the rich 
sands, but there was a lack of himber in town for making even the primitive rocker. Mr. 
Baldwin could have sold his mining af^iaratus hu a good sum, but he wisely decided to lease 
tbe rockeis. Four men agreed to pay him a royalty of fifty per cent, of all the gold they 
took out with his machines, and in thirteen days his royalty amounted to $2,800. 

Most of the gold in the beach was found in layers of ruby sand. Ordinarily it was 
very Bne but not scale gold, such as is commonly found in beach sands. The depth to 
bedrock was from (bur feet to eight feet and usually very good pay was found on bedrocL 

The average widdi of the beach from mean kiw-water mark to die tundra is about 1 50 
feet. This ground was appropriated by minen in small strips, as it was not availaUe (w 
staking under die law that governs placer mnung, the ground being washed by the waters 
of BeriBg Sea at extreme hi^ water. Tbe sands were worked from the tundra to a pmnt 
where bedrock was on a level with the water line. At this point the waters of tbe sea 
stopped further progrcM. 

In the season of 1 900 almost every kind of impracticable mining machine was brou^l 
to Nome for the pucpoae of working the beach. CcsoKne engines were used for pumping 
water out of die sea and inis shiice-boxes, where dozens of men would be shoveiing-in. 
This was a sensible method of getting die gold, and a great deal of ground that had bees 
hurriedly worked die season before was re-woAed and made to yield a profit But tbere 
were dredgers, seme of them on giant wheels which were constructed so that they could travel 
ifarou^ the surf ^ the sea while the dredger dug up the values in the sands beneath die 
water; and there were devices in endless variety for saving gold. Tbe dredgers and die 
other new-fangled apparatus did not wwk satisfactorily, and there were many Uasted hope* 
as a result of these faihires. At die ckise of this season tbe beach was strewn widi many 
kinds of mining machinery which had failed to do die wwk expected. 

In 1901 considerable work was done on the beach, and much ground was worked for 
the third time. A few men of inventive genius attempted to use machinery for eztradnig 
die vahies from the sands bcneadi the water. Every year since die discovery of gold at 

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Nome attcnipti in tliii line bave been mule, but u yet noae hu Mcceeded. In ihe whAv 
tiaie minen have made hola dirou^ the ice nev the ilme fine and in mne iaitiiKCi bavc 
niccceded in getting out dumpi. Tbeae dumpi have ahrajn jieMed good Taluei. Thoe 
ii DO qiMrtion of the value of the unwoAed Mndi beneath low water of dw beacb. Pto*- 
pecting hai ihown that thctc valua extend mto the ae*. and b tome placet qdte a Hkla B C *. 
1 befieve it '» lafe to estimate thai a (trip twcnty^e feet wide and many milei m length b^ 
ncalh the nirf line of Bering Sea cootaini gtJd vahiM in tome placet at rich at wa« die 
land* of the beach. The only quertion it the method of exttactang them. 

A penod imhtwiltaF widi c4»ditioDi at Nome misJit think that the problan it amf ok 
tohition. A dredger on the tea oouM do die wotk, but one of the furioui ttonna Ihat fre- 
qaently tweep Bering Sea would make Idndling wood and junk <A the dredger. An till mil 
hat been made to dig into theie tandi by meant of a ttatiimaiy engiae on the bank aacl ■ 
digging apparatut drawn from the tea by aid of a cable. So hr Bone of the plana has 

Vahm itiU remain in the beach tandi. Notwilhttanding dte freqwucy with which dt^ 
have been woriKd all dw gold hat not been taken hfom them. I bdiere that ifait catkn 
beach, 1 50 feet wide, avcragiag liz feel in depth and having a Lengdi (rf many milea, w3 
yield iity cenit dw cubic yaid. My judgment in thit matter it bated on the fact Att m 
perton can obtain a i»oipect mott anywhere on dte beach at Nome. I have known of 
landt woAed for the third or fourth time that bave yiekled duty cents dte yard. Th* 
method by which thete tandt have been worked makes it pottlde for a lot <rf ^>olt of gro «» d 
to remain untouched. A tytlem of working the beach landt on a very large scale wooM 
find these virgia q>ots, the vahie of which should make the average yield of die sands at leaM 
equal to die estimate I have placed on this ground. 

In many placet where pnMpect bolet have been tunk in ihe tnndm evidences have beca 
found that this ground was cmicc the bottom of die sea. I have lefetrad ei tewfae w to an oU 
beac h faie, lying a quarter (rf a mile or more back fnm die present bendi, whidi 
contamt vahies m a similar deposit to die one in which gold was foimd m die beadt. A 
strike in one of these ancient beaches, made during the winler of 1 905. has created excite- 
ment ill Nome, and a corre sp ondent writes me that in one place sixty-two burets of i^tcI 
taken from the tundra near, orwtdtin. the dty fimils yielded gold durt valued at $180. 

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TH« KttsKokwIm KogloB 

The Ktukekwini regioB ii a vut, nnknown country. It ii in the ome pidickl lEriBBW 
ol AU^ that Nome ii in, and canftm a m mining dimict known m die Kinkokwkn. It is 
die krsetl nuning ditdicl m thii pidicul diviiioo, inchxlint all iiksd* of Bering Sen north of 
die 59th degree of Utitiide. and nil die counby wutfa of tbe Yi^od in die Mcood indicia] 
divinon, probably one-fifth of die entire area of Alaika, co mpri Ma g a counby near twice 
the tize of the Sute ti Washington. 

The Kmkokwini Ii 1 . 1 00 miles long and b navigable (w met (teamen of ligfat draft a 
diriance of 900 miks; (teamen have aiceaded dw river to a pUce 650 nilei above its 
mouth. Tbe country bmilsing die fCinkokwim from Bedicl, 200 miles from iti moudu 
to the MMirce of die (trcara it wooded, and a pebbly beach marb the coutk of the «twtim. 
There i( not a rapid in diii magnttccnt river. Tbe great YiAon, » wide in many [dacea 
diat one leems to be looking out over a >ea when (tandiug on it> bank. Sows diroo^ dw 
Yukon valley carrying vast quanlitiet of detritus v^iich dacolor die waten so diat dicr re- 
semble die streams of dw Middle West Tbe Kuskokwim is a stnkkg contrast in appeaiwKC 
to the Yukon. Its waten. except in case of Bood and freshet, ate as dear as OTilal through 
which the rocks and pebUes of die bottom of the river, and die myriad bbes diat Ire m 
diese waten, are plainly seen. Tbe source of the Kuskokwim is new die base of Ml McKio- 
ley. Ml Foraker, anodier peak of great akttude. but not so masnve as McKinley, k in dik 
vicinity. Tbe natives call these mountams man and wife. 

To the soudi die KnshJwim water-died has a maximum widdi of 200 miles and k 
*ained Iqr numerous unknown streams. To die nordi die water-died area is not so exten- 
sive, being less dian 100 miks wide. In one place dierc is a portage between die Yukon 
and die Koskokwim of only sixty-five miles. Thk pwtage it frequendy traversed widi 
boats as it is abnort an endless succession of lakes. ThW country h marshy and flat, k 
covered widi moss, and may be properly designated at tundra. There are no trees, nor 
•hnibs odier than willow, on die k>wer part of die water-died of die Kosk<4nnni. 

Tbe forests on die soudieriy water-died are composed of spruce, birch, cottonwood and 
poplar trees. Some of die qiruce trees are large, measuring as much as four feet in diame- 
ter. The largest growdi trf timber is near die head-walen of die liver where die valley on 
me Mudi side narrows to a comparatively small widdi. 

The rocb of diit region are granite, limestone, slate and metaphoric. The minerah diat 
have been discovered are gold, sihrer. copper and cinnabar. No mines have as yet been 
developed. But a vast deposit of dnnabar ore hu been located on die Kuskokwim diree 
milet bekw Kofanakof. Twenty yean ago a man by die name of Sipary, who conducted 
a trading pott at Koknakof, located dut deposit of mmcral and did seme work. He ih^iped 
several tons of ore outside to a smelter, but receiving returns of only $1 1 die ton, he aban- 
doned die property. Thk deposit was re-located by D. McDmindl in 1901. He sort 
some of die rock to Stanford University and got an assay of $341 die ton: sidiseqiMidy 
be got an assay from rock lakoi from die old don^ of $720 tbe ton. The lowest asaqi 
that be received fiom any c4 the «c shqiped outside was $20 die Ion. 

This mineral deposit is exposed b an immense bhif 3,500 hct kmg and 250 feel hi^ 
the waten of the Kuskokmm Bowing at its base. The locations on it extend back 1 .500 
feet Tlte cinnabar occun in sandstone, red stringen of which, from a few inches to five 
leet and six feet b width, may be seen b die bluf . A bond was taken on this propert y by 

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Euton ofHUlnti lut Kuon. The expert profMuaced it the gtalat cinDaUr depoat ke 
had ever MCD. 

On the upper river a gklena ledge hu been dncovered and located. Samplci of ore from 
tfak ledge arc ipecimeiu of pure galena. The quartz pioipecD of thn countir are 
very encouraging. Gold placcn have been found, but at jret no work other than proi- 
pecting hat been done. Graphite ha* alto been dMcovered in Am part of Alatka. In all 
thn vait region there are not more ihan fifty white men, to it it obviout that Ae country hat 
been but little protpected. There are hundredi of tquare nilei of thit vatt and magnificait 
territory where while men nevw have been. 

Thii region it twenty degreet wanner in the winter than the valley of the Yukon, and 
bendet the mining pKMpectt, both quartz and placer, it hu ponibilitie* at a farm and itock 
railing country. Great itrqM of country on the leuth itde are covered in the lununer teaton 
with lucculent grattet, growmg waitt high and forming exleniive meadowi. 

The Kudcokwim valley it inhabited by ThHnltet bdian*. They are peaceable and good- 
hearted nativet, in character very much resembling the Etkimo. While mott of thit coun- 
try it ttill a wilderoett, it wai the titc of early mitnonary work in Alatka. A trading poet 
wat eriabHihed by the Ruttiani in the Kuikokwim valley m 1635. Thit old trading pott 
it ttill in exittence and ii conchicted by Eld. Lind, a pioneer of thit country. It it known at 
Kohnakof and it 300 milet from the mouth of the Kutkokwim. There it a Rutnan nut- 
non, a Catholic nuMion and a Moravian miinon on the Kutkokwim, and a number of native 
viDagei detignated by toch unpronounceable namei at Chuppelgamute, Owhagamule and 
Obigemute. The native population of the valley hat been ettimated at between 1 ,000 and 
1 ,500. There are only a few nativet on the upper KuiktJcwim. 

The ilreani teemt with fiih of many varietiet, inchiding king lahnon, iMg fellowi, tome of 
them weighing at much at nmety poundi. many varietiet of trout, inchiding brook, didly 
vardcn and rainbow; grayling, and leveral kindt of white 6ih, mmdc of which attain to the 
Kze of fifty poundi, and reicmble in appearance and ddicacy of flavor the Lake Superior 
white fiih. The native name of dieae idi it cbee. During the tpawning leaion the ilream 
it nearly choked with miltiom of lilver and red lahnon. A palat^de tardine ii caught in 
the walen of ttw Kutkokwim. 

Thit it a wonderful game country. On the upper Koakokwim there are 400 Gneal 
milei of wiUeriMM, and itear Ml McKinley and Mt Foraker the country ii very ruggad 
and precipiloui. Thit it the home <rf the mountain ibeq>, where they may be found in 
bandi ri hundred!. Great herdi of car^Mu live m dm wildemea unmolertcd by native 
hunter or white ^Mrttman. Their only ateniei are the cainrroroui animalt that have their 
liin in theic mountami. and |vey upon any kind of fleih they can capture. The mooie 
it here in all hit ^ory. There are many Idndt of bean, from the mall black variety to the 
luge ferodout tilvertqi. There are heaven, martent, woKa that hunt in pack*, and foxa 
of many kindt, each kind poatening a difercnt color of coat There are ptarmigan flocln 
that contain thoutandi, wptJKe giouie, pheatantt. and m leaiMi a great variety of water fovri. 
Mr. McDonnell, who wat the fint United Statei CommittioneT appointed by the Dii- 
ttict Court at Nome for the Kwk^wim Dirtrict. reporti that when he fint entered thii 
wildcmeii be and hii party killed twenty-eight mooie widiin a month without gotng man 
thu five milei from camp. They might have killed more, but thit wat an ample tivply 
of meat lor their winter uk. Mr. McDonnell aho tayi that be hat leen piaiiie chickeu 
Dcv die bead-waten of the Kutkokwim. He ipent much of hit life on the prairiei of die 

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wot utd «Tcn diat be oraoot be miit«k«i. He u corroborated by Mr. Heodiickf, ol Beh 
it Hcndricb. who et a b JAed die town of Oteaoft. Mr. HcBdricb rq>orti prairie chirhfiw 
B the Tuua comby. 

The lowot tcoiperature recorded m Kinkokwim vkky it 43 degreei bdow zero. Ordt- 
Miy wmtcr climate ii not c^der tluui tbe cbmte of muiy of the Northern Mntea. Tbe ice m 
Ae KndB>kwan Bay |0a out in March, two month* earlier than the ice breab in dte Yukon. 
Tha m3 OB the aoulhaly water-«bed of the Kudu^wim a fertile and frozen only durinc tlie 
WBkr time. It doe* not rwemble tbe barrea brown tiiMhi which fonn the coattal pUmi in 
die extreme north of Afauka. It ii a rich h>am with a sandy nd>-ttntnm. At die iiii«riani 
in the ymiky, there are niltadid laidcna. Excelcot vcgrtaUe* are grown in the vnBey of ike 
Yukon, but the native mutiiliuin for cuhivatioB are not favorable *» tbey are b KoikakwH 
vaBqr, where vait area* may be adapted to agri c ufc w re. 

From what I have learned of thi* nBezpbred, remote reijoo, I have great UA m 
ib mmcral reeourccs. What it needed here, a* c^Kwhcre in Ala*ka, are facUilie* for tran^ 
p^»«i™ At die prcaent time moat fif tfaii f t iy endeu rf y great, marveloudy aia|niftr< iil lad 
wondroudy wild countay, pPMCi ii ng protfigiout po**Ulitie*. it a* abtohitely unknown as 
"Dwint Africa." 

Pbotoamph by B. B. DoM*. 

Ifl tta* front Nat. Mmjor L. R. Franch and Charles D. Lana: tn I 
Frank Bbsw and 3af«t LJndabcra: atandlna. Attorney Al 


•We've Got tHe Tin* 

J I emu 

c vkhie becauM of its tcarct^ and the »■ 
cKumg donand for k. LbtO the pMt few jreui Ib mtct hu beta niiKd !■ 
s in the United States. A number of tni pnNpecti b ibe 
W«rt hnTe attncted attention and capital bai been wmited in an atteayt to 
develop dteae pioipec h into mioct. Tbe hAm to diKOver tn in die wdl known mkanl' 
NfioM of North America, and die hiiuns that have nmked fiom the atten^tt to develop 
pKMpecli that have been diicovend, have made caiMtal waiy t^ inveetment m tin p roperty. 
It would n^ bowever, that die sieat demand for tm plate m dut countir would be an 
meentm to die devdopment of aiqrdimf diat loob like a hvorable pnNpect (^ a tin mine. 

Tbereiiftaat evidoMe to Mvport tbe belief <rf die ezirtcnoe erf tin m Sevrard Pcnknuk. 
not naif m c ommwri al quantiliei, but in qnantitiea luficicntljr large to lupi^ die demand 
of om-owncoantiT.whcn die pro^iecti have been dmrou^ily eqilored and derdoped. proper 
fadEliee for haiwflmg die ore provided, and a nndler eetablirited at eome coawtamaA place. 
Tbe LUled Stalee me* aBnaaVr about $20,000,000 wordi of tin. or two-durdi of the total 
aMual tm product of die world. Mort of diii tin ii obtamed from die Sinib Setdement, die 
Kmamdcr coimng fram Ecuador, Bolivia, Auitialia and the old mine* of ComwaU. 

Stream tm and tin ore in ledge* have been found in die Dorthwcstan part of Seward 
PeaiMula. Tim npoo hat akeadjr produced Im in conuncrcial quanlkiw. From the noM 
accurate iofomalkia to be obtained not lew than 1 30 Imm of tm ore conccntratei have 
been di^)pod ftom tfaii region. Moet of thii tin ha* beta nuned from placer dcpooti by 
iUc^ The tin occun in die form of an oxide known aa caieiterile. The avenge value 
at Im conc en tr a lce which have been extiacled from the Ala^ mines and dig>ped to die 
ilatee ii 65 per cenL tm, or 1 ,300 pounds of tin in every ton of ore. The value of these 
ih^xncBtt may be easily estiaiated, as tin ii worth from twenfy'^iine cents to thirty cents tbe 
pouncL Tbe total value (rf tin ore diipped ftom Northwestern Alaska is, m round figures. 
$50,000. But the cort of extracting diii ore. dipping it to die rtales, in MTCial initances to 
Eaiape, and the cost of treatment at the smdlen has been, in aD probabifify. equivalcDt to 
the value of the ore. Smdlcn m die United States are not equgiped for reducmg tm ores, 
and tin mining cannot become a pn^itable iodustiT m Alaska until there are hdKties for 
treating tbe ores at borne. 

Stream tin has be^ fmmd m several cre^ m tbe York regioB on Seward Peniimila. h 
oocun m gravel dqmiiti in the beds of the cre^ It has also been found in die baicbes. 
Its p r mn ce in this form and in tUs e n v i ro nm at is accounted for by the same dieory tfau 
aceoun t s for placer gok) d ep osits. Tbe oosion and decomposi t ion of tin ledges have resulted 
m their values being scattered broadcast in die gnvdt of itreamt m the neighborbood where 
the ledges cadrted. The stream in the YoHc region vdicre the greatest vahie is placer tin 
has been diwovcrcd is Buck Geek. The pay-streak in diis creek is four miles and a half 
kmg. Odier cre^ in which stream tm has been found are Grouse, Pinguk, Apkoarsook. 

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the lower three milei of AniLobuk. Burner, Bhuner and Beer. ThcK ttreunt ore all in 
ifaii nei^dxtThood, and they have produced nwit of dte tin ore which ha* been exported. 

The diKoveiy of itream tin wai fint made in 1901. The foDoiwing jrear a mial 
quantitjr of ore. probably a ton, wai flipped to the (tatet for a teM. In 1 903 about lliar^ 
loBi were ihq)ped out, and in 1 904 not Iw than 1 00 toot of ora were experted. A craat 
deal more tin ore than ihii could have been ihinMd. It has been mined and it m dumcM. 
but the lack of facilibet for converting it into com hat prercated greater ihipmentk Placer 
tm ii washed out of the graveb in very large ihbce boxet. Tfaeae bon are two feet wide 
and provided with high iroa riAet. Where ibe ground it very rich it it necexary to dean-i^k 
every four houn. Several companiet have been at work developing tfaeae tin deponla, and 
1 have been furaiihed with an estimate, by a man who ought to know, of the quanti^ of 
placer tin which ii in nght. Taking the leagdi of the itream tin pay-itreaki, their width. 
the one oo Buck Creek being 450 het wide, the average depth, which he etfimates 
at HZ feel, and the average yield, which be eitiniate* at twenty pounds to Ak cubic yard, he 
measures a quantity of tin ore valued at 12,000,000. 

Tb we in veins has been found in several places in diis part of the peniisula; and 
aitfaough comparatively little work has been done on these ledges die prospedt of tin from 
this source abeady overshadows die stream tin prosper. Tm ore has bees found im place 
on Cassiteiite Creek, which is a tributary of Loat River, five mDes from Beting Sea. and on 
Brooks Mountain between Caisiterite and Im Creeks. Tin m place has also been found 
in Cape Mountain, Ae great promontory at die extreme northwestern part of NotA America 
designated by the name of Cape Prince of Wales. Cape Mountain, which is a granilic 
fonnation, is seamed widi tin ore veins. W. C. J. Bartdt, president of die Barteb Hn'Mm- 
ing Company, has expended a great deal of money m devdt^g the ledges of Cmpe Moun- 
tain. He has an expensive plant equipped widi electric drills, and is tunnefing die mouataiD 
to cross-cut die veins at a considerable depth bdow die surface. What be hat accom- 
pEshed it most encouraging. I am informed that at the close of the teasoa of 1904 be had 
more than 300 toot of high grade tin ore in his dump. Ctpe Mountain appears to be a 
vast deposit of tin b place, assays bom rock taken at random showing vahxs of from one per 
cent to ei^t per cent. tin. Several companies own claims on Cape Mountain, but at yet no 

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dcvdopnwnt of any conxquence hu been done except by Mr. Buteb. If the tin dcpoeit* 
of Cape Mountain go down, and they are in the ri^t formationfor continuity, then it enough 
tin in tfait mountain to rapply the United States for many yean. But an accurate opinion 
n regard to the extent of the tin ore* of Loat River, Bioob Mountain and Cape Mountain 
cannot be expretaed until more development work hai been done. 

Another part of thi* region, farther inland and comequendy not «o accenible, vrbeic tin 
has been found it known at the Ear Mountain country. It it claimed that teveral ledgo 
have been diacovered u thit vicinity, but no attend hat been made to develi^ tfaeoi. Ac- 
cording to the United States geological survey the fbnnation of ifaii particular region it very 
anciesiL Rocks have been found there which are so old that it ii difficult to dattify them. 
These rocks are black and of extreme hardnett. Roui^Iy estimated die area of Seward 
Peninsula in which tin ha* been (bund it 1 ,000 square miles. 

CoiMsdered in the Hght of all available data 1 believe that tin mining in Seward Pcnia- 
tula it a very promiting induttry. Any perton familiar with quartz mining knows that a great 
deal of cxpente it connected wtdi the development of ledges, and money mutt Be expended 
in order to develop the tin ledget of this part of ^atka. TraDq>ortation (adbiet mutt be 
provided so that the ores can be transported from the mines to the seaboard, and dicBce to a 
tmdlcr conveniently and favorably aitu^ed. It is ifae general opinion that this smekcr duMild 
be constructed somewhere en Puget Sound. The large quantity of fuel required for 
smelting ores makes it apparent that the tin ore can be ctmceatrated and the concentrates 
shipped to a imeiter on Puget Sound and reduced there at a leta coal than fad caa be 
du[^>ed to Alaska and used by a smelter to secure the same results at the mines. The de- 
vdopmeat of the tin mines of Alaska is simply a question of time and the in^ligent use of 

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Quartz Minin|( 

B Hurrah, th» Mo«t Northerly Quarta MIIP in North Amcrlea— Num«r»iw Quarts Pro*- 
pacta an th« Panlnaula — EncauraQlng Diawvarlaa on tha Kebuk and Noatak RJvor^— 
Tht Omilak Sllvar and Load Mina—Ottwr Valuablo MInorala. 

UARTZ DWiing tatnAf nicccetk pkcer mining. Plaur sold k cuflr ^ 
covered and eai^jr extracted. Quartz ledges arc not lo eanly found and wbm 
found UMiaUr both nwaej and efort an required to develop diem. And 
after tbey have bees developed more money m required to equip tlic mme 
widt a iniB (or redudng Ae ore. Filacer mining it a Bne <rf work that appcab 
lo the poor man. If be be feitimate enoiq^ to itrike ridi jliggwn* in duUow ground, and 
if be bave available water, a fortune como eaiy. h every miung camp wboe foU phcen 
have been found, for •everal jrear* uicceMling the dtKOvcty almort tbe entse mterert of the 
wiMaimily ii centered in thit kind of mining. Several yean difwe after Ibe dKOveqr 
«i theen hdon there are any development of quartz. It it claimed by mmcralogirtt, and 
the ibeoiy Mcna tenaUe. that a placo region ii ■ poor place to look for quartz. The aigu- 
Bcnt adduced it dtat placer gold otigiaally came from ledge*, and that tbe ledga that may 
have ented m placa regioaa have given up their values long ago. But it it abo ^>parent 
in the liMtoiy of giM momig that ledges contaming the iH«aou« metal are to be foimd m die 
region of placer dqio siti , if not in die imoaediate vidnily. 

During the past three yean there has been Mine p ™T*^*™g m die Nome cauntry for 
quartz. I^mising ledges have been found in many parts <rf the p*™™"**, near Noma, in 
the Solomon River ^country, at Topkulc in the Council District, in the Kougarok Dirtrict 
and on the Arctic slope. To this bit I migfal add the ledges of tin which have been dis- 
covered m the Yo^ repon and at Cape Prince of Wales. 

Big HuavttK Qsaatrts Mlm* 

So far die only quartz mine that has been devdoped is on Big Hurrah Creek, a ttiu- 
taiy <rf Solomon Rivet. This mine was developed in 1902 by T. T. Lane. Tbe coun- 
try rock at tbe mine is a calcareous schist and die ledge is a fiwure vein having an average 
wkhh of five feet Tbe ore is free milEng, diere being very little concentrates. 

A trw itimp mill was ended on this property b 1 903, and in the early part of die 
season of 1904 ten more stamps were added to tbe nuIL This mill has been in operation 
ever since it started, and is now crushing from lixty-live tons to seventy tons of ore daily. 

Tbe mill is modem and up-to-date, bong equipped with gasoBne en^nes. Arrange- 
ments have aln> been made for the use of water power which is available at ccruin sesisons 

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<rf the year. In September, 1904. minug opentiocu had reachd a depth of 200 feet, and 
at that time there were 20,000 tout of ore in li^t. 1 am not informed of the average vahie 
of thi< ore, but the mine hat been profitably operated ever since the dropping of the fii*t 
itamp. 1 have teen (ample* of rock from thii mine that contain extraordinaiy vahief. I 
know from common report that thii ii a ipleadid property, and the outlook for its c 
ai a dividend property if very favorable. 

Thii it the motl northerly quartz mine b North America. It it now owned by Mra. 
Charlet D. Lane. The Mperintendent of thit mine it J. M. WiUianu, of Gimti Valler. 
CalifaTnia, a man of extensive eaipericnce in quartz mining. 

Noma Quarts Mining Company 

The Nome Quartz Mining G>mpany is a corporation ifaal has extennve quartz hold- 
ings m the vicinity of Nome, on Anvil Creek, Glacier Creek and Snow Gutdi. Up to 
this date the only work that hat been done hat been in the line of proq>ectiiig. The result 
of pKMpecttng hat been to encouraging that during the winter of 1904^5, the company was 
abk to sell a large block of stock which has [wovided it with money for devekipment purposes 
and the constmctton of a mill. The ledges where work has been done have diown some 
excellent aisay values, and it is hoped that with the funds at the di^>osal of the company k 
wiD be poaiible to develop another valuable quartz property in Seward Peninsula. 

Salomon Qsaartm Mining Compskny 

The Solomon Quartz Mining Company it a corporation owning twelve quartz (iaims 
and a water rif^t on Big Hurrah acroa the stream from the Lane mine. The ot c er i ot 
this company are: C. E. Hoztie. president; J. P. Pearton, tecretaiy and treasurer; George 
R V^llUms, manager: William Siniggnell, F. Vanstan, and C Ringger constitute the bal- 

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•DCe of the board of <{iTeGton. Thit compuqr hai beco trnkiBg cm a true fiiaure vein which 
ii fifteen feet wide «t the bottom of « thaft 1 1 feet deep; the wab are of ahcred date, and 
the vein connils of a gray quartz having a bhie tint The vein matter containi free gold. 
Average away* of rock taken at a depth of teventy-five feet are $1 7.40 the ton. It it pro- 
posed to coutnict a mill on this pn^ierty in the near future. Several other promiaing quartz 
proqtecti have been diicovered in the Solomon River country. 

Othvr Qwarts I 

Some woric hai been done by Hany Hill on quarU 
cropping* at Topkuk, but the vahie of dii* property 
baf not a* ya been aiccrtained. Some of the rock 
hai diown very good amayt. It wu the intention 
oi the owner lut (caaon to put a cyanide plant on thit 
property. Much of the rock it partially decompoaed, 
and it it beUeved that it can be tuccettfuUy woHced by 
ON THE TRAIL. meant of the cyanide procetr „ ^^ ^ 

A recent quartz ditcovery on Kock Creek, a tnbu- 

taiy of Soake River, cauied a great deal of excitement among the quartzinining contingent 

of N<Mne, at it wai believed that a ledge of tellurium ore had been found. No devek>pment 

work hat yet been doite on thit property. 

There are quartz veint on the Knizgamepa River, in the region of Salmon Lake, 

Joe Sliicovich hat been working on one of theie ledget and hat uken out tome sample* . 

of good ore. 

Quartz ledget have been found in the Kougarok Dittrict. but at the minen of thit 

region have <Mily begun to develop the placer protpectt it it too early to obtain any definite 

knowledge a* to the extent or quality of the quartz ledget of diit part of the country There 

are alto ledgea in the Council Dittrict, but they have not at yet been developed into mbe*. 
A promiiing locking Beld for quartz mining i* in the 

Noit(» Sound country. Between Norton Sound and 

Colovin Bay there i* a contact, and there are ledget in 

Att nei^tboffaood of thit contact, but they are a* yet un- 


The only quartz ledges on the Arctic ik>pe that have 

been ptMpected are on Kobuk River. Thit it a remote 

region, >everal hundred mile* from Nome and a king way 

fmn any bate oi tiqiplie*. Minen from thit territory 

rq>ort that the quartz proq>ecti are the mott favorable 

feature of the mining outlocA of thit dittrict. Several 

ledge* have been discovered and located. Some of these 

are of great itze. but at yet none have been found that ctm- 

lain extrawdinary vahies. That ledget containing high 

grade ores exist in thit part of dw country it b^evcd by 

cveiybody familiar with (be country and its history. Very 

rich lamplet of float topper ore have been found m thit 

part of Northwestern Alaska. Paddy O'Donnell, a Tunneled out. 

quartz mineT of experience, it devoloping a large ledge near the Kobuk River. Samples of 

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rack from Urn led«e ibow vahm of boA gold utd copper wUdt. if tixy go dawn. w3 
make it a property that can be pco&tablr miiwd. 

Fran infofmatioii I have obuined from pn^tecton, there ii a ^>ka(iid looking qnarta 
country near tbe KNirce of the Koyukuk and Chandlar Rirefs. Theae ilTeaau diKhaiae 
into tbe Yukon, and Ifacir head-waten are in a comparatrrdr unknown and uneifrfored 

OmU«k Sllvar Min«« 

Tbe firit nunet erer dJKorcred m Seward Pcaintok were located in tbe latter le T en ti M 
in tbe vicint^ of Fwb River, in tbe Golovio Bajr coonUr- Tbcy are known as tbe Ondak 
Silnr Minei. Tbii proper^ wa« discovered by a lailor wfao hadaeea y e tnuBi aef tfie ore 
btou^ down by tbe natives, wfao obtained from diii region pieces of neailf pure fflena 
whkb diqr broke into nnaU cubes and put into bullet mooldi adcGng neked lend lo ntake 
buDeth M •• to ecoDomizc the lead ban which tfaey bou^t from tbe traders. Tbe saOor 
look i pe ck aens of the ore outsde and had it tcMod. It was found to be valuable. John 
C Green cbartoed die sdiooiier "W. F. Manh" and made a trip to this part at Alufca. 
takbg tea moi widi hinL He found tbe pnMpect of the mine veiy eooouragBgi and n 
IS61 organized tbe Fnh River Mining Dirtiict, which was the first minnig tfistrict m Nortb- 
westen Alaska. It bchKled aB of Seward Pamuuk. He made two locatioM on tbe 
ledges, and started to take out several tons of ore with him to the states. Hii veaael was 
wrecked in a gale off Cape Darby, but Mr. Green and his crew lu oceeded m grtmg Mbore 
and made their way to St Michad, where tbe Revenue Cutter Cofwin fiaui die J then 
tnn^ortation to tbeir homes. This was a disastrous venture, but Mr. Green made anodier 
trial dte year folknnng, which was more successful He has since mined and Jifped fnut 
dik ote body near $100,000 worth of ore. This mme has practically paid ita way, bat 
dieexpcnave mediod by which it has been operated and die gteat cost ^ tnnspoitalioa, has 
prevented ibe reafization of any profit 

The last ihipment of ore from this maw coossted of 62,100 pounds which was sold 
to the smelter for $159.00 tbe ton. Tbe retuins from this ore were 142.29 ounces sBver, 
74 per cent lead, and two doUan in gold tbe ton. 

The ore has been taken out ^ • great quany sixty feet in diameter. Five dmfts fifty 
to sixty feet in depth have been sunk on the nordi tlepe of tbe ledge. It is more appfo- 
piiate to say that this is a mountain of ore than to caO it a ledge. In this vaet miBtnl 
depodt are ledges which contain very high values. Tbe hanging wall is linKiiiii. and ifaa 
toot waD Bchirtose. 

Oth«r V»1«mM0 M iaar*ls 

The only resources of any consequence in Noithwresteni Alaska are minerals. As 
gold is tbe most vakmUe it has attracted the giealat attention. These is a possibifay. hw 
ever, that tbe tin of thif countiy wiD receive a Ibcral Am of attention when "r<*'ltrtr aad 
mine operators take boltl of die tin properties. These are odter minenls m addition to dtew 
which possess ecooomic vahie. Their developanat awaits another en m the history ot 
this couitiy, when dwapcr wages and better tra nsp ort a tion hdlities w3l permit of ecoMB- 
ical devdopment woik. and operatioeis can be profitably conducted. 

The first of dwse od>er minerak is ooaL Nottfawe st em Alaska has a fwl s^iply 
adequate for its own needs, and posaUy suftcient to fumidi fud to a put of the wosU. 

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Under praoit coodiboiu co«l c«n be mined in dte ttate* uid ihipped to Nome cheapct 
ibu k can be taken from the coei mines of Semrd Penin*ula and traniported to Nome. 
Moat of tbe coal of Noidiwesleni Alaaka i* of die lignite variety. It makea a quick fire but 
ii not latting. But tbere it a grade of coal 
in die vidnitj of C^ie Lid>ume that con- 
tains (eventjr-nine per cent, of fixed carbon, 
approaching very near to an antfaradte 
coaL While it i> a better quality of coal 
than tbe average coal ihippcd to Nome, 
it never hai been mined or uwd by people 
is die peninsula because of die expense of 
mtniiH uid traniportatian. 

From Cape Lisbume and extending 
back diTOu^ a large area of this north 
counlty towards die ICobuk. Noatak and 
CoKiDe Rivers is a formation in which 


Bu mero us coal vens have been found. 

Deposila of coal have been discovered in many oUier parts of Northwestern Alaska. Coal 
has been found in die vidnity of Nome, near Norton Bay, and there is coal m a number 
of places oo the Yukon. There is a very large vein of coal on die Kugruk River, between 
Candle Creek and Inmachuk River. But in all probability the greatest dqxMte in all 
tbe nordi country are b die baan of the G^viUe River. J. M. Reed, a prospector, wbo 
in 1 903 went to die CohiUe country and exi^ored about 300 miles of the river, loU nw 
that he saw pieces of coal in nearly every stream that flowed bto the Cohrille. indicating 
that these tributaries had cut. at some place in their course, through veins of coaL The 
fbmatioe of this region indicates the presence of petroleum. Great beds of asphahiBn. the 
resid uum of petroleum, are reported from this part of Alaska. It will be a great many years, 
however, before this fud deposit luu a commercial value. 

Photoaraph bT B. B. Dobba. 


It would be wise for the government to tboroughty explore and investigate tbe economic 
value of the Colville basin; not for immediate needs, but as a possible fuel supply in the 
nations to come. 
In the early days of Nome, many miners believed that a platinum strike would be 

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nude. The prindpal nqiply of platinijin coidci froin the riven of die Ural f 
RoMM. It luu been found in tnwll quubtia in CaKforoiB. The belief b the exiMoKe 
ot pktinum b Northwestern Akika hu not yet been realized, bat the vast areai which an 
]ret Ui>ciplored contain potdUbtiet, not only of platinum but of otmium uid mow of die 
other rare and very valuable minerab. And no one need be surpriied if diamonila dxtuld 
be cbcovered m tome part of Aladca. 

In the vidnity of Nome, unall quantitiei of metalHc biunuth have been diKOvered. and 
Mveral p^ihite ledgei have been located. On Bendeleben Mountain, not a great dbtuKe 
from Couttcil City, mica has been found, but whether it exiiti b quality and quantity >uf- 
boent Id be piobtably mined ii a quettioii to be determiiwd. 


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Methods of Mining 

Transition Period of th* Nome Country— UtI I liatton of Water by Conatructlon of Oltchoo 
and Inetailation of Modern Hydraulic Machinery. 

THE quotkm of method » mott boportant in mining. Th« woric diat wa* done in 
the early dayi wai by the old-fuhioned metbodi. with tocker, kmg-tom and 
■hiicc-boxe*. Theie method* tecured good rcnilu where ground was very rich. 
Foui men ihoveling in lix hours on Snow Gulch in 1 699, secured to the clean- 
up $3,000, and the fint clean-iq> on DiKoreiy claim. Anvil Creek, was $20,000. 
The concentrated placcn conUintng such vahies as Anvil Creek and Snow Gulch are not 
found in many streams. But there are new strikes every year. The persistent prospector 
digging holes in die ground occasionally Ends a deposit that is very rich, and dtera is no 
doubt that these very rich qtott will be discovered every year (or many years to come. 

The very rich gravels found by die early exptwers have been partially exhausted, and 
attention has been directed to the vast areas of unconcentrated placers Wiich comprbe hun- 
dreds of square miles of this part of Alaska. The rocker, the long-tom or the tluice-box 
does not provide the pn^ier method tor mining ground that contains less than one dollu 
the cubic yard. In these unconcentrated placers it become* a question of the miner's ability 
to handle a large quantity erf gravel to obtain a profit. As a consequence, improved modem 
mining machneiy is required, and ditches must be constructed so that water under pressure 
can be utilized to wash down the gravel banks. Resort must be had to such methods as are 
IHDvided by hydnuBc elevatots, by dredgers, and by steam shovels. 

It may be proptiAy said that the Nome region is now b a transition period between 
the exhaustion of the shallow placers which were first discovered and the beginning of opera- 
tiiHis by hydraulic and other improved methods upon the unconcentrated placers wherein 
the greatest wealth of the country lies. The greatest length of ditches constructed and the 
most improved machinery installed have been during the past two yean. Preparations are 
joat now making to mine this country, and when all the prapoaed plans for ditches and 
machinery are consummated the annual gold product of this country will be very much 
larger than it has been. 

Every year adds to the number of deep diggings, and every year shows an bcreased 
ou^t as the result of winter operations. The ancient channels which can be fbcovered 
ody by "Swede luck," which the patient and persevering Scandinavian describes as "yust 
•mking boles," are often hidden deep in the benches. It has been found more profitable to 
mine these deep diggings in the winter time, by drifting and timbering the drifts and hoisting 
die pay gravel m buckets fnm die shafts. The dumps which are piled up during dte winter 

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teuoD are wufaed e«rly in the qiring when the mow begiiu to thaw and lunuthet water for 
(hiking. The product of winter dump! in the firing of 1904 wai near $1,000,000. 
Newi received From Nome thii winter indicates that the product of the winter diunpa in the 
^>ring of 1905 wiU be larger than it ever hat been. 

A great deal of winter protpecting hat been done on the peniniula by means of timw< 
ers. The miner it equipped widi a steam boiler with a hoae attached to it; steam is forced 
into Ae bottom <rf the diaft to the thawer, which in a dKirt time eztracti the frott from six 
inches to a foot of ground. This thawed ground it shoveled into the bucket and hoisted 
out, and the thawer used again. By diis slow procen holes are lunk through the frozen 

earth. Although the procett it ilow, it it the most cAcienl method of tinldng in ground 
that it frozen. A pick it an aknost uteleit implement m frozen earth. Dynamite has but 
little value in breaking up the frost-Giled ground. Ordinary powder is better adapted to this 
work, a slow explosive being needed in order to blast a bole m the frozen earth. 

There are pay-streab in the paunsnla fratt-locked in midsummer, utd thawen art 
required to proq>ect this kind of ground. The hozca earth it the new conditioa wbkk 
confronts the miner. It prescols a probl em wtuch be mutt solve m order lo make and wcwre 
the best pomMe roultt in thit country. The sokitjoa t^ \im problem Memt to be by the noat 
timple ractbodt. The >nn sbining twenty hours oat of the twenty-feur in mjdwmwnfir has 
a powerful e#Kt on the surface of the earth t»poeed to his rays. Much of the earth it 

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covered with a mouy vegetation which prevents the nui tram ■Hacking the (roiL Bf deu^ 
ing thit furface and by ploughing the ground that it thawed m that both air and nuuhine caa 
gel into it, the proccM of thawing the frott from sane of thoe rireanu and hilk it much mofB 
eipeditioui tlian one not familiar with the subject would imagme. If Ac miner can boil 
■MJstance bjr turning water over the ground, in the process Lnown as ground'shiiciBg, ibe 
frozen conditions are oveicoaie without great difficulty or expense. Proper use of «■, 
water and air will soke the problem of the frost. Nature froze the euth; {Hovide ibe ri^ 
conditioiis and nature will thaw it 

The conmon method of miniag in Alaska consists of the ordinary process where sluice 

Photograph by B. B. Dobba. 

Glacier Creek Knd the Hot Air Bench Mine In 

bout we used and the gravel is dioveled in by men; the use of teams and scrapen for ttrip- 
piof the siver-stratum <rf ground diat contains no pay ; the use of borscs and scrapers for ro> 
moving dte tailings. Most <A tiie gold that has been extracted horn Seward Psninmla 
faai been taken out by this mediod. But the expense of handling ground by tfaii meniw 
would not pcraut die working of gravel deposits -™*-— "g less Aan % 1 .00 die cubic yanL 
and as vast areas of auriferous ground contain kss values than this, it became necessary ta 
adopt a more expeditious and a cheaper method of handlmg the gravel. A resort was had 
to tbe various plans t4 hydtaulirking. >Vilh ditches furnishing ample water under tuficial 
pressure, tbcfc is no question trf the great value <rf hydraulic methods in mining. Tbe esaan- 

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tiab for luccenhil hydraulic openboiM are: Finl, plenty of wxler uo 

Mcond, grade m that the tailingi may be carried away ; and third and ntotl eMcntiaL a depMit 

of gravel of lufficieDt depth and vahie to be profitably opoatecL 

Seward Pentntula hai an abundance of water. E^>aiae miHt be entailed in the 
construction of ditches for the utilization of tliit water. But the hydraulic nuDer eDcoimten 
hia chief obaUde after he hai lolved both the ivoblem of water and the vaJue of hk gravd 
depout. Hicre if a lack of grade in thit country. By building long ditcba and tapfHog 
the water near the louicei of the itreanii, it ii poMible to obtain an adequate preanirc at die 
ground to be mined, but lack of grade createi diAcukia in diipoiing of the tailings from 


mining operations. Recognizing this impediment most of the hydraulic mining operator* 
in the Nome country have installed elevaton, and by this meani have attempted to overcome 
the difficulties presented by a lack of grade. Some of these hydraulic elevators have been 
operated very successfully, and notably where titere has been sufficient depth to the gravel 
deposit to enable milters to work a considerable time widtout changing the location of their 
plants. But where the ground b diallow and the elevators must be frequently moved die 
pay must approach the degree of high grade m order to make operations profitable. 

Where it is possible to use giants and monitors and dispose of the tailings by gravis 

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and water thk kind of mining i* the leatt aq>ensive and the most probtable. Of all the 
ground that bu been opened the mines of Daniel't Creek preMnt the bat c^ipoTtunitMi fbi 
lucceMful hydraulic mining. At thii place the Topkuk Ditch Company ha> water in 
lafficicnt volume and under lufficienl preuure to tear down the gravel bank* and cany the 
gravel throu{^ the ahiice^mxet, and the grade it ample for diipoaing of the tailings. 

There are many other pr«q>ertie* in the penintula where the condition* are favorable 
for working with giants and monitors. On Cripple lUver and Oregon Creek where an 
extensive ditch will be constructed this season by the Cedric Ditch Company there are 
favorable conditioai for this kind of mining. There is no doubt of the superiority of this 
method if the conditions are favorable. It possesses die advantage or removing the greatest 
quanbty of gravel at a minimum cost, and diis naturally means a ma»imum profit. 

The placer deposits of Seward Peninsula are most often found in a region that is 

Succesaful Opera 

comparatively flat In such a country the use of giants and monitors are not eficadous. 
The expense of taking care of the tailings greatly increases the cost of mining. The famous 
Ophir Creek in the Council District, which probably contains more gold than any other 
stream m Seward Peninsula, powe s ses the disadvantage of a lack of grade. The Wild 
Goose Mining and Trading Company, which has larger holdings on this stream than any 
other corporation or any mdividual, has constructed one of the largest ditches in the north 
country for the purpose of working its ground. This company has succcMfuUy used hy- 
draulic elevators. George James, of Evcfett, Washington, and his associates own No. 1 4 
Ophir Creek. They have done seme excellent and clean work by the use of derrick and 
shovds operated by steam. I do not know the cost of handling gravd by this method, 
but the woHc on No. 1 4 Ophir Creek has been both successful and profitable. On Anvil 
Creek the Pioneer Mining Company has succeeded with the steam shovel Mr. Lmdeberg, 

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tbe pnsklent of the cmnfMuiy, b favor- 
ably dnpoMd to the tteam ihovd, bc- 
teviat tlut it ii ad^rted la the beM and 
DKMt ecoBomical woddngi of many ei 
Ibe miita of thit coimtiy. With a 
I it ia.MCMiair to have a 
h of gravel and a cem- 
pantivdy imifonn bcdrocL The bed- 
rock of Sewaid Pcdntala coolaini gold 
•OHM timei to a dcptb of aeretml feet; 
and tbe cfiftcuky of opcratioD wiA a 
■teun ihovel ii cocouotCTed in obtab- 
■ig dieic valuei fiom ibe bedrock. 

A* yet comparatively little work hai been done by dte dredging proccM. Mr. C A. 
Fenin. manager of the Nrnthem Mining and Trading Company, hai demoMtrated die 
■ncccM tA dw dredger in Solomon River, and be believa that fnr a large area of Ak amtij 
it ii tbe best method of mining. Last leaMM) hit dredger removed an average of nme hm- 
dred yards of gravel in twenty boun. Eight men did the worL To reaiove diit qtuurti^ 
of gravel in twenty houn by tbe primitive procev of pick and rftovcl would require a work- 
ing force eighteen timei larger than the force required to operate the dredger. M- 
Fcnin esti ma te* the actual cost t^ operaliooi with his (bedger at durteen cents and a h>i 
dte yard. Tbe largest expense wu for fueL two tons and a half of coal being cu n nBiy d 
every day. The work was to a certam extent experimcatal, but die success obtained wil 
lend to some e:densive operations. One great advantage of the dredger over the steam shovd 
it ibe di spo siti on t^ tbe tailiB^ In most ^ the mining that has been done m Seward 
Peninsula it has cost more to dispoae of the tailings than it cost to get the gravel into me 

The successful and profitable mining of the future on Seward Peninsula wiB be dsoe 
by giants and monitors, by hydraufic devators. by derricks and dtovels. by die steam dwvd 
and 1^ dredgers. The btelligeni miner will be able to determine by the nature and chsr- 
acter of his ground the mediod diat is best for him to use. 

The days of the slyice-box and dwveling-in metfaod have odC 

' ^ however, entirely passed. There are many rich depo s iti of coo- 

' Jiis medtod will be used. Where wiakr 

nd large dumps have been taken Imo ■ 

iface the question that coofraots the minff 

i best mcdwd of getting dtese dumps mtP 

t dumps are utualy cleaned i^i by water 

obtained from melting snow. Tbe 

gravel must be very rich to pi? fc 

the expensive work of drifting sod 

hoisting the gravd in buckets Wn 

the deep shafts. Tbe matter of 

sluicing is a simple proposition sn'' 

depends i^mxi the availability <■ 


PROSPECTING WITH A KEYSTONE DBII.U Facilities for profitable maiM 

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may be obuined by utilizing the water power which can be haroetaed in the hi^cr ahhudc* 
of the peniniula. Converted into electnciiy this power can be tranimittcd to the minet to 
be uaed in any manner doired — for pumping water, hoialing gravel (rom ihafti, handling 
gravel by mcani of derricki or tteam shovek or dredger*. But the practical application <A 
tkit invotvei a large preUminary expenditure, and at the present time the mindi of mining 
operators tetm to be centered m ibe idea of ditch conttmctiMi and the utilization of water 
by gravity for the puipow of operating their properties. The most important hcton in tlie 
general development of die resources of Seward Peninsula are water and tranqwrtatioo, 
ditches and railroads. The extremely favorable proq>ect of the mining industry in this 
country ts due to the fact that great interest is at present focused in these two industrial 

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PhologTBph by B. 


Speeding Across the Tunilni: Banner, the Mom Nnrtherly RHilronil Station on the Con- 
tlnenC SiinUy Kitpurii1i)n to Anvil Creek, 

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Methods of Travel 

THE two moit importuit indiutnal featuies of Nordiwotern Aluka rebte to walo 
and tru^rarUboD. Water a u ementul to nuning u it » to kgricukure. md 
without proper tranqmrtation (adlitiei a large area of ttiit country never would 
be developed. When miner* have to pay from $200 to $300 the ton br 
traniportiDg tbdr nqipliea from Nome to the minet which they detire to operate, it 
ii apparent that tbcM minei mwt contain extraordinary vahiei in order to be profitably 
wo^ed. The e^nsive mineral dcpo«tt which conUin value* de*ignated ai low grade 
win ronain undeveloped imtil luch time ai railroad* have provided a cheap metbod of 

The necettily of railroad* in tfait country i* apparent to everyone familiar with the 
situation. The character of Ae surface of the earth, the swampy coastal plain* or tundri, 
the hillside* covered with reindeer mo**, growing in a comparatively dry crust of eardi 
over a treachcrou* bog, and the miry spots to be found in the mtnuitains as well as <» the 
plain*, are evideacet of the difficulties to be oicountered in comtructing wagon road*. 
Freighting is done all over die peninsula by mean* of teams and wapn*. but in ^ of 
Nordiwestmi Alaska there is not a hi^way or anydiing dut can be designated by the 
title of road. The nearest approach to a road is a river bed. When a teamster can follow 
the course of the (tream, sometimes wading throui^ deep fords, at other time* )octEng 
over big rough boulders, he i* fortunate and happy. Where the trail* cut acroM the hilb 
there are frequent places where the hone* flounder belly deep m muck and mire and the 
wagmi wheels drop to the axle in the soft ground. No wonder that freighting i* expennve. 
Horse* as wdl as men muit be adapted to thi* work. A nervous horse will quickly wear 
himself out, and a nervous man will quit the job. 

But notwithstanding din [^ysical condition, railroads are easily constructed. A 
narrow-guage line, where not much attention is paid to the road-bed. the object being 
sinqily to construct a road over which freight can be hauled, can be buih at a coat of 
$5,000 the mile. For short hauls there n no question of the *uperiority of a narrow- 
gauge railroad over any other methods of transportation in this country. By ditching 
and draining the tundra and marshy ground oi the vpland, a firm and permannil road- 
bed for a railroad can be made. This fact has been demonstrated by the Council City 
and Sobmon River Railroad Company, which is buikling a standard-gauge load 
from die mouth of Solomon River to Council City. Sixteen miles of this company's nad 
vHiich ha* been constructed and is in operation, is evidence of the assertion that a film, 
permanent road-bed can be constructed without difficulty in this countty. 

The development of Seward Penhuula will necessitate die building of railroads from 
a leaboard terminal to every important mining camp. The men who are now building 
railroad* in thi* part of Aladca are doing a sreal public lervice. They are asrating to 
develop die country. They are lacton in the induitrial work of thi* region second only 

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td the men wbo are digging ditchet and providing the adequate water nQq>ly to waih die 
aurihrain gravek. 

Tnuportalion in the winter time it not to teiiout a problem. After the snow* have 
hDee and the tnih have been bn^en. it if not a difficult matter to haul on sled* a load 
of five or ttx lont acroM the coimtiy with a team that could not haul more than a ton in the 
mmmcr teaion. The only detrimoit to die work of frei^ting in the winter time it die 
cM weather and frequent bEizzardt. The mow itonnt obliterate Iraik and often necet- 
ntate a great deal of work to get them open.jfor traffic Blizzard* are dangeroiu thingi 
to encovnter. In the earljr dayi die mortality Uil renihing from bKzzardt wai imnecet- 
tariiy kxig. In later winters a better underttandiiig of the blizzardt' habiti hai made fewer 
caanahiei from freezing. 

Stage finei run from Nome to important parti of die peninsula during the winter 
MMon. The stages are on runnen and are covered coo^letely with heavy canvas. A 

stove inside the vdiicle 
has given the convey* 
ance the name of hot-air 
stage. A stage fine with 
vehicles of this descr^ 
tion it in opention be- 
tween Nome and Coun- 
cil City. It nmi on 
schedule time except in 
few instances where se- 
vere ttonns interfere. 
There are convenient 
road-houtes on die trails 
where the stage driver 
and his passeagen may 
be housed when the 
short winter day is done. 
In die history of Alas- 

A RKINDEEH IN HARNESS. ^ *>8» .»«. «^^'^^ 

connected with the pion- 
ecft. Dog teams were the [mniitive medtod of traiaporUtion in the winter season, and they 
are UMd today whoe quick service is desired and light frei^t it to be transported. Dogs are 
used almost entirely for traniporting the maik in Aladca. Every winter the mail to Nome it 
carried by relays at dog teams down the Yukon and across from Unalaklect to Nome; 
and frtMB Nome it is scsit to eveiy posloAce in Northwestern Akska by dog teams. The 
distance between Nome and Unalakleet is 240 miles, and it has been covered with a dog 
team, by mail carrier M. L. V. Smith, in sixty-nine hours total time. Nihil Carrier Efi 
Smith has die distinction of having made die record trip with a dog team in thii country. 
He brou^t die Kotz^Mie mail to Nome, a distance of 350 miles, m five day*. If the mail 
service on the Yukcm was as efficient at die service furnished by Calkin* & Company on 
Seward Peninsula, the residents of Nome would get their mail in the winter time in forty 
days or forty-five days instead of waiting for two month* or more for it. 

The phase of the transportation questicMi between Nome and the states i* sinqily that 
of an ordinary ocean voyage until die steamer drops anchor in the roadstead at Nome. 

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It » • long voyage, the dirtaiKc from Seattle to Nome being 2,350 mila. The veMeb of 
the Nome fleet are from eight <lay> to ten day* making the trip. On thii journey the paMcnger 
appioachci voy near to the line in the Pacific Ocean where in traveling westwaid, a day 
it gained i and where the eaitbound traveler Iomi a day. In order to get to Nome tbc 
vexel mutt tail a long distance to the WMtward, and the traveler wiD crou a meridian 
that paMei to the westward of the Sandwich lilandi. 

If the weather be favorable the trip will be ddightfuL When the vessel arrives 
at Nome the passenger will receive his first introduction to the difficulties of transportatioD 
in the Northland. Instead of the vessel tsdng up to a pier and permitting the passengers 
to walk ashore on a gang plank, the captain of the diip will anchor m the roadstead, two 
miles from shore. A Hitle tug drawing a big black barge wiD steam From the shore out 
to the vessel. The passengers will be Unded upon this barge, and the tug will haul them 
ashore. If the weather be favorable and the sea calm, the barge will be hauled in so that 
the passengers may land by a gang plank. But if the water be rou^, as it frequendy 
is. the new arrivals will be hoisted from the barge by means of a derrick and boom and 
•hug through the air onto a «^arf built at die water's edge. 

Eveiy pound of frci^t shipped to this camp must be Eghtered ashore from the vessel 
carrying it. In order to transact the businesa of discharging freight at Nome there sire 
several fi^terage companies and a small army of kmgshoremen. The cost of H^terage is 
about four dollars the ton, half as much as the cost of transporting frei^t from Seattle to the 
spot in the roadstead where the ship dreps anchor. 

The necessity of a pier or a dock at Nome is obvious. The queition is, can ooe be 
constructed that wiD widutand the stonns, and not be destroyed by die ice when il 
goes out. 

I have neglected in this story, which b but a brief reference to some of die phases of 
transportation of the north country, to refer to the prospector with a pack on his back. In 
1900 dozens mi^t be met daily on every trial, each man with a pack on bis back and a 
diovel on his shoulder. Carrying his pack across the swampy tundra, over the hills, throu^ 
wet willow thickets, fording streams waist deep, sleeping at night in wet blankets and eating 
hastily prepared fare — pan<akes, bacon and cotfee, — is die experience of nearly every 
pioneer of thia country. 

Wherever practical or possible, the rivers of Seward Peninsula have been used fi» 
transportation purposes. But none of the streams are navigable except for small, li^t draft 
vessels, and wherever a miner could reach his destination by following a water course, « 
means of transportation was open to him. A small boat could be poled i^} the river w 
towed up stream, men and dogs, sometimes horses being utilized at the end of the tow btc. 
The work of poling and towing a boat up most of the streams of Seward Peninsula, is an 
exceedingly laborious task, but it has been the only method by which prospectors n the 
early days were enabled to get supplies any great dtftance into the interior. 

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Ditches the Desideratum 

Th«ir Influcnc* on tha Davalepment of th« Ceuntry^Many Ditch EnUrprlH» Reprc- 
••nting an Aggrtgate Invaatmant of Near $24)00,000. 


7F death wiB coveout with me that 1 maj' "die in the hut ditch" coutnicted in 
Northwoteni Ahuka I will mcaiure my life by centuiick The work of making 
ditche* in thii countiy has (airly begun. It sUrted b 1901 and at the cloae 
of the MMon of 1904 the hilk and plaiiu of Seward Peniiuula were gathed by 
1 75 milet of ditcbet. A regiment of men will be digging ditchet tfait year and when 
the U*t iteamcr toots good-bye to Nome in die Ml of 1903 a hundred mile* or more 
will have been added to the total length of ditches in this part of Alaska. These ditcbet 
nproent an investment of more than $1,500,000, posubly $2,000,000. The equ^^ 
ment necessary for their construction hat cost a good many thousand dollars. 

All this n preliminaiy work and exptatt; preparation to harvest the gold crop of 
the country. Placer gold mining requires water — quantities of it A thousand ttreamt 
that awakra in the qpnng from their winter's sleep and hasten in a wasteful race to 
pour dieir lorrentt into the sea will be touched by ditches that will say to these idle waters: 

"You have a work to perform among the industrial activitict that have begun in 
this land where you have frolicked for ages. Man has discovered the treasure long 
hidden in the thousands of square miles of this country, and he needs you to tear down 
the gravel banks and wash the bedrock so that he can get the gold they contain." 

There it much work for water to do. It mutt travd throu^ ditches, down hill 
and up hill throui^ great irMi p^>et, until finally dtae it suficient elevation behind it 
to burl it through a monitor with such force that it tears a hole in the hilt^ide and makca 
great boulders dance Uke little pebbles beneadi the stream from a garden bote; and 
when it leaves the tluice-boxet with the yellow glitter above dieir rifHet that brings the 
glisten to the eyes of the miners it mutt travel heavy laden with sih shiggishly to the sea. 

There is great activity in Seward Peninsula this year making preparation to yoke 
Ibe water so as to hasten the work of mining the gold. Horses and scrapen. m«) and 
thoveh — busy thfouf^ all the days and twilight nights of summer. The mining men 
of Nome have learned the value of ditches. The men who have appropriated the water 
own an interett in all the minet that require thit water to be successfully operated. 

This foreword will introduce the reader to the subject of ditches and ditch con- 
sdvctiao. The prosaic account of thit work which (oUowt is published to illustrate die 
great vahiet i^iich must be in the ground of Seward Peninsula. This desciiplioa of 
ditches and <fitch cwittiuction shows a vast amount of human endeavor which would 
not be exerted if there were not bright proqtecti of compensation. 

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TK« Ml«o«na DllcH Coatp«nsr 

The Miocene Ditck Compuiy owiu dcu fifty milei of ditch, ddiveriDs water oa 
the moM promiting and vahiable mincnf frwmdt of Seward Penintula. Thk conpuy ii 
the pioneer ditch concern of the countiy. It wai originally compowd of J. M. Davidaon. 
W. L. Leknd and W. S. BIm. but wa* not inooiporated until 1 902. The entopne 
originated in 1900. In the following year the fint lectiao of the ditch wai coMtiucted 
trom Glacier Creek to Snow Gulch. It was live milei and a half long, and with the water 
it nipplied the fint hydraulic work in Seward Penimula was begun on Snow Gulch. The 
biggest lin^ clean-up from the Nome gold field* resulted from these operations diii season. 
This clean-iq) secured gold valued at $54,000. The brst water turned throu^ this ditch 
tm hydraulic mining was on August 13, 1901. Dwing the year 1901 the ibch was oob- 
structed to Banner Creek. 

In the (oikwing year the ditch was completed to Hobaon Creek, and the prindpal 

PhotOBTapti by 1 

supply of water was obtained from thb stream. In 1902 the company started to bu3d a 
tunnel duough Anvil Mountain. The tunnel which was finUkcd April 20, 1904. ia 
1,635 feet bng, four feel wide and seven feet hi^. In 1903 a dtvinon of the dildi was 
constructed to Nome River and another divisioB to Snake River and the main line was en- 
larged to a capacity of 3,000 miners incba of water. During the previous wintor si^^ 
plies were hauled from Nome and cached along the proposed bie of extsMsoa. so that the 
work in the following summer could be prosecuted with vigor and all possible de^ialch, 

la mnsUuLlin g the Miocene Dbdi an cAort has been made to use ti u a u only wha it 
wa* abeohildy neccasaiy. the company p ie feiiin g to um the native rnnd i l ii w s for Jitei iw. 
and to build embat^ments of sod or tundra to prevent leakage of water. An acconpaagr' 
ing iOuslntioa shows a section of the ditd that wa* made by blasting through the soEd 
rock. This ditch line comprises two inverted siphons— one 400 feet king across Dotolhy 

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Cicek and another 1 ,000 (eet long acrou Manila Creek. One of these syphon* ii made 
of forty-inch |^. 

Water it <lelivered at No. I Glacier Creek under 275 feet of premire. At Dixoveiy 
claim. Anvil Creek, the preMine n more than 300 feet. The Miocene Ditch coven the 
minet of Anvil, Dexter and Glacier Creeki and Snow Gulch, and a vail area of other 
valuable ground. The contummation of the company 't plau for extension will largelj 

increaac line area to which water can be wpplied. 

The Miocene Conq>an]r is extensive^)' cagMcd in raining. Operalioaa with hy* 
diaulic elevaton have been conducted <hi Glacier Creek dnrng the pait two s q aoni. Tbe 
company'! ditch has been an obfect lesson of die great value of ditcbea to diit i.anwtiy. 
Some miacn believed that shovels and tluice4>oxet would exhaust the values in the rich 
claims of this section ^ the countiy, but tbe hydraulic methods made possible by the 

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MiocciK dkch demonttnted concluuvely that by the cntdc method* ftnt m um aoiy m part 
of the valuet in the ground had been obtained. 

vrUd Coosa Mining Contpknir's Diteh 

The Ophir Creek Ditch conatructed by the Wild Gooce Company ii the *w|fg— t 
in Northweitem Alaska. The ditch line inchiding lateral ditches is near forty miles 
k»s. The ditch has been made so that it may be enlarged to a capacity of 8,000 indues 
or 1 0,000 nchet. Plam have been propoMd to bring water from another waler-«hed nto 
thii ditch, thereby increasing the volume o( water and the preMure. The great prciiurf 
that can be obtained may be used in generating power for general use in this districL 

Tho TopHiaK Ditch 

The Topkuk Ditch, owned by Dr. Cabell Whitehead, O. W. Ashby and Henry 
Bratnober, cmiveys water from Kutcheblok River to the rich gravel deposit* on Daniels 
Crack. This ditch line is twenty-two miles bng and comprises two milts of steel i^pe 
twenty-six inches m diameter. Water from this ditch coven the gravel deposits of Daniela, 
EUdorado, Ryan, Wellington and CaHfomia Creeks and a large mineralized area oo 
the Kutchebkik. This ditch carries 1,000 inches of water. The hydraulic mininc 
^>eration* with water from this ditch were begun near the ckise of the season <^ 1903. 
These operations vnn conducted igwn a veiy rich deposit of gravel on Daniel* Owfc. 
This dqMsit has a varying depth of from Kve feet to fifty feet There are some extm- 
ordinaiy values in this gravel The present operations of the ditch con^Mny are od 
inoperty owiked by Jacob Berger and J. T. Sullivan. Thn property ii classed ainaag 
the best mining ground of Seward Peninsula. 

Mr. W. H. Emerson wai one of the originators of the Topkuk Ditch protect and 
was formerly president of the company. Hi* interests have since been acquired by Heaiy 
Bratitober. It is the purpose of the con^any to extend the ditch to the head of Silver 
Bow and to Skookum Creek, a distance of four miles and a half, this season. This 
exiensien will fumiih a supply of 1 ,500 additional inches of water, making a total water 
supply of the Topkuk Ditch Company of 2.300 inches. The ditch di*charges water 
on Daniels Creek at an elevation of 192 feet, and as there is great depdi to the gravel 
deposit and sufltcicnt grade for disposing of the tailings, the Daniels Creek ground is con- 
sidered to possess the most favorable conditions for successful hydraulic mining. 

Tho GoMon Da^rii Misslikg Comyaskx 

This company, of which A. C. Stewart is the promoter and general manager, hat 
an important and extensive ditch enterprise under way on the nght limit of Snake River 
from Bangor Creek to Surwet Creek, a distance of thirteen mites. I^urinit the season of 
1904 eight miles of this ditch, tapping the waten of both branches of Sledge Cre^ was 
constructed. At the close of the open season of 1904 the ditch was practically fimshed 
from Sledge Creek to Boulder Creek. When complete, this ditch wiH extend from Twin 
Mountain and Boulder Creeks to Sunset Creek. It wiH be seven feel wide on the bottom, 
ten feet wide on top and two feet deep, and will carry two thousand inches of water. It 
will deliver water on Sunset Creek under a pressure of 300 feet. 

Tlib flitch covers a larfK and valuable area of mineral ground. Every stream and 
gukJi under this ditch line contains gold, which hydrauKc operations ^ould successfully 

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mine. Gold HilL ntualfd of^KMite the mouth <^ Glacier CnA. snd on the righl liinit of 
Snake River, ii a vait gravel ilepodt from which gold hai been taken in evoy pro^Mct bole 
that hai been lunk. Thii hill i* a quarter of a mile long, diree-quarten of a mile wide and 
two hundred feet high. Bedrock never hat been found in any of the ihafti that have been 
sunk in the hilL The Golden Dawn Ditch will deliver water undeia premire of two 
hundred feet for hydraubcbng this hill. In addition to the Mream* and benche* on Snake 
River covered by thu ditch there it a large area of tundra ground between Suniet CnA and 
Bering Sea containing gold, and thit ground can be supplied with water from the Golden 
Dawn ditch under a prCMure of 400 feeL The con^Mny hat ananged for the 
inttaUalion of three hydrauUc outfiti to be operated with water lupplied by thlt ditch, and 
will begin work during the eniuing teaton of 1 905. 


Th« Campion Ditch 

Thomai A. Campion wat one of the early ditch builden in Seward Penintula. 
He bepm vrork in 1900 by acquiring a water ri^t on Bufak> Creek, a tributary of 
Nome River. Since then he organized the Campion Mining and Trading Con^tany in 
Chicago and hat done a great deal of work in the ditch-building line at die head of 
Nome River. He bat a ditch bte in the dtape of a hone-ahoe tapping all the trSwtariea 
near the bcad-watcrt (rf Nome River. The company ownt a large mraiber of water ri^tt 
iDchidmg water righit on LoM and Thomptoo. tributariet of Stewart River, and water 
righti on Sinuk River and Windy Creek; abo water ri^ti on Grand Central. In order 

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to get the walcn from ihcM Hreuiu into the Nome River ditch it will be neceuaiy to 
divert them to the Nome River water-thed from the water-thed* of the ttreunt in wfaich 
they flow. 

During the teaaoa of 1904 the company began hydraulic operationi with two ele- 
vaton on Dorothy Creek. It lias been planned to contlnict the Campim Ditch to King 
Mountain. Tlut ditch hat iu main intake at the hi^est altitude of any ditch on the 

Mr. Campion hai begun the construction of a ditch in the Kougarok District uhI 
another on Osborne Creek. 


Arctle Mining and Trading Coai|>&ny 

The Arctic Mining and Trading Company is constructing a ditch twen^-ieven 
miles l(Hig to convey water from California and Aglapuk Riven, to Lombard and Sunset 
Creeks at Grantley f-larlMr. This company owns 103 mining claims on these streams 
and thorough prospecting has shown that the pavels contain gold values estimated at 
$1.50 the cubic yard. Most of the ditch work was completed last season and by the 

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mkldle o( July, 1 903, the company expecU to have two hydraulic elevaton in operUioiL 
Pimpecting od the company's hokUngi has revealed in niany indaocet much lug« 

value* than $1.90 the yard. The giavel dcpodt i> extcoiive and the depth to bedrock 

it about nine feet 

The company was organized in the winter of 1900-1901 in Youngatown, Ohio, 

and hat ■ capitalization of $1,000,000. The officen are a« foliowt: J. P. Hazlett. 

prettdent; D. B. Stambaugh, vice-pretident ; B. Hinchberg, tecrelary and treaturer; Max. 

Hinchberg, general manager: T. N. Gibton, mining (uperinteDdeot. 

Th« ria^bctku Ditch »nd Mining Company 

Thit b a ttrong company which it coottruding a ditch from Flambeau River to 
Haatingi Qeek. When coii4>lete thit ditch will be thirty mile* long and will carry 
4,000 minen inchet of water. The company was wganized in 1903, and the work hat 
been prateculed every teaion tincc then under the luperviuon of William H. Lang, the 
manager. Latt year a tection of the ditch lix milet long wai completed on the Flambeau 
mi and cooiiderable work hai been done along the entire length of the ditch line. The 
water ri^tt of the company cover a number of itreami between Flambeau River and Bertag 
Sea, among them Hazel, Waihingtoo, Irene, Cripple, Discovery, Seattle, Saunden. Doby 

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aixi HMteigf CnAt. The tenkory adjacent to thcM cieekt embrace* a large arc* of pay 
pavel containing from ■ few crati to teveral doUan the ci^iic yard. 

Thk Maton tlie company ia taking to Alaika hydnubc pipe and tbe other appfauKn 
neccMaiy to commence hydraulic mining with dtc aection of the ditch that ii now rnmpktr 
WoA wiO begin on Hazel, a bibutary of Flambeau River, at a pomt where vrmta Eran 
the ditch haa a pnararc of 200 feet. The company owu 1 2,000 acrei of miniiig knd 
under the ditch, and belicvet that good vahiea are in the ground* where operaliaiM wiD be 
conducted thii teaioD. The company alw own many mining daima in Ibe vickuly of 
NooM. on Ocgmi. Bourbon and Dexter Crc^ and odter claimi in bencfae* and tundn. 

Tbe oAcen of die Flambeau Ditch and Mining Company are a* Mbwa: T. E. 
Ryan, ofWaukeiha. Wit, preaident: George N-Ncbon, of St Paid. MiniL, Tice-prendenl; 
J. E. jMica, of Waukaha, Wk. treanirer; \irillkm Eh BramhaH, of St Paul Mul. 
aeaetar;; Wifiiam H. Lang, of Portland, Oregon, gaetal manager. 

TK* Soloaaon lUvsr Ditch Co^p^nr 

The Solomon River Ditch Company, under tbe management of Major L. H 
French, buih a ditch lix mile* and a half long from Coal Creek to Eaat Fork laal aeaaoa. 

Tbe ditch from Eait Fork to Big Hunah wa* partially conducted lait year. Thi* 
(filch carriei 5.000 incbe* of water and hai a preiHire of 1 10 ^ at Eait Fork. The 
company inttalled Aree hydraulic devator* before the ckiee of laat aeaaoo and did 
tome work. D. M. Brogan wai aMOciated with Maior French in thii entopriie. Thomu 
E. Munday. of New YoHc. h«* acquired the controlling btereit in thi> property. 

The Midnighl Sun Mining and Ditch Comp»ny 

In the ipring of 1902 C. A. Gifen acquired a water right on Kg Hurrah Creek 
and in 1904 be began the conttruction of the ditch line from Big Hurrah to Sokmioo 
RrvcT. Tliit ditch will be ei^t mile* and a half long, moat of it having been cmHtnided 
but year. It ha* a capacity of 3.000 mchei of water. 

The MidnisJit Sun Mining and Ditch Company ia conqxMed of Lo* Angelei, 
CoBfomia, cajMlaliata. C. A. Gifien u die general manager of the company. 

Tha McDarmott Ditch 

The higheit-Hne ditch in the Sokmion River country ia known a* the McDerawIt 
Ditch, deriving it* name from a wcD^newn nuoer m the Wot and m N ot tfa w eitera 
Ahdca v^ owned the water rifrfit. Mo*t of diit ditch wa* buih laal year, the work 
beiig done by contractor C. L. Morrii. Thii ditch bringi water from Eait Fmk aOM* 

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Kg Hurrah Creek id a (iplioii to a point oa Solomoo Riva «x uln bdow Bi| Hunah. 
It has a capacity of 5,000 incha erf water mad 4.000 bcbM fl( water U availabk ■ 
the East Fork at knvett water. The >Wer from thii ditch vriU cover ten iquare nSm 
ot ■liacial giotUKl uader a pcetture of 240 feet 

N. O. Hukbsg, who conducted the Swedkh MtMioa on Golovin Bay prior to 
the diaooreiT of gold on Anvil Cieek, it the man wboee eiEorti in financing thii conpany 
wcured the money necewaiy to complete the work of conitructing thii ditch. 

M«llo«k IB. B«ttgl« DItcK 

The N4atlock and Beagle Ditch ii two mile* ktog. hat a capacity of 500 indiet at 
water widi At intake at Shovel Credc The water from thic ditch hat been uied to wofk 
propa^ on Kanon Cieck where then » a depoeit of gravel 1 50 feet wide and of a max- 
inmn depth of twwty-five feet 

Mo>>tKw««t«ro Ditch 

The Noithwesleni Ditch Company it a Nome oaipont><" with the foUowing oCran: 
A. Schneider, pcetideot and general manager: Leo Lowenherz. vice-president; C. C 
Cowdw. twaiiirer; W. J. Rodgen, wcKtaiy. Thit company wa* organized in M^. 
1904, and acquired what wai commonly knovm at dte Ficnch Ditch ptopettiet. The 
French Ditch was cowtrected in 1903 bgr A. Schneider, Mr. Porte and tfadr aNBCNim. 
It WM d*vcn mile* loot widt a capaci^ of 900 niincn inche*, and bronilit watar bam 
Otbome Cndt to mineral ground on dte eaitem tide of Noote River. The new company 
has extended the ditch a dirtance of four mile* in the direction of Haitmff Cradc, with 
the obfect of oovcrmg the old beach Ime a tbort diMance back from the diore of niilig 
Sea where valuable gold dtpo ii tt have been discovered. This old beach lina has been 
paitially pnNpected from Fott Davn to Hattingt Creek and has been found to be rick 
m gold, die deposits being tinular in many re^tedt to the gold found in the present bendL 

CrlFF>« >!▼•' Hv^r»«aU« Mining CoMpuay 

The Ci9pk Ritw Hrdraulic Miamg Company, owning sixteen 160-acre tnck 
^ mineral Itnd en Cripple River, has oonstra cl ed a ditch four milei long and canyiK 
700 inchei of water bom WAnr Creek to Cripi^ River. Ute cacnpany began kydrauKc 
op er aiioHS xfoa its property latf wasoa. Thii company has |4tni to build a ditch twelve 
miks or note long to btmg wal« from Cripple River and deliver it upon its hoUiifi 
uader a pressure of 250 leet The ground owned by the Cripple Rmr t^rdradk Mfaag 
Company contami gold vahes eitimited at $1 the cafaic yard. 

Th« SMWArtf Dltoh 

Ample capital was tecnted dmimg the part winter to constnict a diteh faram Noae 
River at Am motfh of Dorodiy Creek to the b«di of Bctiig Sea ««l of Noae. Ivk. 
C L Monii has tabn the contract to bwU tUi ditch this tenson. The <itch wl be 
*m^-fn mOm bng and wi cany 4.000 incbm of water. It wiU cover muk wel- 
fannn craib as Dnte. Edn Dry, Lort, Triiple. McDonald, Otter, Peh^ Newton 
Noa I and 2, Dry. Beabon. S^rtwday. Wonder. Center, Cooper, Hofyofce and liNle. 
These rtrcent comprise a Urge part of &e anrtfnow gmveb ■arreantfing Anvi Mn i 

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uin. The ditch will <yivcr water 1 Ak higbcit put of Dexter Cieek under 1 00 Jeet 
of p r fu ra. 

The Seward dkcb wu cndled bj Jokn D. Leedr ud H. T. Hudbg. Dr. 
Cabell Whilcbead, featnl nuiager of the AU^ BuU^ ud Safe Dcpodl Ca>v«V* 
couidcTed tbe propoMticHi hvoraUy and aanited in organizmf the oooipBar and financing 
die profccL Hcaiy Bratnobcr. one of Dr. Whitehead'! anodatcs in tbe TopU E>ilcb 
Company, it krgdy inlcraled in tbe Sevrard dkch. Tbe conpietion of Am work ifant 
hai been planned for tbe Seward Ditch Cenpanjr will require a caiNtal of from $150,000 
to $200,000. 

K«a4»rok Miming And Ditch Ceaay&mr 

The betl evidence <rf dte proepective vahae of Ak ICougarok Mining Dirtrkt ii dw 
number of ditch (BtepciMs dut wifl be ttarted in tfaii region thit year. Notabk ■moag 
ibeie enteipriia ii the work of tbe ICugamk Mining and Ditch Company, of which J. M. 
Davidson ii prcaidoit and general manager, and J. E. Chil>erg, of Se^de. vice-precideBL 
Mr. Davidion hai gone to Nome thii leamn to build a ditch diirteen milei k«g, ttaitmg al 
No. 8 below Joh»on'> DiKovcty on the ICougarok River and ending in the vidnitjr at 
Arctic Creek. The ditch wiD be twelve feet wide on the bottom, nttccn feet wide on tap 
and duce feet and a half deep, and vrill carry 2.500 incbet of water. It will eKtend ale^ 
the left limit of the Kougarok River, croMmg Mackbi Credc m Hphoiw to boldingi of die 
conpaay near Homettake Creek; thence to tbe end of the turvejr, croMing Tayktr Creek 

SeatdL'. Nonte and St Louia cafNtal ii building dm ditch, the wtimated coet of which 
ii $100,000. The ditch will cover not lem than 1 0.000 acrei of vahaUe mineral ground, 
and will fumiih water for mining operationt in thii part of Seward Pcnmpda (or the next 
halt century or more. 

Th« C«drl« Ditch 

The Cedric Ditch CoovMoy, tA which Maior L. H. French m manager, ii coottnict- 
ing a big ^itch in the Oregon Creek and Cripple River counbr. F. & Smith, a ptoni- 
nent Nome nuner, built a part of thit ditch kut year. The water wa* turned through 
it and l^draulic work ¥rai begun on a bench of Oregon Creek jutt before tbe freeze-t^. 

The Cedric Ditch Company it a Mrong organization, financially equipped to cany 
the undertaking to a nicccaiful conchiuMi. Plenty of water wil be provided to wa*h 
the large area 9i a urif ero u t graveb of thit region. The known vahiei in the ground under 
thii ditch thould make the Cedric Ditch one of the be*t propertiet m Nortfawettem Alatka. 

Itcmous Mining Conapcnx 

Among the projected enterpriaet ^ the Kougarok District thit year ia the conttructiaa 
of a ditch bringing vrater from Windy Creek to Kougarok River and to Dahl CredL Thit 
enteiprite wai promoted and tuccetefully financed during the pati winler by Mr. L. P. 
Ranoui, a well known and energetic miner <rf the Northland. The company was organized 
in Min>ank. South Dakota, and it capitalized at $400,000. The oficen are at foDows: 
L. P. Ranoui. president and general manager; M. O. Johntoa. vioe-pnsidcnl ; J. H. 
Kannon, treaturcr: J. S. Farley, tecretary; Henry Eikman, director; W. A. Warren. 
eoiPDeer. This project coDtcmpUtei the expenditure of about $150,000. The dildi 
v^ien finished will be thiity-five miles long (inchiding kteral ditches) and will cany two 

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; Major Third I'niled SttileB Cavalry. At the 
nnd <lLlch pnttTorliies In Alaska, and one of thi 
ward Ponlnsula. A it 

endpavom, mnnifE'Rllns 
to hla frIi'ndH, anil pon 
nnd affiilrH. He in B su 
and prompt 

tally IrURted of Alaitka's 

end of the mo 

d popii- 

n^ot broUdTd 

and big 

and unsllntei 


erBlfled knowl 


e bar. DeolaK 

e In 


him one of 




dtounnd inche* of wktcr. On Kougarok River the water cim be delivered under a prei' 
Hire of two hundred feet At DM Creek tlie preuuK will be one hindred ud fifty feat. 
Thii dilch Une will cover not leit tban 10,000 acm of mineral ground, bi 
nearly every iHtxpect bole that ba> been dug under thii ditch line gold h» been found, in 
many placet b value* nrficiail to be |»ofilaUy mined by thiice-boxet and ihoveliBg-iB. 
Thii ditch line will ctoh ei|^t creekc and the volume of water in the ditch will be aug- 
mented by tappmg the waters of (omc of theM itrcanw. Thit company hai mapped out 
work for more than a genctatxm. 

.T. T. !.•»•'• Ditch 

T. T. Lane hai extcntive holdinp in the Kougarok Dittrict He did conuderable 
work building a ditch in thit part of the country last teaton, and will complete the vrark 
this year to that water frcnn the ditch may be made available for mining purpoaei. 

Mr. Lane'i ditch woii ha* been an iOuitralion of economical ditch-construction. 

He ha* by pra^>ecting demonatralcd the great vahie* in the Kougarok bencfae*. and hi* 
ditch line will cover tome of the moit promiting property of diit unqueationably rich region. 

Another Ditch 

There it another ditch enterpriae in the Kougarok Dittrid thi* leaaon. Thit enter- 
priK it under the management of Mr. Stone, and exientive ditch conctruction ha* been 

8oo»BSa-C«lirornl« Cr««K Ditch 

Thit ditch it one of the largest and mott important entcrpritea of thit character pro- 
poted for Seward PenintuU. It ha* been promoted by J. J. King and C. L Kemp. 

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GeoTfe M. Aihford ii the eagmeer who made the mrvey*. The pkn of this ditch if to 
take water from the head of Bonanza Creek. Fn>m thk intake the ditch wiD extend along 
the left bmit of Bonanza Creek a diitance of about ten milet to CaGfotnia Creek. The 
water wiO be carried acroM thii itream in a nphon. At CaHiomia Creek tKia ditch will 
converge into another ditch carrying water from Califmrua Creek. From the pomt oi 
confluence it ii propoMd to btinK the water around the mouth of California Creek to the 
head <rf Ohio Creek and aom the left fork of Jackion Creek to Shovel Creek Mountain. 

According to the plant (hit ditch will carry 4,500 inchet of water which wiU be 
delivered at Shovel Creek Mountain under a preMure of 264 feet The total length of 
ditches from the intakes to Shovel Creek Mountain wiD be fifty milet. Thit figure tnchida 
another high-line ditch taking water from another tource of California Creek. The high- 
bne ditch will carry 1 ,000 inchei of water and will deliver it at the head of Myitoy Credt 
with fuficient prenure for hydrauliddng. The main ditch will cover the entire Shovd 
Creek Bann, and can be made to supply water on all the ground between Port Safety and 
the mountain*. Bonanza Creek and Sok>mon River. It ii estimated that the water of thii 
ditdi will cover 1 50 square mile*. Much of this ground is known to be mineralized, but 
aside from the gravel d(f>otiu of Shovel Crc^ and its tributaries there has not been mudi 
pro^tecting. The estimated cost of the lower ditch it $1 50,000 and the probaUe ooit 
at cmnpletion of all the plans of the work is about $300,000. 


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The Field of Endeavor 

Towna and Mining Campa — Schoola. Churchaa and SociMlaa — Talaphonaa and Rallroada 
— Inltlatlv* 0f Dradga Mlnlns. 


^ HE towM and nuning camp* of Seward Penintula arc the betl evidotce to the 
cunofy obaervCT of tbe raources of ibe country, and tbe extent to wfiich ther 
have bMB developed. Facilhia for the trauaction of binineH which these towni 
poaMM. the public utiiitiet whidi enterptinng cittzeni have cooslnKtcd. ibe 
churchei and tchoob, the (odetiet and dub*, the mibatanlia] character of the building! — «! 
theae indicate a countiy pnwf inj pennancncy and produdng wealth. 

None ii the principal town of ihe peninraU. Other towna which have grown out 
of the nraddling dothei of minias campt. are Coundl City, Solomon, Dickion, TeBer. 
Candle City and Deering. There are nunwrom mining campt, nHne of them being poal- 
oftce* which are designated by titles of dty or town. The trading poits are baaea of 
nypliei for tbe miaen operating in terr i torie s adjacent to diem. Among these are Bhif , 
Cheenik, White Mountain, Sullivan City, Lane's Landing, Mary's Igtoo, York and Tin 
City. These are road-houses at coavcDient distances m all the princ^M] traih. 

Couadl City is second in impwtance of the towns of the peninsula, and is the aant 
«f the tecorder's oAce for tbe Council Dirtrict. It is situated on the northern side of 
NeuUuk Riter about ten miles from its confluence wndi Fnh Riva, and inland from ChmaA. 
about sixty miles. It has been built on a bench of the stream which forms a natural tinaf 
site, furaidiiag qtlendid drainage and bong of such elevation as to secure safety in case 
of hi^ water and ice gorges for which die Neukhik is noted. When the town was int 
rslsMJshurl it was in dte midst of a ^Kuce forest, but construction of bwldrags and the need 
of fnd have caused die destruction of tbe lunounding trmbcr, until the clearing in which 
Council City ii situated has become to large diat available timber is no longer near at hand. 

The popdatim of Couacit City m the winter time is tboiA 600. Tbe town baa 
tvro churches, a Presbyterian and a Cathobc; a p(d>lic school and Camp No. M of tha 
Afctic Bntheriiood, a Nordiland fraternal order. The business establishments during the 
winter of 1903-04, consisted oi seven stores, two hoteb, two hospitak, one drug store, oaa 
haaber yard and eleven saloons. 

Solomon is a seaboard town, at tbe moudi of Solomon River, riyrqr-five mfles «mI 
of None. It is the base of m^fSm for Am Solomon lUvcr country, cooaptiMig ^ rtgian 
drained by tbe Solomon River and its trftNitartet, an aren of probacy (00 square niea. 
Solomon has a popuhtion in die winter season of about ISO. It has three MntM, low 
hoteb and the usual quota of saloons. 

Kelttoa, 10*1 across the river fraas Stdooon. is the seaboard tennmal of the rnurnJ 
City aad Solomon River Railroad. Tbe main oftces of the conqwny are localad ban, 
and a town M te has been Uid out upmi which a number of buildings have been conslruetod. 

Tbe town of TeBer » situMed on Gnntley Haibor. It was named aftv Senator Tal- 
IsT. in wc o gaitioB of his services in behalf of the msnsaw for tbe fartrodndiaa of iniiiaslii 
r«Kle« m Akska. This town is die site (rf die first remdeer station estaUidted m Saward 

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PcBnwuU. Teller hu the diidDctioo of tuving die bed bubor of dw peniiMuk. but iIub 
hubor hu the diucKutage of not boot open for wvigfttioD m> e«Hy in tbe Muan u the 
roadrtead at Nome. Crantley Hubor k, however, the only natural harbor on the oorthcm 
cout lA Bering Sea. Golovin Bay fumiJwi good hubor facilitiei for vcweb of h^t draft. 

Teller it a imall place with ■ pennanent populaboa of not more than fifty. It hat, bowrever, 
iloiet, holeb and wlooni. The Northwestern Conunocial Company hu a branch ilore 
at thtt place. The development of the iiurounding country wffl contribute to the growth of 

A (urvey hat been made for a railroad between Nome and Teller. In the early days 
of Nome, it wai believed by the promoten of thii entopriK that freight could be landed at 
Teller, on account of the siq>erior harbor faciHtiet, and rethipped by rail to Nome at a lower 
co*t than it could be landed from vettelt in the roadstead at Nome by means of bghters. 

Candle City it a town that grew up ai a resuh of the diKoveiy of gold on Candle 
CreeL Tlti* dvcovoy was made in the fall of 1901, and in the fall of 1902 there were 
300 or 400 people in Candle City. There are not so many there today. In appearance 
the town is a typical mining canq> buik of logs obtained from the ^tnice forests on tfte 
Kewalik River, fifteen mile* or more above Candle City. The diliiculty of getting iuM>Ees 

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to ^'Tti4h Ci^ rnkket the price of aO commodilie* high. In die matter of the coit of Gnag 
H it alto a typkal mining canqi. 

Deeiing ii located on Kotzebue Sound and U the AtAnting p«nt for the ratDet of 
loinachuk River, Kugnik River and Candle Cieek. 

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pUce t4 coniiderable imporUnce. It wat bebeved iben by lonK people th<U it woald be 
a lival of Nome, but the creeb upon whkh it wu dependent failed to be prodiicen, and 
the place ii now only a viBage of half a dozen people. 

Thk haity tketch of the leiMT town* and mining campi of Seward Penimula is not 
complete, but ii introduced here to ihow the fact that the people who have gooe to diii 
counliy have gathered in little commuoitie* in varioui paitt of the penintnia, and an bu^ 
at the worii of developing thb country. The number of theae towns and caropt, wid el y 
icatlered ai they are, ihow that the precioui mineral hat been found in difcKnl loca lkaLa 
where they are tituated. Thk idea will convey to the reader a C(»ception of the wide* 
4>fead dittribution erf the placer gold in the gravdi of Seward Penin*uU. 


A cennu of Nome taken in die winter of 1903-04 diowi a populalioa of 3,165 
peof4e. In 1900 it ■ otimated that IS.OOOpaopk; landed in Nome, but tbete new hM 
been Mich a ruA in any aubaequent iraion. The number of people that have fpmt to NsMe 
evety ipfing during die part two yean i> about 4,000. At bnmI of thete people mgair ii 
minint, thtr *t9 >n Nome only long enough to make prepanlionB that are necetiaiy for 
their lummer't work. The papulation of Notne in the tummer tCMOn may be -■*"•"*■* it 
between 4.000 and 5,000. 

Nome it buih on the tundra at an devation of from twenty to fifty feet above d>e tea. 
Some of the buildingi come down to d>e water'* edge. The great thmn in the fal of 1 900 

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deitToyed a Urge number of buildiiig> that 
were conitnicted too cloie to the (ea. The 
tundra back of the beach, upon which the 
greater part of the town » (ituated, m about 
the wor*t qwt that could have been lelccted 
for a town-Nte. In the early days the itrect* 
were ahnoit impaitable. and it hai been onJy 
by peniitcnt ditching, draining and graveling 
the itreeti that anything like panable thor- 
oughfare* have been lecured. 

Phoioarapb by F. H. NowrtL Nome n built akmg the beach a dirtance 

FEDERAL COURT HOUBE. of a mile or BWre. The main rtreet and a 

few other itreett arc planked. There ate 

plank udewab in the leudcnce part of Ae town. Mort of d>e buiine« it confined to 

Fiwil Street In Front Street there are a large number of Hiitable buildinp in which 

are (tore*, banki and officet. 

The town ha* an excellent water n^iply, being provided with water from Moonh^t 

Spring! at dw baw of Anvil Mountain, by mean* of a conduit from the iprinp t» the town. 

Of courae, thic water nqiply i» ihut oH in the winter time on account of dkc fro*t, but in 

the Mimmer (ea*OD the water furaiibed to the rcndcnt* of Nome i* equal to Am water 

fumiibed to any town in Nordi America. In the winter teaww water '» obtained from 

Snake River and Dry Credc by cutting 

bole* ihiou^ the ice, and ii peddled 

thrott^ die town by water vendor*. The 

Moonlight Spring* water worb ii owned 

by the original ntember* of the Pioneer 

Mining ConqMuqr, Uftdeberg, Lindblom, 

BrynteKM and Kiehbcrg. 

Nome ha* an electric bght plant which 

wpplia fi^t to all the *lore*, hotel*, ca- 

loou and other place* of bunneM, and to 

many private reaidcQcei in the winter tea- 

ton. In the Mimmer lime there i* very 

little need ai artificial lighL The electric 

li^t fdant it owned Iqr Jafel Lindeberg. 

preiident tA die Pioneer Mining Com- 
pany, and ii naoa«ed by Mr. J. J. 


Nome ba* a telcpbooe *yMem, and long dialance line* connecting Nome with Council, 
Cbeeiik and mtermediate point*. Kougarok and Teller, condnicted by A. E. Boyd, 
and now owned by the Ala*ka Tel^r^^ and Telephone Company, a corporation 
organized by Mr. Boyd, and under hi* management The line* to Kougarok and 
Teller were conatiucted last winter, and wlien they were finiibed the entire lyttcra com- 
imed 350 miles <rf wire. Thi* *y*tem compriics the bat improved and moat modem 
t f lf i >hffnf apparatu*. and the icrvice rendered to the public t* both eAcient and *ati(fac- 
tory. It i* repotted that the line will be extended from Cheenik to Unalakleet. oon- 
necliiig with die United State* Government Tdegnqih Line. If thi* connection be made 

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the wirelen tflegraph between St.* 
Michael and Safely will be unnec- 
eswry. The di»Unce between Nome 
wd UnaUkleet it 240 niiles. 

Mr. Boyd, w1h> ii an enleipri*- 
ing citizen and tiidett worker, de- 
lerve* commendation for the excel- 
lent KTvice wliich he hai ettabliihed 
between Nome and the mining campi 
on the waleT-«hed that drains into 
Bciiug (ea. The telephoae it a 
great tinte-«avei to miners forty 
milet or more from a bate of luppliet 
who may need lomething indi4>eni- 
able to their work. 

Nome ha* two public ichool 
building!, one utuated near the Fed- 
eral Court building and another on 
the Mndipit in the part of Nome 
on the we«t tide of Snake River. 
The main school building contain* 
live ichool roomt. Thit tcbool i* 
modem in equ^nnent and the cur- 
riculum embrace* the counes of the 
primaiy dqHutment. a grammar 
fchool aitd a high ichool. It it 
under the lupervitioa of Profetior 
D. H. Traphagen, a capable and 
an experienced educator. The num- 
ber of children attending ichool in 
Nome it about 200. There ii alio 
a night ichool under the lupervision 
of Profeiior Riley. Many grown- 
up people, nKMt of them of foreign 
birth, attend the night ichooL 

There are three churche* in Nome, 
deaignaled m tiie order b which they 
were ettabEihed: Congregational. 
E{>itcopal and CathoBc 

The Eagle* have an aerie and 
the Arctic Brotherhood hai a camp 
at Nome. ELach of thete orden 
own* a building provided wid) a 
chib room and an anembly haU. 
The Matont, ICnight* of Pythia* 

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J, C. QaRner's Store, 

The Bank of Cape Nome, 

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and Odd Fellowt have chifa* ampoued of nwmben of ihe ordcn from variout putt of 
dK world. Ouring the fummer oi 1904, the Muou applied for a charter (or a lodge 
and the diqxntation wat gtanted. A charter mcmbenh^) rod had been M^Md, aad at the 
cloM of navigation the Maaoiw of Nome were Ukelr to efect an orisBizaliaa. Tbej haw 
planned the erection of a tenple. which vril 
be unique, compoaed of inateriak furaiihed bj 
Hat couBby. They have abo aekded a tini- 
fonn for the Knight Tcaaplar degree wliidi 
will be made of fun, and will ako be "■q"* 
The men of Nome have their fiatonal or- 
ders, (ocietia and ch^M; and it wil at kait 
mtere*! the women readcn of thit votunte to 
know that the womea of Nome have a club 
and have aBKated with the General Feden- 
tioa of Women*! Cluba m the Unitod Stataa. 
The Kegoayah Kozga k a atrong 

Conarcaatlona.! C 

of more than &fty woma of Nome 
The name hat been taken from the 
Elakimo language. Kegoajrah, Beaaiac 
the aurora, and Kozga, meaning club. Thit organizatma wa* efected by the im- 
liiing and cnthuiiaitic work of Mn. Joaephine Scroggs. wife of a f'reibjrterian auairter wbo 
was (Utioncd at Nome b 1901-02. At the cIok of the &r(t jrear, die chib had a mon- 
berdiip of forty-eight, and while there hat not beat a large increaae in the men^Mnh^, mocfa 
uteful and bek>ful work bat beca accompUied. The dub owm iti own home on Steadman 
Avenue. Meelingt are held regularly and a coune of work it mapped out and tcrupuloualjr 
followed. At Nome it to far away from 
lecture bureaui and traveling bbrariei, and at 
the town it depiived of communicatioD, dur- 
ing levcn monthi of the year, with the great, 
buty world in the ttatet. eiccpl by telegraph, 
or the tlow tedious means of transportation 
provided by dog teams, the members of the 
chib have an exceHenl opportunity to make 
the moat of the material at hand, as well as 
an opportunity to draw tqxm their ovm re- 
sources in the tinei of intdlectuality and art. 
It it creditable to the women of Nome that 
ibey have made their dub a great tuccos. 
It hat been he^>ful to them, giving them a 
broader idea of life, a better knowledge of 

history, Eterature and art; it has furnished caihoiic Church 

enipkqrment for kmg winter evenings, and the 

memben have shown their financial ability by purchasing a home for the club, paymg (or 
it, and having atoney in the treasury. 

Mn. Frank Hart was the &rtt president of the club. In 1903 she was succeeded 
by Mn. Charles & Johnson. In 1904. Mist J. M. Todman ditdiarged the chitiei of 

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RpRldeni^e of Ira D. Orton. A. J. Lowe's Home. 

Tony Polet'a Store. 

John Teaacka CotUK*. 

U W. Suter'e Jewelry Store. Offlce of Pioneer Mining Co. 


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prendent The <^cen leteclcd for 1905 are u follow*: Mn. M. C. EJnenoo, preat- 
denl; Mn. T. M. Reed, bnt vice-pretklenl; Mim Hdai Kimball, lecood vice-praideat ; 
Mn. M. J. Cochnn. lecreUry: Mn. R. N. Simptoii, treuuicr. The board of oianagcn 
are: Mn. M. C. Emenon. Mn. T. M. Reed, Mm Helen Kimball. Mn. M. J. Cochnn 
and Mn. R. N. Smpton. 

Nome bat Aree new^Mpen. two pubbihed lemi-weekly and one weekly. Tbe 
"Nugget" of w^iich J. F. A. Strong it the editor i i 

and Saturday!. The "New»," the lint 
newapaper ettablithed in Nome, ii owned by 
Will A. Steele, of Seattle. Harry a Steel 
u the editor and publithcr. It it itiued 
on Tuetdayi and Fridayi. Both of 
thete papen are iix'<»iunin (obo, but the 
ibeeti are enlarged to leven-cohimn in the 
lununer leaton on account of the increaied 
vchime of butmett. The "Nome Gold Dig- 
ger" it owned and publithed hy S. H. Ste- 
vent. Thit paper it iitued weekly, Thurt- 
dayt being publication dayt. 

In the matter of banb Nome it well pro- 
vided. There are three banking inttitutiont 
m the town, and each of theie banki it 
cqu^iped with an atiay office, the purchaie 
of gold being one of the leading featurei of 
the banking buunett b Nome. 

The Alatka Banking and Safe Depoeit 

Company wat organized under the lawi of L*r«e.t Hydraulic Pipa F«etorj- in 
dK ttale of Wett Virginia, with a capital 

ttock of $125,000, and began buuncn ro Nome ra 1900. Iti officen are, Hon. H. A. 
Taybi. Atwttant Secretary United Sutei Treatury, pretident; George E. Robeiti, Di- 
rector of the Mint, vice-pretident ; E. C. Robinion, of Wathington, treaiurer; Dr. CabeH 
'Whitehead, general manager; F. H. Thatcher, cashier; Eugene Ailei, anayer. Depoiiti 
in thti bank have been at high at $750,000. It bat fire and burglar proof vauhi and 
deab extentively m gold bullion. The purchate of gold bullion during the open leaton 
of 1904 amounted to $1,500,000, $200,000 more than it had been in any previoui 

The bank of Cape Nome wat alto ettablithed in 1 900 by Seattle capitaliMi. Jamei . 
D. Hoge, the well known Seattle banker, it pretidenl of thit inititution, and N. B. Sokicr, 
v^ it alto caihier of the Union Savings Bank of Seattle, it die nunager of the Bank of 
Cape Nome. Thii bank doet an extentive bunnen, having a large clientage, and bat done 
tti than in the sphere of banki toward the devektpment of thit country. It hat a capital 
ttock of $50,000 and occiqiiet a modem building recently constructed by the bank cor- 
pwatitMi for its own ute. 

The Miiten and Merchants Bank of Nmne wat organized last fall with a cafHlal 
ttock of $100,000, most of which wat tufatcribed by minen and mochanti of Nome. 
Eugene Chiiberg, treasurer of the Pioneer Mining Company, it the pretident of thit bank 

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and C. G. Cowdea, formerly caihier of Aluka Banbng and Safe Depoiil Company, it the 
cashier of the new inititution. This bank ttatti out under very favorable aufpket. 

TK« CKurchas ^ Noma 

The three churches in Nome are evidence of religiou* endeavor. The Coogrega- 
tiosal Church wai ettabluthed in 1899, by Rev. Dr. Wirth. This gentleman se- 
cured the fundi to build a substantial and commodious ho^Htal. which was con- 
ftnicled. Several clergymen have ministered to IJie Congregational flock. The Rev. 
C. E. Ryberg has been die pastor for the past three years. He succeeded the Rev. 
Mr. Fowler. The church building ii a splendid edifice (or Nome. If not the most, 
certainly not the least important work of this church i* a library, the largest and best 
in Northwestern Alaska. 

The Rev. Mr. White is the rector of the Episcopal Church of Nome. The 
church was established by direction of Bishop Rowe, whose diocese ii ^ entire Di»- 

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tiict <rf Aluka. The fatt rcctot in chufe wu the Rn. C. H. Brewer, wboK gaoA 
woric mm] icBial chmdw tit univciMUjr recognized in None. 

The cwoR itooc <rf dte Cadtolic Chunk wu kid by Father Aloynue Jtcqwt, 
S. J., July 4, 1901. asd the church wu opcacd on Chriitinu day (oUcrwkig hf Father 
vu der Pol S. J. Father Cataldo wu ihe paridi prxit in l902-'03. He i* «k 
of dte oldest minionancs of Alaalca aod the Yukon Territoiy. having tpait fanty yean 
of hii life auMBg the Indiana. He wu for wvenlecn yean Superior General in the 
Northwert Tenilery. He it ■ grand old man and i bcaulifnl character. 

Father van dcr Pol ii the prieft in charge of ihii diMiict, and ii u 
enuDcntly practical man, working for Ate temporal wdfare of the nativet u 
wdl M die HMiitual axttolabon of hii while flock. He it aMttted in tliii work by 
Father La Fortune, who ^leaLi the Ejldmo Language and worki among the natiret. 
Among the good and uaeful thinp which Father van der Pol hu done ia the orp- 
nizatioD of the Miner't Home Ckib of None. Thi> dub hu a membcnhip of 250. 
The piieit'i reudence ii uwd u a meeting place for the club. It it provided with a 
hbaiy aod innocent garnet for the inetruction and amutement of the meraben who have 
nothing to occupy their time during the long winten. 

Father Devine, of Montreal, had charge of the ilation at Council Ci^ (or > 
period of two years, ending in the faD of 1904. He buih the church at CouitciL Father 
Devine it editw of a Catholic ioumal in Moatreal, aod a nuui of literary accompUt- 

In 1903 the Sitters of fVtvideDce. of Montreal. Canada, eitabfabed die Holy 
Croet Hotpital in Nome. The first year it received forty^wo paticnU, and the tecood 
year 286 patients. The Cathobc ichool wu atablithed in October, 1904. and opened 
widi twenty-four pupik. 

C»inp Nom« No. O. Arctle Br«th«rhood 

Probably the ntott unique and distinctive fratemal society in the woHd it the 
Arctic Brotherhood. Unique because of the circumstances which attended iU 
birth, and diitinclive because its juritdictioD it bmiled to the Northland. Born at • 
time when the feeling between the United Stales and Great Britain over the Alails 
boundary line was running bery high, the Arctic Brotherhood fumitbed a conunM 
bond of fellowship between citizens of the two great Anglo-Saxon nations. Fathered 
u it wu l^ American aod Britiih offices, it* motto, "No Boundary Line Here," meul 
a great deal to the hardy argonauts who climbed the Chilkoot in the early moothi <^ 
*96; and lU growth wu rapid. Members from the mother camp at Skagway mu^ 
over the trail to Atlin and White Horse and down the Yukon to Dawson aod Circle, 
and whenever the material wu found camps of the new order were esubfiihed. Started 
u a ioke on board the S. S. City of Seattle enroute to Skagway in Feb., 1699. tbe 
order hu grown to magnificent proportions, now numbering eighteen canqM with a totsi 
membership of 5,000. 

Camp Nome No. 9 wu iniUlled by Deputy Arctic Chief Sam. C. Dunhsni on 
the 9th of January, 1900. Starting with only lixteen charter members, its growth hu 
been steady aod its membership roll now bean the name* of more dian 500 of the 
refwetentative mining, butineu and profestional men of Northwestern Alaska. It i* 
probably the roost representative organization in the United Stales, its native bom mO' 
ben hailing from forty-three states and terriloriet. It it at ihe same Ihne thwou^ 

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coMnopoliUi), twentj-five per cent, of iti memben being of foreign birth. rq>reientiag 
nineteen countiia. The high character of it* mmbenhip ii most clearly thown by the 
fact that twenty per cent of it* memben are college men. 

Member* of Camp Nome No. 9 have blazed the trail into nearly every new camp 
in Ala^ and ^ Yukm, and have made thii part of Alatka what it i* today. When. 
at lome far- distant time, the hiitonan aeelu the name* of those hardy pioneer* who 
proved to be the empire builden of the Northland, he will find them on the roll* of 
the Arctic Brotherhood. He will alto lind (hat much of the early hiitory of what at 
that time will be the "North Star" state, one of the brightest m Uncle Sam's couteU 
latioa. was made in the lodge ball of Canqi Nome No. 9. 

The Camp at the present time is in a mo*t proq>eroDs condition, having an en- 
diusiaitic active membenhip of 250; a weD-appointed club house; a large and well- 
equqiped gymnasium; a tne lodge hall with a new hardwood Soot; in thort. all the 
convenience* of a fint-dat* dub b the stale*. 

This brief notice of the Arctic Brotherhood is not intended as an invidious men- 
tion. The Eagle* have a strong organizatioo in Nome, and ao have odier fraternal 
orders; but the Arctic Bfodterbood is an order "native and to the manner boni," and 
therefore entitled to prominence in thii book. 

9c^v«rd Pan Insula Railroada 

Seward Peninsula has thirty-five miles of railroads in operation. The N«ne-Arctie 
Railroad Coo^vany ha* a nairow-guage line between Nome and Anvil and Dexter Credo. 
This line was comtiucted by the 'Wid Gooae Mining and Trading Conq>any from Nome 
to Anvil Creek in 1900. It ha* since been extended up the Idt Emit of Anvil Creek 
acroM tiw divide between Anvil and Dexter Creeks to the southeastern base of Kmg Moun- 
tain overlooking Nome River. The terminal it ten mile* from Nome. Thi* road ii point- 
ing toward Kougarok Dirtrict and naay be extended to thi* part of the interior of Seward 
Peninsula a* aoon a* the trafic iu*tifia the conttnicti(m of the road4>ed. 

The Council City and Solomon River Railroad it a tlandard-guage Kne planned to 
connect Sobmon with Council City. The litK has been constructed and equipped to Eaal 
Folk, sixteen miles horn Sobnwn. This road has it* shop* and officet, which are <rf a 
subtantial character, at Dickson, the seaboard lermind of the road jutt acroM the river from 
Solomon. Thit railroad ha* been constructed in a tubatantial maimer with a view to per- 
manency and future operations. The road-bed i* levd aitd ballasted, and all the work both 
b conatruction of the road and in dK coiutruction of the company's building* show* paint- 
taking care and the mlention to secure lattbg reiuk*. There n ntaterial on the groimd to 
complete the road fnMn it* present terminal to CouncO City. 

The Wild Goose Mining and Trading Company has a railroad in operation between 
Couikdl City and No. 15 Optar Creek. This road was constructed lo accommodate 
die trafic of the company, but it has proved to be a great convenience to other opcraton 
on Ophir Creek. The faie it teven miles knig. It b a rtarrow-gauge road, dte kkd bed 
adapted for short hauk in Alaska. 

Th« InltiatWa ^ Dredga Mining 

The dredger and steam sbovd are destiited to perform an in^xHtant part m the mimBf 
operationt of Seward Peniimila. The work heretofore done by ttiete methods hat iwt 
been extensive, and hat been m a measure exper im ental. This work has dfnwnttr a tBdi 
however, the practicability of this kbd of minbg. Major L. H. French took the fint 

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slcam ibovel to Northwatcm Aluica ancl ued t( MicceMhilly on No. 5 Anvil CreeL Wotk 
writh dredgen ku been conducted in a deuihory lort of way nnce the tea*on of 1 900. Lut 
year Mr. C A. Fenin. manager of the Northern Mining and Trading CMnpany, 
opctaled a dredger on Solomon River, and the reiult oS ha work wai very latiifactoiT. 
La*l leaton W. M. Johntton, of Chicago, a mining engineer of wide experience and recog- 
nized ability, built a large dredger on Snake Fliver oppoute the Wild Gooae Mining Cool' 
pany't pun^Mng |Janl. Thit dredger will be operated tlw leaaon. Mr. W. L. Inland, 
of the Miocene Ditch Company, hat (hipped a large dredging plant to Solomon to be wed 
in mining lome of the gold'bearing graveU of Solomon RivN. Another large c 

plant wiH be inttalled on Nome River near the mouth of Dexter Creek. Thit plant ii the 
property of the Seward Penintula Mining Con^wny. of which W. C. Wilkini it the genenl 
manager. The dredger hat a capacity of 3,000 cu^ yarda of gravel every twenty-four 
houn. It will be inttalled at a cott of $90,000. The company owm lixty-four mining 
claimt, containing 1 ,260 acret, lituated on Nome I^ver, extending a diitance of four milet 
and three^uarten up the ttream from the mouth of Dexter Creek, 

If the wo^ done by these dredgert thit leaion meett the expectationt of the openlon, 
thit land of mining in Seward Penintula will receive a decided impetui, and rctult in more 
extentive mining by thit methocL 

There it little doubt that large area* of d>e country may be tuccetifuUy mined by 
dredgert. The greatett impcdimeni to ttKcettful operation* of thit character it frozen 
ground, and, at 1 have ebewfaere remarked, the frozen condition of the earth in the Nordi- 
land it the mott teriout problem to be loked by the mining engineer and operator. Other- 
wiie the Nome Diitrict thould pretent ideal conditiont for dredge mining. Mott of the 
bedrock it mica-tchiat and much of it it partially decompoted. A miner will readily tee 
that thit condition fumidiet better opportunitiet for work with a dredger than a bedrock 
composed of hard Kmntone. 



Th* W^ild Coos* Mining And Trading Co. 

The bol evidence of what may be ucompliihed by intelligeiit methods and the ex- 
crcite of buiineu leiue a (hown by what hat been done by lome of the prominent companiei 
of ihi* country. Notable and pre-enurtent among thete companiei it ^k one that wa* pro- 
moted, organized and managed by Charlei D. Lane, who ha* been a quartz and placer 
miner for more than half a century. He is not only a miner but the posM*M)r of 
that tuiconunon attribute known ai common tenae. Under hb chrection and thrau^ hs 
management, the Wild Goote Mining and Trading Company hat become one of the bat 
dividend propertiet in all Alatka. 

Ai it utually the cate with companiet that are organized and operated for the pur- 
pote of paying dividendt, where no ttock it (or tale, it it di^uh to obtain information from 
the company about itt afain and plant. What 1 thall tay in the following line* may 
not be absolutely accurate, but it it very near the truth, near enough to illuitrate the idea 
«^ich proii4>lt me to tell thit itory, and that idea ti thiu: Capital wisely invested in the 
minet of Seward Pcnintula and intelligently managed by people who are practical minen 
and capable butineit men, will yield tplendid returns. 

'Whta Mr. Lane visited Kot2<^ue in the fall of '98 hit biowledge of rninet and 
mining pemiilted him to tee the great future in ttore (m Seward Penintula. Ahhough ■ 
man of wealth he foretaw the need of greater capital dian he pottesied. He organized the 
Wild Goote Mining and Trading CooqMny widi a capiul of $1,000,000. The ttocL 
was subscribed by Mr. Lane and a few of hit San Fraitcisco and Baltimore friaidt. The 


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TIC imoTHKHnooi). 

J. W. S.HiUiwarrt. O. A. C'lasBoll. 

'. Rlanley. R. M. 

N. H. Cuslle. 5, B. Olson. L. B. Tannpr, J. C. GafTney. C. S. Jnhneoii, Hnm ? 
N. J. Nl PhD I noil. B. T. Dwypr. H. A. InKnllFi. F. A. Sha.w, W. U Blatc^lironl, J 

". H. Dawgon. J. F. Palmer. W. A. MleriibcrB. J. H. Groves "■ ' 

- - ■ - - " - J p McKeoii, ' 

- - - A. J. L .. ... 

.. _ _, „ , _. .. .. __. . W. K. Cetfter. K. P. I 

:. Snell, J, H. I^i; \V. A. Brown. A. L. Sm" — - - .- — _ _ 

. Ijins, J. F, Gflse, R. K. BphcIi, C. E. Adcocl 

5, Jones. C, H. MclSrlde. H. C. Wilkinson. J. M. ati 

■, ThornduesI, 1. A, llnvnion. Hnrrv C. Gordim. S. t 


i'. C. Dfbert. Wm. Snyder. J, G. Humphrey, O. HflUa. G. Osborn, W. H, McPhec. J. Tliompson. 

A. MLichell, W. J. R. Mef.irtHy, T. D. CHSliel, C. EI Hoxole. M. D. MoCurobcr. C. P. Dam. J. T. Price. 

I* F. Bales. A. Mi'Rrlde. J. H. D. Bouse. I. D. Orton. R. T. Chesnut. W. A. Dolirmann. C. B. Gartitt. 

A. H. NoyeM. W. W. Ewfnu. A. P. Giirl)pr(t. W. H. Quinn. Jr., F. F. Houeh. J. F. McCabn. J. W, Campbell. 

N. B. Solner. F. H. ThntrHpr. E. J. Daly, J. B. Miller. C. C. Suter, T. C. NoyCH. J. A. Westby. 

C. H. H. Blcjor. E. B. Draler. S. J. Call, C C. Tliorn, A. E. Southward. O. B. Marslon. E. H. Flagg. 

J. T. Reed, C. A. Mitrhell. A. Biildwln. G. A. Jpftery, A Fink, M. E. Enifrcon, E. Reld. 

C. S. HBiinum, G. B, Baldwin, H. R Wtttnrd, P. N. C. Jerauld, J. L. McGinn, C. A. Bangharl. J. M. Galvln 

J. F, A. Strong. C. G. Cowden. P. C. Meyr. I,. S. Fox, J. K. Sewell. A. U. Grlnsn. E. H. Cliarelle. 

(». A. liourret, B. F. Miller, E. 9. GrlcBby, J. Schell, A. J. Dalv, J. B. HurrlH. W. M. Fdriv. 

J. W. larlos, W, N. Monroe. F. \V. Rf.lwood. F. J. Kolnsh, W. F. Pilgrim. 

J. C. Hines. W. H. Biird. F. W. CMrter. C. W. Tremppr, P. H. Warren, 

insen. E. GeorBe. , , ---- 

chnrds, J. D. Jf urden, -.,-1 , ^ />> "^ ' 



million doIUn derived from the ule of thii itock wa> Invested in Seward Peninnila mining 
property. Tlw compuy Iim acquired all of ib property 1^ piuchate. The company'* 
holdingt are principally on Ophir Credc, in the Council Diitrict, and on Anvil Creek in the 
Nome Dirtiict Work wa* mapped out and improvements were planned whereby water 
could be made available for the extensive operations necessary to nuke an undertaking of 
diis character successful. 

Up to the beginning of the mining season of 1904, the Wild Goose Mining and 
Trading Company had taken out of the ground more than $3,000,000, but had not 
declared a dividend. All of this vast sum of money had been re-mvested in new properties 
and improvements. Tlic big ditch on Ophir Cieek costing about $400,000, the gigantic 
punqiing plant on Snake River near Nome, forcing the water to die summit of Anvil Moun- 
tain, costing not less than a third of a million dollars, probably more, the raihoad from Nome 
to Anvil, and the railroad from Council City to No. 1 5 OtAia Creek represoit the prin- 
cipal improvements. The company's property on Ophir Creek is between seven and ci{^t 
miles long, so it will be seen that its interests are extensive, and that the improvements that 
the conqMny has made are of great magnitude and have cost a lot <rf money. 

During the season of 1904, the company mined gold dust valued at more than a 
million dollan, and at the close of the season all outstanding indebtedness, amounting to 
about $400,000, was Bquidated and a dividend of thirty per cent, aggregating $300,000, 
was declared. The assets of the company at present and the prospect for the future are 
these: The company owns property in which, at a low estimate, there are fifteen 
millinu of dollars in sight Most of die improvements which are necessary for the econ- 
omical wolfing of this property have been made. The company is out of diiM and stock- 
holden have received thirty per cent of their original investment back in one dividend. The 
company with its present facilities and property will extract a million dollars a year for 
many years, and the total expense of all operations should not be more than thirty per cent, 
probably much less. 

This is a very successful enterprise, and the credit is due to the man who acquired these 
holdings for the company, and whost mtelligent management has made the Wild Goom 
Mining and Trading Coaq>any the owner of the most valuable propnty of Seward 

Th* Pion««r Mining Cosaspmny 

The original discoverers of the Nome gold fields formed a co-partiiershq> which ifaey 
designated as the Pioneer Mining Company. This term in its aiqilication to the coiiq»ny 
is absolutely correct, as it is ifae first mining conq>any conqwsed of the first minen operating 
in this country. At a later date, m the year 1901. the Pioneer Mining Company was 
OMveited into a corporation bearing die same name. Jafet Linddierg was selected as 
president, Erik O. Undbkxn, vice-president, J. E. CluAterg secretary and Eugene Qiilberg 
treasurer. These officers have been re-elected at each succeeding meeting, dieir 
stewardship having been entirely satisfactory lo the stocUmlders of ^k company. This 
compangr has taken out of the Nome country gold dust vakied at not less than $4,000,000. 
The cenqwrny's holdings are very extensive, cmnprising claims on a large DunJieT of creeks 
m die Nome district and claims in other parts of the country. The company also owns a 
lufr ialcnst in the Miocene Ditch and is intimately associated with transprntatioD inteieali 
on the peninsula; and the origmai members of the company own the water works at Nome. 
The company is also the owner of the large pumping plant constructed by J. W. K4y 
in the NotDe country. In short, the carapaay's hddings are extensive, varied and valuable. 

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PhotoBraph by F. H. Nowell. 

Thli View ShovB Part of the Seward Penlnnuln Mining Connwny'B Qround. 


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Other Points of View 

WHILE the Nome region it htm and muDtcrealiiig in gaen] pkjFacd apfieU' 
utce, Sewaid Peniasula ii not entireljr devoid of Kcak featuret. The 
couUl plain or tundra and die unforeded hitb wKich Ke inmedialeljr bqrond 
it are oeithei interoting nor attractive to look at; but back in ibe mountaiH 
we rugged peak*, precipitoui canyon* and many pretty mountain kkc*. 

Sahnmi Lake, fifty imka from Nome, lie* at the baie of the Sawtooth Mountain* aod 
look* like a great pair of ipectaclei ; it* clear waten reflecting the hi^ peak* make a pretty 
and an interesting picture. The water* of Cany<» Creek in the Port Clarence dittiict are 
u blue a* the Rhone m Switzerland. Thit itream (or a dittance of a mile and three-quar- 
ter* it thirty feet or more vnde and very deep, clear a* cryital to that the yfUtt tandt at tbe 
bottom are a* plainly vin'Me a* the white (and* that mark itt iborea. By following any of 
the itreamt of thit wi^er-ibed to their tource, the traveler will encounter many charmmg bitt 
of tceneiy. But it it not tcenery that attractt people to thit part of the nortbem country. 
It ii tbe gold that it m the ground, and the other valuable mincrali that have been di>cev' 
end, and reference it here made to wome of the tccaic features in order to do tbe country 
juttice from another than commercial point of new. 

Otber feature* of thi* country, not potteiiing pretent commercial or ccoDomic vahte 
but having a prospective value, are tbe hot q>rtng> which have been found in a number of 
place*. There are hot iprmg* in the ShinnareC country, other* on the Kougarok River, 
other* on die Iiunachuk River and yet other* on Reed River, a tributary of tbe Kobuk. 
It it claimed that the waten of these hot tpringi contain miaerali posscating medicinal pnp- 
Cfties. Wherever they have been found they pottt** the property of counteracting ibe in- 
laences of winter in their immediate vicinity. The Iimiachuk Riva it kept open a distance 
of fmr m3e* all winter long by the hot qmngt. Tbe vohune of water diat iwuet fran 
ibete ^lingt it very large and temperature must be pretty high when tfait vralcr can flow a 
jittaiyf of three or four miles before congealing when the thermometer ■ thirty ck more 
bdow zero. The tame condition* prevail at the hot *pring> on Ate Kougarok and those of 
^ Shismareff country. 

From a dcKr^tion w^iich ha* been given me of the Reed River Hot Springs, they 
must be very dtensive and very remarkaUe. Reed River it a tributary of die Upper 
Kobuk 1 50 miles above Siungnak, the latter stream being tbe place where ibe 6nt Kobuk 
gold [daccr deposit* were found. There i* a trail up Reed River acroi* to Att Noatak 
thence over to the Cohnlle country. The hot tfmngi are near tbe tource id Reed River. 
Then it a zone here three miles or four wide and several milet long which never wear* a 
winter garb. The hiiJiest temperature of the water* of these sprmgt from tetti ntade by 
Mr. Bembart, it 1 10 degrees F. Winter travelers in this country say that the vicmity <rf 
these q>ring* it like an oatit in a desert 

To any peraon wbo fully c o mprAntds the vast mineral weakh of Nbrtfawetten 
Ahika, it it not a Ai^t of imagmation to asiume diat the tinte may cone when tome of 
these hot tprings will be winter resorts for the weak or ailing of die many ttututaadt of 

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people who are dotiiiecl to be inhabiUnb of 
thk country. 

There «re but little pouibilttiei (rf agricul- 
ture in thii put of Akika. 1 have teat hay 
cut and cured in the vicinity of Nome, it 
wat ina(]e of wild granes. it wMsn't voy 
good hay but wai better than sone at alL 
In Nome vesetaUe garden* have been cuki- 
vated succewfuily, but any land of a.griciil- 
tural work, in order to be uiccenful muM be 
done on a very imali icale and with great 
care and paini. 

I do not believe that ibe agricukuraJ re- 
■ourcei of Alaika north of die Yukon Valley 
are worth lerious inveidgatioa. but there arc 
(ome pooibilitiet in the line of itock rainng. 
The Covcmment hat demoDitiated during 
the pait men] years the practicalNlity trf the 
reindeer indiutry in Alaska. On Seward 
Penintula there are vart area* of reindeer moM 
or iphagnum, which ii the natural food for 
the reindeer. In brief, there ii natural pai- 
lurage here for hundreds of thomandt of tbeae 
animali. They do not require any odier kind 
of food and diii moM doet not have to be 
cut and prepared for winter uie. The rein- 
deer brow*et at leinire during the lununer fca- 
MUi, but in the winter he m coiiqMlled to work 
for hii food. It ii an intcretting light to lee 
reindeer digging and burrowing in the now 
in March of their daily nwaL If thia region 
it to become a populout country, I can aee no 
reaaon why the reindeer butincM should not 
be a pro&taUe industry as a private enter- 
prise. People in this hi^ latitude eat niore 
meat than the people in warmer chmales. and 
reindeer meat it tweet and wholesome. A 
full grown reindeer weighs from 150 pounds 
to 200 pounds. The present price of meal 
is from fifty cents die pound to teven^-Gve 
cenU the pound. The cost of rearing rein- 
deer it practically nothing. He procures his 
own living from the time he is bwn. The onir 
eipe n s e it the expense of herding. They mohi- 
ply very fast and in diis country they are com- 
paratively free framdiMase. MaiyAntisariook, 

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knovm ai "Mwy tbe Queen of die Remdeer," i> 

tke widow of Chariey Anliuikwk, yAo wu one et 

the bnt fortumte utttvo to receive madeer from tke 

CovenunenL The iDcreue of Am herd hu given to 

hb widow 300 deer. She it the ncbeit EUkimo on 

Seward Peniuuia. 

I *ee but one dificuky in prowcuting the rein' 

deer induttry a> a private enterpriae, and that i* the 

dificuhy of obtainins origtnai ttock (ince the Ruc- 

■ian Covenunent hat declined to pennit the ex- 

Noro«-Arctlc Railroad. . , . , o-i ■ n . j. 

porting of any more deer nom Sibena. but the 

pasturage ■■ here, the ofq>ortiiiiitie> are here 
for tbe growA of dw indwtry. provided 
ihif country becoma populated by the 
many people that will be required to de- 
velop the mineral weaMi of thii part of 

The reindeer ii a very uieful animal to 
theEaldma Every particle of hiifleihiiu*ed 
for food and hii (kin ii wed for making 
clothing. Reindeer ikina abo make nice 
iug> and are worth from two doUara to 
four d(JIan in the madwt at Nome. 

Ande from the mineral weaMi of North- 
western Alaika, the develo|Hi)enl of the Kih 
induitry, mail amount of revenue derived 
from fun and the ponibility of the reindeer 
induitiy. I foil to perceive at thit day and 
wrilmg ai^ odier re>ource> w^iich the 
country poaaetMt. PreparlrK to Plant a Garden. 

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Nome's Commerce 

SIX yean «go the only vcwek that touched si points of Sew«rd Peninnila were 
wha)err and an occukxuJ tchooner engaged b trade with the natives. Thb 
year the commerce of Nome requirei fourteen (teamen having an aggregate ton- 
nage of 25,000 tool and tevcral schootien that are capable of carrying 5,000 
ton* every trip. Moil of the iteamen make from four tripi to lix tripi in a leawn. In 
1901 more than 150,000 tiHit of frei^t were landed on the beach at Nome, and 15,000 
people accompanied these misceUaneous and heterogeneoui cargoes. No «ich a T<dunie 
ot hof^l nor such a number of people has been transported in any of the succeeding sea- 
sons. In 1902 the cargoes landed at Nome and Solomon aggregated near 70,000 tons; 
but khis bchided material for the Council City and SeJwnon River Railroad, which was 
near 20,000 tons. In 1904 the shipments to the Nome country were more than 80,000 
Ions. In all probability the ihipmenti for ibe teason of 1 905 wiD exceed ihis quantity, as 
a great deal of mining machmery is going into the countiy. 

Seattle, San Francisco and Portland are the principal supply sUtioni of tfae Nome 
country. A part of the mining machinery and die material for the construction and equq>- 
ment of the railroads it purchased in the Elast, but, with a few exceptioos, die food, cloth- 
ing and fud for Northwestern Alaska is bou^t on the Pacific Coast The foregoing 
facts furnish the basis for an estimate of the present value of Seward Peninmla to the 
cities ^cre the larger amount of siqipBes are purchased. This vahie will steadily increase 
with the development of the country. The indurtriei of Northwestern Alaska are in dwir 
infancy. There is every indication that there will be an aimual increase of the mineral product 
of this country Ua many yean. Much of the work which has been done during the past 
two years and much that will be done fn the next three or four years ii of a preliminary 
character. The niboads that are building and the ditches that are being cmislructed are 
prcpanlions tor more extensive mining. The mining of the future, pnmded widi adequa te 
facilities, will be conducted more profitaUy than it hat been in the past. The ex{4oitatioa 
of the tin region will add to the mineral wealth and i»oduct of this country. With an 
increase of the mineral product there will be a commensurate increase of commerce. 

Seattle being the nearest shiK>ing point in the United Sutes ihouU naturally oom- 
nand the largest part of trade widi Nome. The distance from Seattle to Nome is 2.350 
niies. The fastest steamers of the Nome fleet make the trip m eight days. Most of tbe 
commerce of Nome from the eastern ttatet pasMS through Seattle. Tbe development of 
this northern enqiire of stupendous mineral resources will be a conipicuoui factor in tbe 
growth and prosperity of Seattle. Tbe far-seeing business men of Seattle re c og nize this 
fact have organized a di^ composed of 700 refHeaentattve citizens, and having fot 
itt c^ject the promotion and encouragement of all legitimate enterprises for the develop- 
ment of Alaska. The AUtka Building, recently constructed in Seattle, it the finest ttmc- 

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Blore and WarehouH In Nome and a View from the Sea of the North CobbI LlghteraBe Plant 



hire Id the chy, and it ii a prophety of what the 
development of .^Ia«ka will be to the Queen City 
of Puget Sound. 

The Alailu Club i* doing « iplendid work (or 
AluLa. It if a reprcMntative body to voice Alas- 
ka's need* b Washington and it is doing com- 
mendable work to give publicity lo Alaska's re- 
sources, and the great commercial possibilities of 
this new country which are now lying fallow. 


Better fadlitie* for landing and k>ading freight 
at Nome wiD be of material benefit to the com- 
merce of this country. Captain E. W. Johnston, 
who ha* been prominently identified with the light- 
erage businew of Nome since 1900, has consum- 
mated plans to provide dtese facilitiet. Last win- 
ter a charter was secured from Omgras to permit, 
under the supervision of the war department, the 
building of a pier at the mouth of Snake River. 
The Nome Improvement Con^wny was organized 

A,.«. B..,j,„k. «.,,. " oi*°«-»' M'- -fJ «oaooo w„ ..uoiw 

to make a harbor at Nome. The contract tor con- 
siructing this harbor has been given to Captain Johnston. 

Phutotrapli by B. B. Dobbi. 

The New Harbor Will Cbanse This Method of T^jindlnt Freight and PaiiMnBers. 

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Thf pier will comiit of crib* thirty bjr fourteen feet tapering to twelve feet wide oo 
top. Time criU will be filled with rock from Sledge Itland and Cape Prince of W&les. 
Tlwy wiQ be covered two feet above water with edge-bolted timben, and will extend into 
the tea a diitance vf 750 feet from the mouth of Snake River. There will be two pumOel 
Bnet of the«e crib*. The dirtance between them at the mouth of Snake River wiD be 1 1 
feel. Thii width cmverges to eif^tj' feet at the end of the pier, where there wiD be fotir- 
teen (eet of water. A breakwater 400 feet kmg will be buih in the tea beyond the pier. 
Pile* wSl be driven along the easterly ride of Snake River, and all the ihedt and wrare- 
hoiuet necenary for the ihipping buuncM of Nome will be conatructed on thii lide of the 

It it proposed by this enterprise to himidi a safe harbor for all the small vcMck at 
N<MBe, and a mcani of reaching the larger steamers during the stress of the worst weadter. 
The cost of H^terage will be reduced, and the danger to lifc and property oo this stonn- 
beaten shore will be lessened. 

The Nome Improvement Cmnpany is a strong organizaticni, vndi money s«Aaer i bed 
to complete the work undertaken, and ample funds at command to consummate any boss- 
ness plans essential for the success of the enterprise that has been inaugurated. The fol- 
lowing gentlemo) are the trustees of the conq>any; Herbert Cray, of Oldtown, Me., prcm- 
denl and treasurer: C. P. Dam. of Nome, secretary: Mark Reed, of Seattle; George Van 
Dyke, of Boston: J. G. Gould, of Oldtown. 

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Politics in Alaska 


^%y^HE political cmditioot m Alaika htcn not aiMtcd iD Ak derdopmcBt trf tke eom> 
tir- The obiect of thii publicfttioD ia to IcD tbe rtoir of N<irthw«ilaB Ab^ 
from * commercial p<Hiit of view, Bad u poGtic* have had an Jnflucncat qMB dte 
coBUDCTce of die countiT, (ome of die hnta in retard to political comfitiaiw oofr- 
*titute a part of die nibject matter imder diicunini. 

Alaika haa neidier itate nor territorial form of govcnuneat It i> a dirtiict gOTcfBtd 
directly bjr congrem. It ■ a province of dte LUled Sutet occupyiDg dK lame rdatioB to 
the government a* our recently acquired inaular poat ein a ni . The dirtiict ii divided irio 
three judicial divitiou. The federal ofiaab of each of these divinou are a diMiict fydf^ 
a diitrict atbMney, and a United Sutea marJiai. The dittrict jud^tt leiect lbs 
clerb ot tbar ceurtt and ^ipoint the c o mrniwi o acn of d>e vaiiow mining precaeli. 
These connniinoiien are ex-oficie juiboea of dte peace and by de«gnation are r t c o td i 
of the diitiicta ■ which diejr have thor juriadictioD. The federal appointmenti in Almka 
are made by dK President and ctwfiimed by Congress, and notwithstanding the protests of 
Alailians, dte appointees have been sel ec ted from various parts of Am states. Gtittas who 
live in Alaska, who have large property interests in the district, and whose identificatioo 
with the country means a life work in the Northland, have been ignc^ed and eadnded IiMi 
federal ofice. We are in the same position die anh^PT Soudi vras in after the war and 

of dui 

in abe 
of die 

dut tl 

They bdoBg to the chss of ptooeen. Thtj are dw same Qrpe of men diat knded tf 
Plymouth Rock or subsequently settled in die Virginia Colonies. They have the same 
character as die men that led the westward march of empire. It was this class of mca 

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ikftt coavtrted the wotera wilderocM into fuim uid ordiudt. They made our mmBt 
Ibwi in the c&mpt of Califoniia. Tbey have laid the (oundabon upoa which the lupcr- 
itnicture of our nation '» builded. The men of out Northland may be rtronger than iboc. 
became Ahuka it a country in which weakUngt can not thrive. Beudei the rigor of the 
cbnate, the obttaclei ythkh nature hat placed in the path of the fortune leeker make Am 
country ab<olutely unbt (or die weak and timid. The ibong, courageous roan loves (o 
combat difficuhiei. There ii zeit in a itTuggle under advene conditiont. If thete men oi 
dte North were permitted to govern themteket, d>ey would work out their own dettiiua 
and the dettiny of thia new country unhampered by the conditioBi widi which they are now 

The wheel of progrcM movei ilowly and it may be Kveral yean before iheM resolute 
I citizens, who were diffraachised becawe they left their homes to assiat in a 
wofk that will add to the wealth and greatnew of the nation, are emancipated and restoccd 
to all Ae rights t^ citiienship. In the nteantime cmigreM can do much to amdiorate thor 
condition by enacting a law giving them the privilege of electing a congressional delegate 
who will voice their needs and represent them in the law-roakbg power of the United 
States. The president can assist us and win our everlasting gratitude by appointing men 
to ofiee in Alaska who are bona &de residents of the country and personally and directly 
interested in its devel(q>ment. "Alaska for Alaskans!" should be the shibboleth of eveqr 
man in the Northland. 


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Alaskan Do£(s 

^HIS book would not be complete without mmim 
kind of K mcntiMi of the dogt of the countfy. 
Dop hftvc been very uiehil ammalt in AUtka. 
They hkol iledi m the winter time, and they 
cany packi during the mmmer leuon. But tbe 
period when the dog t.oMmp&Aitt the moit work 
ii after the now begini to fly. All tummer long 
many of the dog> have nothing to do but ileep in 
the nmihine and fwage foT food. The dog dutt ia 
"native and to the maniMT born" will lie on (be 
lidewaDc for houn and let hundredi of people itcp 
ova him or walk around him. He ii appareotly 
oblivious of hii tuiroundiugs and tecnungly indiferent to any fear of injury. During Ihe 
ninuner leaaon an obierver unacquainted with the country and it> deniten* would pio- 
DOUDce the Alatkan dog the laziest brute in crcatioa. 

But the hilt now of the Kaaoa trauformi him into a new being. He leema to be 
electrified, and all the dormant Kfe and energy are axouied to hi^ert manifeitation. He 
want! to get in the hameM. A dog may be an "old leldier" in a team, but a dte be- 
ginning of the winter ksmhi he ii ai ftitky at a pq>py. and on hit hnt trip with « team 
will give promiie of plenty of energy and induttry. But hii character it like the character 
<^ a great many people. He toon geti tired of bia work, and he known bow to MA ibe 
reipoHibility of doing hii ihare of the labor. Tbe dog that ii the grealect favorite in 
AUika ii the one diat it uted for tbe leader of the team. The leader ii alwayi an intdli- 
gent animal Some of the leaden of dog team* have eyet ^t are ahnoit human m ex- 
fneanon. Leaden are trained to obey tbe command of "muih-on," "gee," "haw." and 
"w^oa." They know more than thii, but tbey can't talk and lell ut how much they do 

Travelen who have been caught b blizzardt, and have miiMd the trail and become 
bewildered and lott, have tnuted to dieir dog team*, which ahxtoct invari^ly have bto u^ 
d>em to a place of refuge. But the Alatkan dog it tui generii. He it not very hi 
away from hit woK aacettry. He hai not yet learned the happy faculty of u q ifci tin g 
himidf by baling, but he hat a procfigiow capacity to bowl. During the kmg winter 
ni|hti iome of the gatheringi of dogt bear evidence of tgwneditatioH. A great convoca- 
tioo will atiemble. and if the aticmbly place ht^ipen to be m the vicinity of your habitat 
your tlumber will be dirturbed by a concert louder and k« mwical than Souia't band. 
There are many vaiietiei of dog voicei pitched in many keyi and looei, and tbete dogi 
teem to be infinitely happy when howling. 

Tbe Eakimo dog hai a wooly coal to protect htm from the intente cold of tbe winter. 
Hit feet are hard, and he can travd a great diitaiKe over ice and mow without becooiing 
fool-iore. Dogt from tbe ttalcc are called "outnde dogt," and until diey become ac- 
dimated and adapted to the country, a diort winter journey will injure their feet until they 

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leave • timil of bkMxL But luch a mkfortune leldom hthJk the Mtive dog. He knoM 
bow to protect himaelf m cold weather by dig^g a hole io the now, and gettiig ml* 11 
and away from the cutting blam at the north wind. In die •cverest weather he wil b 
down in a cuiM pocition on the crutted now, and ileep u nundly at a high-bied dsg ■ 
the warmest kenneL 

The natives breed their dogs with wohres in order to secure a strain of Iou^uksi nd 
durabili^. A dog that belongs to an Eskimo receives no cooHderation cxcq>t m feeiS^ 
and the native dogs of Alaska manifest very little of the trait which we designate as sIk- 
tion. They may fawn and look suf^licatingjy and wiggle their tails >«4Mn tb? irt 
hungiy. but when their stomachs are fuD they are indiferent Io caresses and prefer te be 
left alone. A disease called hydrophobia afflicts dogs in Alaska. A dog suffering inn 
this malady, which is always fatal, can infect another dog by biting him, but there it m 
case of a person being infected with rabies from the bite of a mad dog in Alaska. U>oslr 
when a dog is afflicted with this disease he acts like something that is cra^ and tnnfa 
until he is shot or until he die*. 

Fish is the principal diet of dogs in this part of the country. A native dog wiD ol 
raw fish in preference to bacon, and during the summer season if his master fail to pcondt 
him with his accustomed food he wiQ go fisliing. This stoty may sound fishy, bit ■■ 
Eskimo dog knows how to catch fish when he is hungry. 

Of all the lower animals the dog is man's best friend. In Alaska his friendifav ii» 
been tested by patient service. A dog is the inseparable companion of the Alaska pn^ 
pector. He has been with him when the adventurous and restless q>irit of the man Iw 
taken him into strange countries of the Northland guarded by morasses, mountains isd 
treacherous rivers in the summer time and by the merciless blizzard m the winter. Ht b* 
shared the hardships and suffering of his roaster, and more than one chapter of miifottme 
in the Aladmn wilderness has ended by the sacrifice of a dog for food. 

Photograph by P. H. Nowell. 


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HAVE endeavored to portray the variout a^tecU of Noithwestem Alatka. I have 
tried to docnbe the counUy'i phyncaJ appearance and cEmatic conditiont: Kave tried 
to lei) of ita rnource*, and to tell where gold ha> been found in quantitiei dengnated » 
pay; have tried to give tome idea of the extent of iu pay depotiu; have rcfetred to dte 
vait area* of low grade graveli much of which i* entirely undeveloped, and have designated 
the mcthodi of mining In vogue and the efforti that are now being made to develop dieae 
regioni; I have told all I know about quartz, and given die reader all the infonnation ol^ 
tained frain prospectors in remote regions during a newip^>er career of pretty near four 
years m Nome ; have diKuMed the subject of tin, t^iich I believe to be a promising industry, 
and Northwestern Alaska the one place m United States territory vt^iere tin will be produced 
in large commercial quantities: I have tried to draw a pen [ncture of the towns and mininc 
camps, and the environment of the pe(q>le >^io live in this part of the world; in short 1 bcBeve 
I have endeavored to kmk at this country as it is now from every conceivable pcMnt of view. 
In all that has been said an attempt has been made to ke<f> weQ widiin the bounds of the 
truth. This volume is not a mining company's prospectus and no effort has been made 
to present any featme of this truly wonderful country in an alluring tonn, and I lake this o|k 
portunity of saying duU what has herein been set down is the "frozen Inidi." 

But. after aU has been said, what are the author's conclusions and deductioDS in regard 
to ihii country} What opportunities does it offer to the poor man in search of a fortune? 
What opportunities does it oCer to die c^>italist who has money to invest and desires to 
place it where he will gel the largest returns? What are the proq>ects for the immediate 
and ranote future? 

The reader in analyzing the facts that have been presented to him will say gold was 
discovered in this country in 1898 and active mining operations were begun in 1899. 
There have been six yean of work in yiiach the gold product of this country has been 
$30,000,000. This is <mly $5,000,000 the year. Ergo, the output of the mines of 
Seward Peoiwula does not indicate the fabulous wealth which some of the descriptions sug- 
gest Bui I beg the reader to consider this fact : The mining season of Nome is only about 
100 days each year. In six years the length of the total of mining seasons is twen^ 
mondu. Some of the gold that the country has produced has been taken out of the winter 
diggings, but the quantity diat has been extracted in the winter season ■ considerably less 
dtan $5,000,000. It is an honest estimate to assume diat the toUl product of summer 
worl is $25,000,000. or $1,250,000 the month. This point of view indicates that die 
countiy contains much greater mineral wealth than a point of view which perceives only the 
yield of $5,000,000 die year. If Seward Peninsda had a climate like California dte 
annual gold product now would be fifteen millioa doDais and possibly twenty. 

As to the permanency of the placer gold Gelds diere ii no question. The great extent 
of ground whi<Ji is known to contain gold cannot be woiked out under the most favorable 
coodilions in a quarter of a ccntuiy. Under the conditions which exist in diis country it a|>- 
pears to me that there is woric in the placer gold fields for the next 100 years. This is 

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merely ao individual opinion, but it it a rea*onable deduction from facts within my knowl- 
edge. Future gold diicoveriet, which undoubtedly vriU be made, will add to the penn*- 
nency of dtit country. 

The opimoa of a mining expert hat been quoted at f<41owi: "I can ttand on Aiit3 
Mountain and my range of vision will mchide an area of minetal ground which coolant 
more gold than any other timilar area of the world." Rou^ity estimated thit area has pto- 
duced half the gold that hat come out of Seward Penintula. 1 do not believe diat 
the amount produced i* one-tenth of the vahie diat remaint in the ground. 

A country of this character, poneiiing wonderful proqiectt. and prodigiout p 
in addition to these prospects, mutt be a good country for any man in quest of a f 
But mining it a butinets and it mutt be undentood by the person who attaint succesa m k. 
A tenderfoot, or as he is known in Alaska, a cheechako, may strike a rich claim and take 
a fortune out of it within a comparatively short time and by very little effort But the 
teriout butineM of mining, the knowledge that enables men to appropriate and utilize bj 
meant of ditches the water that vrill wash thousands of cubic yards of gravel daily; tbe 
knowledge that enables men to plan and construct immense dredgers and intlall than oa 
ground which they know to be adapted for the ute of this kind of mining machinery: this 
kind of knowledge it the retuh tA training and an aptitude toi tbe butioett of mmmg. 
Persons possessing this kind of knowledge dwuld have no fear of hihire in a countiy that 
possettes dM gold resources that are known to exitt in Northwetlers Alaska. 

In diii age of concentration of ca|Ntal and wonderful power of money, the poor mui's 
opportunities in the ordinary field of endeavor are very much restricted. But a new couaUy 
potsetting ordinary advantages mutt present opportuniliet to the energetic, industrious mod 
intelligent poor man which he would never find in the buiy world on the developed tide of 
the frontier. 

The Nome country recently has been spt^en of as not a poor man's country. But I 
do not know of any country today where there are better opportunitiet fn a poot man, if 
he be made of the ri^t kind of material, than this part tii Alaska. By a poor roan I do 
not mean one vAm u not po itetic d of a dollar. Alatka it a bad place in v^iich to be 
"broke," particularly at the approach of vnnler. But the poor roan -whio k not afraid of 
work and who hat enough rooney tm a grub-ttake of a year or to; the poor man who hat 
brains as wdl as brawn will find cqiportunities b Seward Peninsula to get ahead in the 
world much roore n^idly than he will in any odier part of Att United States. I would not 
advise any young man to leave home and friendt and profitable empkyment to teek a fottme 
in this country. Many pet^le who do not understand the conditions and who are a misfit 
in die country have g<»ie to Alaska, and have found the environment different from what 
they anticqwted ; and die uhimate result very often has been pitiful failure. But if a poor 
man be heahhy, strong and industtiout, and have the proper cmception of what he has to 
Gontoid with, and apply himself industriously and with the spirit that it required lo succeed 
in any undertaking, he thould succeed. 

If 1 were to offer advice to capitaBitt there would be fewer strings upon Ait advice 
than upon the advice given to the poor roan. It it obviout that with the great undeveloped 
retourcet that exitt in thit land; die gold that awaitt but the cmning of water to be wathed 
out of the gravels and converted into current coin of the reabn; the preciout dutt in the 
ttrearot and hills of the interior where raihoadt mutt be conitructed to furnish trantportatioii 
faciUliet in order that it may be extracted to as to yield a profit to the operators; die quartz 

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region* to be devdoped ; the tin propertiea u yet in their infancy ; that thete and manf other 
feature* call for capital. There are splendid opportunitiet in many part* of thii country 
for the inveatment of capital, places where money can be made U> yield ten-fold and more. 
But money cannot be lowed broad-catt in thtt country with the expectation of producing 
a bountiful crop of gold duit. If there have been capitalittic failures in this part of Aladu, 
the failure it the fault of the management and not of the country. In a country that poa- 
leuei 10 many opportunJlia for profitable inveitment ai thii couatty poucMei, it it thame- 
ful, if not criminal, that there have been failurei. 

The country need* capiul to develop iti retources. The country offcn mo«t extra- 
ordinary opportunitiei to capital 1 have no hetitancy in adviitng capital to go there, but 
thk advice it qualified with an admonition: "Be wiie in selecting the penon who ii to make 
the espenditmv." When we quit charging up failures to miamanagement diere will ceaie 
to be any failuret. Capital, managed by men who know something about thit country, 
undentand die conditioni at wdl at the retourcet, men who understand mining, will be ai 
safely inveiled in Seward Peninsula as it would be in bonds, and vattly more |»oGtab)y 

Succcat in the butinesi world it a matter of method and management. Succesi in 
mining to a great extent it dependent upon the tame factors. The fint cMential it to obtain 
ground that has got the vahiet in it. Having that land of ground die ri^t kind of a man 
at manager will make the mining operatiou luccetrful. if the work can be tuccettfully done. 

1 Hakes n Home of His Boat. 


THe Mint Returns 

ACCORDING to the mint retunu the gold and liKer product of the Nome cow- 
try for the Gve yean ending in 1903 wu $21,059,177.69. Estbnatmg ihe 
sold product of 1904 at $4,500,000.00 make* a total of $25,559,177.69. 
Of thii lum $68,828.57 it the value of the siNer product 
The mint retunu from the Nome country for each year since the ditcoveiy of goid an 
a> follow! : 

1899. Gold $ 2.400.000.00 

1900. Gold 5.IOO.OOO.OO 

1901. Gold 4.1 IO.7I2.r2 

190r. SUver 20.979.57 

1902. Gold 4.542.188.00 

1902. Siker 19.681.00 

1903. Gold 4.437.449.00 

1903, Silver 28.168.00 

1904. (Eilimated). Gold 4.5OO.000.M 

Total $253'59J 77.09 

Thk ii the official oliinate of the precioui raioera] product of Seward Peniuula. It 

it known beyond quotiiM) that thii value of gold and uKer ha« cone out of ihii country. 
It it alto probable that a connderable quantity of gold from thit counliy may have gow 
into the minti with gold fn»n odicr region*. A quantity of Nome gold abo ha« been uied 
in the artt. piinc^wlly by manufacturing jewelen. I believe that ite ^M product of 
Seward Pcsintula it at leatt $2,000,000 more than it ibown by the mint retuma. The 
mint catimate for 1899 it too low. If the beach produced $2,000,000 in 1899, and it 
it generally believed that the output wat thit much, the gold product of the Nome coontiy 
for that year it contiderably more than $3,000,000. The mint retumt for the tub' 
tequeni yean are at accurate at can be obtained, but they are lett than tbe product c^ tht 
country. The output oi the dump* taken out the patt winter will make Ak total yieU 
<rf the preciout melali fimn Seward PenintuU near $30,000,000. 

Welshlns Oold Aftar tha Clean-up. 


Statistics of the District 

•faiteniant of tha R*v*nu«B ind Expandlttirea of Alaska, Flacal Vaara 1860 t 


Cimonu $ 532.344.10 

Intanu) revenue 157.609.57 

S«k> of pubic Undt 30.779.79 

Tu on Ml ikint 7.562.791.07 

Rent of ical island* 990.000.00 

Rcot of islands for propagmting foxes 9.400.00 

License feet 305,967.76 

License fees collected outside bcoiporated towni 263,322.45 

License feet collected inside incorporated towns 73.380.08 

Fund* available for court aqMwe* (unuied balance*) 22.483.92 

Funds not available ba court expenses 28,942.36 

Custom* fbei, penabia. etc 40.073.15 

Judicial fines, penalties, etc 51,656.19 

Fees and costs, judicial 8,445.88 

MiKcUaneout curimni fees, etc 27.91 1.64 

Regitten' and receiven' fees 2,985.62 

Rent of government buildings, etc 23,954.68 

Insurance fee* 105.00 

Dcpredationt tm public timber 1 3,526.83 

MMcellaneoui 36.094.64 


Kxp« nditsaras 

Salaries, governor, etc $ 550.356.23 

Cmitingent expenses <rf the terntoiy 35.878.84 

Salaries and rxpmtfs, oAce of turvQror gcnenl 47.997. 16 

Collecting custom* revenue 839.239.49 

Collecting internal revenue 31 .089.42 

Expenses of United Sute* court* •2.528.31 3.42 

•Include* amount* reported by the auditor lor stale and odier dcpartmenU a* cd- 
lectcd and diibursed bjr judicial oficers in Alaska, but which under the law are not covered 
into the treasury, nor included in the receipt* here staled. 

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Expenio. office United Statet manlul 83.233.56 

Salarie* and expeniei, agenti at teal fiiheriet 330.096.14 

Protection of lea otter, teal and lalmon fiiheriet 255.225.30 

Expeniet of revenue veaeb b Akikan waten 1,430,698.37 

Scientific investigation of the fur teal fiahenei 41,000.31 

Refuge itation. Point Bairow 37.430.53 

CoiutnictioD and repair of buildingi, etc 1 19,332.71 

Military roadi and bridges 100.000.00 

MiGtary telegraph and cable lines 935,548.67 

Akika boundaiy lurvey 146,414.53 

Light and fog tignal sUticHu 517,972.10 

Reindeer for Alaska 154,933.98 

Support of Indian schools 52,306.96 

Education of Indians 22,160.45 

Education of children 526,1 I 7.03 

Schools outside incorporated towns 1 06,070.63 

Salarie* and commissions, land office 26,941 .56 

Pay of Indian police 30.905. 16 

Supplies tm native inhabitants 220.900.09 

Ezp«ues of steanwT "Albatross" 20.000.00 

Expoues tteamer "Thetii" 66.433.04 

Survey of Yukon River 96.633.14 

Revenue steamer for Yukon River 39.999.16 

Relid of people in the mining regions 193,927.50 

Bering Sea awards and commission 463.642.65 

Miscellaneous expenses 222.239.61 


NOTE: The expenditures for collecting customs and internal revenue, revenue ves- 
sels, Indian schools and police, and for salaries and commisnons at land offices, are the 
estimated amounts paid in Alaska from general appropriations made for the entire service. 
No separate appropriations hw these obfects are made for Alaska service. 

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Part III 



Biographies and Stories 

Brkf SkatchM of th« Llvsa of Man Wtao Have Made the Hlatory of Noma, . 
Narration of Some of the Unique Incidents of the Northland. 

"All history bpcomea subjective: In other words there Is properlr no history, only btOK- 
raphy . ■■ — Kmerson. 

rW\ lOGRAPHIES contain all the »lorie» of greateal mleieM. If the worW was un- 
I jiL iahaHMed, and the editor of a great Martian newqiaper ^ould lend one of 
J Q ) the bright young men of hit itaf to thii planet to write the itory of the Earth, 
liii maniucript would be descriptive and scientiEc. but would lack ftU the 
etsentiab of a great story. He would tell about the principal divisioni of land and water. 
mountab and plain, hill and valley. He would describe the great riven, barbed and 
prwiged with tributaries, canying the sea back to itself. He would tell about the forests 
and flowen, and write the history of Elsurth's travail from the stoiy of the rocks. He 
would make a note of glacial scars, and the active volcanoes would tell him something 
of the great plutooic forces which once upheaved and submerged continents, now feebly 
and irregularly vibrating b dying tremors. He would observe the climatic etfccts <rf the 
Earth's incliiiation on ill axis, note the succession of days and seasons, hear the blasts 
of the tcnq>e*t and see it pile the waters of the sea high on the land, or hurl them against 
die diSs of a rock shtwc. His story would bterest as the story of a voyage of discovoy 
inlereits. or at the talc of on explorer mterests. Those who love the strange, the new 
or the wonderful, would read it. The scientist, who is tiybg to learn the seuets of the 
univene, would read it, and it would be filed away b the archives of leambg. But 
the per^le of Man. if tbey are Eke the people of the Earth, would contbue to read 
the stories that tell of the lives of men on their planet, the history of human endeavor 
and accomplishment — the subjugatitHi of the wilderness, the building of homes, towns 
and citiet, the u^esion of society into states and naticms. 

But what wide-spread btensely fervid bterest would be awakened if die man from 
Man could lake back from the Earth the stories of Caesar, Napoleon and Washington; 
Confucius, Mencius, Socrates and Plato; Philarch, Homer, Shakespeare and Emerson; 
the avatara worshipped by E^arth f^ as Divinity; and the stories of others who have 
dominated other realms of the world, such as sculpture, pabtbg, music and bvcntimi. 
The argument needs no elaboration. The great and untiring interest of the human mind 
it focused b the stoiy of man. what he has done, what he is domg, what he con do 
and what be may do. The qiirit of a great man of on epoch permefttei the history of 
his time, and is absorbed by the pet^le that revere him. The genius of great men has 
made the history of nations, and served as inspiration for the art, music and literature of 
^ ages. At every point of view from which lerrcttrial being or exigence is observed, 
man is the most bteretting figure b die perspective. The archaeologitt digs in the tombs 
of the forgotten centuries, and brings to light, for the joy of die multitude, relics which 
tell what man did when history was so young the does not remember the record of 

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eventt. Marconi discoven the tecret of wireleu telegraphy, and our biterot in the 
man keep* pace with our inlcrett in hi* di*covery. 

But what of the million* who live their Hve* and die "unhonorcd and unung?" 
What ii there in dx live* of the gieat anny of loilen to tene ai in^iratimi, either now 
or henceforth? E>id you ever obterve how the river of life flow* on and on, ever oa, 
and how daily and hourly brave and wi*e men, who have dared iu current* and rapid* 
and pool*, sink and ri*e ho mon} Have you not *eeo tome oae from the many who 
fioat near the *hore in it* radiant water*, with matferful stroke euKTRe from the duoog 
and take the vacant place among the leaden, and widi undaunted courage rcstuie the 
woik of founding channel* and avoiding the cataract* and fall* of thit wonderfully my*- 
lerioui itream which it bearing ui no one know* whither. And if he ihould (ink there 
are otheti to take hi* place and thouiand* who could hU iL Among the toiler*, unknown 
to fame and *hrinking from publicity, are "Mute ingktrioui Mihon*, Cromwelb guiMcM 
of their country'* blood." The world ii di4>aaed to meaiure luccew by die gear one 
gather*, or by a lucky ttrake of a popular chord. Heedlew. impukive and impetuous 
world ha* it* eye* lixed on ihote who are prominent, it matter* not ibat the prominence 
hat been attained by the vitiation of all the ethic* of Hfe. Huxley taid that conq>etilion 
ii a bar to the lucce** of thoK who are ethically great, and man frequently underesti- 
malei or overealimate* hi* cmitemporaries. There ii roch a flux of opinion, influotced 
by educatitm and environment, prejudice and jealou*y vduch *bould not exiM, favor- 
itiim and die power of wealth, that contemporary judgment leMom fixe* the itatua of 
thote who nuke hittory. The cafaner and unbiated judgment of a future generabon i* 
truer. It lingi the *ong* of men who lived in poverty and comparative ob*curity, and 
ha* wonhq)ped for ccnturie* the incarnated Divinity of one who died in ignominy. Kea- 
•oning by analogy bringi ui to the concept of the powibility of a time when there will 
be a change b p<^ular opinion of our heroca, po*tibly a radical alteration of cq>ini(»). 
Everything in ihii life depend* upon the pobt of view. Our *tandardt are our ideal*. 
and our ideal* may not be the ideal* of die human family a century hence. 

I *tarted to write a fweword to the biogra[McaI *ketche* in thit volume, and find 
myielf in pureuit of a multitude of thou^ti which beckon from many bypath*; and if 
I keep to the hi^way of the theme I mutt leave than until a time i^ien an excunion 
mto thii realm wiD permit of tundry exploratiMU of neighboring field and wood and little 
journey* along tbete bypadi* whkh lead, I know not whither, but teemingly toward 
(unny ikq>e* and ihaded noob and altogether pleasant scene*. 

Biographies «f pioneer* must contain much of the hittory of the country, and more 
dut is of general interest. Seward Peninsula is an ancitnt land, from a geological point 
of view, and history does not tell us how long it has been peopled by Eskimo; the fur 
hunten have known the country for a century and a half, dte whaten half as long a 
time, the missionaries for a shorter period, but the geld hunleis. who have been the 
vanguard of immigration and civilization in die West, did not come here until 1897; 
heatx we do not estimate the country's age by die paleozoic hill* or native legend*, but 
with pardonable pride, looUog over the great mining operation* under way. railroad* in 
<qteration, telephone line* connecting diferent part* of the penintuk, Nome, thrifty and 
prosperous, with 3,000 winter inhabitants and twice as many in the summer season, 
many smaller towns, die need* of die inhabitanU requiring a fleet of vesseb capable of 
carrying 75,000 tons of freight during the open season; — we survey all this and modestly 
direct attention to an age of but six yean. A!! of the people vrho have been here 

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since the eody dttyi hftve contributed tomething toward the history of thii country. 
It may not have been much that tome contributed, and yet thote who contributed leatt 
may have done something notably worthy of mention. 

Thi* it not « genial land, where man may pbck wild fruits at all seasons and 
Eve on the forage of the country. It is stinted in food products, uninviting, stem and 
cruel It never can be the home of weaklings, unless fortune has smiled on them. It ii 
an unfit countiy for a lazy marL The Northland lays to her children, work or starve. 
Endurance and courage are indispensable qualifications of the men who make the trails 
and the men who subsequently travel th«n. There arc boggy swamps, treacherous 
rooss-covered slopes to cross, many streams to ford, and a successicm of mountains to 
chmb, in the sununer season; and most of the days are filled with fog andl rain. In 
winter there is nothing but snow and cold, blizzards and the hideous specter of death 
by freezing. Hie men who have blazed the trails in this wilderness can tell stories of 
"hair-breadth 'scapes," of imminent peril which was avoided only I7 indomitable cour- 
age and a resolution that does not have in its vocabulary any such word as fail. 

The country is large and its inhabitants are comparatively few, and most of all 
the old residents are persotuilly known by each other. The writer bebeves that the 
stories in the following sketches are the most interesting featwe of this volume. 


THE siMy of the life ^ Charles D. Lane would make an interesting volume. His 
biography should not be condensed in a sketch, such as may be given in this 
book to the men who have made the history of Nome. The necessity of brevity 
-will deprive the writer of an opportunity to present a careful and complete study of a 
sturdy pioneer character. I regret this because there is much in the long and active 
career of Mr. L^ne which would not only be of much interest but of great vshie to many 
struggling young men. His life has not been a continuous summer day. There have 
been times yrhta the clouds hung low and kwked ominous, but his courage never forsook 
him, and he never lost confidence b himself; and herein Uet the secret of the men who 

Charles D. Lane it the Nestor of the Nome country. From the beginning his 
judgment told him that this country was rich in gold, and with the courage of his con- 
victions he projected a great enteiprise in diis region. The inauguration of this enter- 
prise required the expenditure of millions; its uttimale accomplishment means a great 
many more millions for himself and hit associates. The partial consummation of this 
work shoiws hit unerring perception of the mineral resources of this countiy. Realizing 
at the outset the necessity of a large amount of money to develop hit plant, he organized 
the Wild Goose Mining and Trading Company with a capital of $1,000,000. The 
stock was subscribed l^ himself and a few of his Sao Francisco and Baltimore friends. 
This large sum of money was invested in mining properties of Seward Peninsula. With 
a few exceptions the numerous claims owned by dits company were acquired l^ purchase. 
For three yean the product of these dainu was $1,000,000 the year, but no dividends 
were declared until the end of the fourth season's operations. The money that was taken 
out of the ground was expended for improvements, which consisted of facilities for 
mimng work, and in the acquirement of additional property. Many miles of dttchet 
were constructed, a great pumping plant to force the water from Snake River to the 

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nunmit of Anvil Mountain wu erected, and two raiboacb were built, one from Nome 
to Anvil Cieek and the othei from Coundt City to No. 15 Ophir Cndc At the ckwe 
of the seaiofl of 1904 the company paid all of it« outstanding indebtedncM and decloied 
a dividend of tiiirty per cent. I shall not attempt to eitimate the vahie of the compai^'a 
property, but think I may lafely say that it has work in tig^t on its present holdinga for 
the next quartet of a centuiy. 

The man who acquired this property and who planned tttit work, whose methods 
permitted the acquisition of this property without the levying of an aneoment or the 
call for a single dollar from the slocUiolders other than the price of th^ ttock, deMrvet 
the credit of excellent judgment and qilendid financial ability. To a man accustomed to 
big enterprises there may be no more difficuhy m making one dollar purchase twen^ 
dollars' worth of property ^n there is in making one million doUait purchase twenty 
million dollan' 'vorth of property, but the men who are capal^ of handling ^k Ugger 
enterprise are not conspicuously numerous. 

Mr. Lane was bom in Palmyra, Marion County. Minouri. November 13. 1840. 
His parents were Virginian* of Scotch descent. His father was a milier and a ■taundi 
old Democrat of the Jackson type. In 1852 Mr. Lane crossed the plains with his 
lather. The family settled in Stockton, California, and engaged in fanning and stock 
raising. Although only a boy of twelve, Mr. Lane began the w<»k of goU mining dte 
first winter he resided in California. In the fifty odd years that have et^xed since then 
he has worked at roinmg in every phase, and it hmiliar widi the use of all kinds ^ 
mining machinery, from the rocker to the best improved and most modem ai^taratus. 
His experience has covered every feature of gold placer and quartz mining. In his woi^ 
he has had one rule to which he has strictly adhered, and that is, to try to do wdl what* 
ever he undertakes to do. For a period of his Efe he drove an ox team, and he is 
now proud of the fact that he was one of the best ox drivers in the West. Not only 
did he try to do his allotted work well, but he tried to derive some satiifaction aitd 
pleasure from doing it. To use his own figur<itivc way of expressing it. he always tried 
"to draw a little bit of honey out of any kind of a flower." 

His first experience in quartz mining was acquired in Nevada where he obtained 
a quartz property in 1867 and cq>crated it for several yean; but the venture was not 
a success. He plucldly staid by the mine, however, until he was "broke" and m dtbt. 
A part of this bdebtedness he liquidated years afterward, when by patient toil and 
assiduous wooing he had won Dame Fortune's smile. After the unfortunate experience 
in the Nevada quartz mine, he worked for wai!es as foreman in a quartz mine at 
Battle Mountain. He drove ox teams in Nevada and hrmed in Idaho His first suc- 
cessful roirung was on Snake River in Idaho. The gold of Snake I^er was very fine 
and associated with black sand, but Mr. Lane's method of minmg these placera was 
profitable. He afterward (^>erated by hydraulic methods the Big Flat Mine, of Del 
Norte County. California. 

He was fifty yean old when he made the strike in the now famous Utica Mine 
at Angels. California. This great quartz property had been exploited to a depth of 
ninety feet, but a great deal more work was necessary to be done to prove its value*. 
This was a trying time in Mr. Lane's life. The work of developing a quartz mine 
without adequate capital is a ^lendid test of pluck and persistence. A poor man m«t 
have unbounded faith and courage to devote yean of unrequited labor to such an 
enterprise. After three years of unprofitable work his anociates became uneasy and 
wanted to dispose of dieir interests. Notwithstanding the adverse conditions, Mr. Lane 

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never lost faith in the property; he never lo«t faith in himself nor conScknce in hii 
judgmenL He niccecded in inducing Mevrt. Hayward and Hobarl, San Frandico 
capitalitti. to buy out hii partnen and lupply the money (hat wat necexary to continue 
the development work. The Utica Mine hai produced $ 1 7.000.000 and it stiU a 
valuable pr(^>erty. Thii brief tentence telk the whole story. 

The Fortuna Mine of Arizona is another valuable property which Mr. Lane 
has developed. This mine has produced $3,000,000. Mr. Lane became interested 
in Alaska in 1898, at the time of the Kotzebue Sound excitement, and outfitted an 
eipedition to go to this country. He accompanied the expedition and spent a part of 
the sununer of 1896 in this region. After he returned to San Francisco, G. W. Price 
who was a member of the expedition, made a journey from Kotzebue Sound to Gok>vin 
Bay. and was at the Swedish Miidon on Gok>vin Bay when Undeberg, Undbbm and 
firynteson returned from Anvil Creek with die newt of the gold discoveiy on diil 
stream. Mr. Price accompanied the discoverers on their second trip to die New Eldo- 
rado, assisted in the organization of the district and acquired some valuable pn^>arty. 
Mr. LaiK was immediately notified of die great strike, and the following season was the 
beginning of his extensive operations on Seward Peninsula. Ahhou^ Mr. Lane is tbe 
owner of two quartz mines that have produced $20,000,000, he bdievet that a greater 
success than any of his previous venture* is to be made in AUska. 

This is but a brief and unadorned sketch of Mr. Lane's business career. At a 
man he is a distinctive type of the pioneer fortune builder, surrounded l^ an atmosphere 
of the frontier and yet potsetsing the instinctive qualities of the educated gentleman. He 
has been die architect of his own fortune, and has toiled along the uncertain traib of 
poverty before he walked the bi^wayi <^ affluence. But at all times, whether laboring 
with ]»ck and shovel, driving an ox team or directing a small army of men engaged in 
work that has produced millions for him, his character has remained unchanged. He is, 
always has been, and always will be Charles D. Lane, plain-spoken, strai^t-forwaid. 
frank and honest in hit methods, and as easily a{q>roached by one of the toilen in his 
mines as by the man of title or wealdi. With him a[^>earances do not indicate the man. 
He knows that an honest heart and a true soul may be hidden in a body clothed in a 
iuD9>er and overaDt. In trtidi, I believe he would look for them in this gad) before 
he examined those that wore the raiment of the wealthy. 

Mr. I^ane's greatest pride is diat he it a plain miner. The money he has made 
hat been clean money. It hat not caused heartaches and torrowi. There is no blood 
on it It was not filched from one class of people to enrich another class. It was 
drawn from the boiom of old Mother Earth, where it was placed for the bene6t of 
her children. Mr. Lbim detests cant and hypocrisy. He beBeves in work more dian 
be believet in bidi. He believes in fair and honest methods, and has little use for the 
praying money m<mgers yAto unload dieir sins on Sundays and accumulate a new pack 
'during the wedc Hit refigjon it the religion of juttice and chanty, a religion of ethics, 
a religion of work diat it helpful to his feUow man. Bom on the frontier at a time 
when puUic schoob furnished but meager facilities for an education, and being com' 
pelled at an early age to assist in the work of a bread winner, he did not obtain the 
scholastic advantages which are the inheritance of the boys of today. But the lack 
of early educational opportunttiet has not prevented him from obtaining an education. It 
may not be a technical educatirai but it is eminendy practical and useful. Contact with 
the woHd hat ^ven him an unerring knowledge of men, and a keen mind capable of com- 
prehending princq>les has been stored by reading and experience with a vast fund of useful 

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knowledge. He pooeMes a itTiking originality of expraaion and hit convenaticMi is 
ilhittrated with more pertinent and ^>propnatc anecdotes than have been told by any man 
tince the days of Abraham Lincoln. 

O. W. King, a well known new^aper roan of die Northwest hat written a poeoi 
and a toast to Charte* D. Lane which I may appropriately use to conclude this sketch. 
The occasion was the celebration of Mr. Lane's sixtieth birthday on board the tteamer 
Oregon en route from Nome to Seattle. This was a very pleasant incident in Mr. Lane's 
life, and a number of tributes were paid him in toasts and verse by the passengers. Mr. 
King's contribution Is as foUowt: 

There's an old fellow knocking around out West, 

With hi* grizzly beard and mane — 
Reckon I might as weD ting out. 

I'm referring to Charlie Lane — 
Whatt had bit 14M and downt in time. 

An' hit joys and sorrows, too. 
Though now he'i flush, on the Full red plush 

Of Fortune's favorite pew. 

I-ie's blazed his trail and packed hit grub 

'Crost many a high divide; 
He's toiled and sweat in dry and wet. 

Where the preciout irtetak hide. 
Busted and sick of typhoid blues. 

He's stood in hit last deep ditch. 
And cursed his luck like an old woodchuck. 

'Fore the mica turned out rich. 

Siitce diem old days they's been a change. 

For the hardest metals wear. 
An' you'd never know imlett you looked 

At the color of hit hair; 
An' they say in town when he aint aroimd. 

'At hu taste is a trifle queer. 
For he'd rather shake with "Tougji Nut Jake' 

Than a bkwted millionaire. 

I reckon they aint no man we kikow 

That's deserving a better ktt; 
1 reckon there's no one b the game 

That's a better right to the pot. 
He's won out against the longest odds 

In the busineu of buckin' fate. 
And though old and scarred in the battle hard, 

He'i the same <Jd jovial mate. 

They ain't no thine to hit make-up, boys. 

From hit hat to hit Arctic tox; 
Not even on them old boott of hit. 

But he's got a heart like an ox. 

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And I bdieve lome dmy, when he goes away 

To proq>ect the other thore, 
He can give hu name and whence he came. 

And Peter will aik no more. 

While die sun of hb fortune ii higbeit now. 

With him it ii long after noon; 
He't tixty year* old today, boyi. 

And the shadders will be here soon. 
So we'D drink to his health and pray the court, 

A lecetver for old death's claim. 
And we'll let go hard of our friend and pard. 

For he won't pass here again. 

Then Mr. King oSered this toast to Missouri, the native state of Mr. Lane: 
We've all abused Missouri, 

And simg our songs of Pike; 
And laughed to poke some wicked joke 

At raw-boDcd hungry Ike. 
But we've got to puU our horses up. 

And 'fc*s up flat and plain; 
Can't find no mate to match the State 

That gave us Charley Lane. 


JAFET LINDEBERG, president of the Pioneer Mining Company and prominent 
mine owner and operator of Seward Peninsula, has the distinction of bemg one of 

the three men who first discovered gold on Anvil Creek and &iow Gulch. This 
discovery made m September, 1898, was the inception of active mining operations in 
Northwestern Alaska, and the beginning of exploration in a region where vast and uncalcu- 
lated mineral wealth still lies falk>w. At the time that Mr. Lindeberg, in company with 
Erik O. Lindblom and J. E. Biyntestm, made the famous strike he was a mere youth. He 
was bom m Norway September. 1 874, and was just 24 years old when the discovery was 
made which not only turned the current of his life but changed the course of the lives of 
thousands of others. 

The four partners, Lindeberg, Lindblom, Btynteson and Kjelsbcrg, known as the 
Pioneer Mining Company, mined a large quantity of goU in 1 899 and 1 900. In 1 90 1 
the F^oneer Mining Company was incorporated, and Mr. Lindeberg was elected presi- 
dent and general manager. He was a very young man to occupy such an important and 
re*pons3>le office:, but bis experience as a miner had developed the practical knowledge, 
which was die first prerequisite of Ate position he held, and the poUcy he has pursued has 
diown a wise foresifdit and a correct estimate of the imdeveloped value of the country. 
His policy has been to secure additional holding for his company, and in this respect he 
has followed die example of one of the most successful miners in the West or North, 
Charles D. Lane, whose methods m Alaska have placed the Wild Goose Mining ConqMUiy 
b possession of many very valuable mining claims. To Mr. Lindeberg it was obvious 
diat the wisest plan to pursue was to use the earnings of the company for the first few 
years to increase the company*! possessions. The new discoveries diat are made cwy year 

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in the Nome country ve concltuive evidence of tbe undiscovered nuBenl weatdi of tht 
country and of die permuiency of the mining campt of this put of Atulu. The sknyly 
developed conditiont have ihovm the wiidoin of Mr. Lindeberg't policy. He regards the 
work he it engaged in as his hfe work, and to it he is derating all the energy of youth and 
the judgment gained by experience of mature manhood. 

Mr. Lindeberg owns the electric light and power worb at Nome, and he and hii 
three early auociatet constiucled and own the MoonUf^t Springs Water Works which 
nqiply Nome with pure water and provide the town with protection in dke event of fire. 
The quality of the water furnished the residents ^ Nome is sot excdled, and in this 
respect the people are fortunate, as prior to its introduction there was an epidemic of 
typhoid fever which has not since occurred. The Nome Electric Light plani is the first one 
established in Northwestern Alaska. 

Mr. Lmdeberg is married. Mrs. LJndeberg is a member of an old and promioent 
family of California. Their winter home is the Palace Hotel, San Francisco. The 
summer seasons are periods of active work at Nome for Mr. Lindd>erg, when he is most 
frequently seen in the garb of a miner kwking after the many details of the company's 
cartensive interests. He is a man of untiring energy who has made the most out of the 
oiq>ortunities of life, and by inherent strength of character has derated himself to a pontioD 
of prominence in the 6eld of industrial activity. 


went to Alaska in 1866 and had 
diarge of a part of the construe' 
tion work of the Western Union Tel- 
egraph Company, which at that time 
was attempting to erect a telegraph Hue 
across Canada and Alaska to connect 
with a Siberian line l^ a cable across 
Bering Strait Some of the old telegraph 
poles that were erected in 1666 and 
1 867 may still be seen in Seward Pen- 
insula. Captain Ubby discovered gold 
on Ophir Creek in 1666, and always 
cherished a desire to go back to this 
country, but did not have an oppor- 
tunity for its gratificatiiMi until the dis- 
covery of gold in the Klondike country 
created greater interest than had hith- 
erto been manifested m the Northland 
He is a native of Maine, and wis 
bom FelHuary 3. 1644. He served 
as a soldier in die UnicHi Army, and 
after the war went to FHke's Peak. 
While in Alaska in die employ of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company 
CAPTAIN D. B. I.IBBV. he had diarge of a division of the line 

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coDBtructioD. He ipent die winter in 1666 and 1867 in a camp on Grantley Haibor 
named Libbyiville. After he letumed from Alaska he was ticket agent for the Southern 
Pacific Railroad Company, Fourth and Towniend Streets, Sao Francisco, for fifteoi 
years. FaiHng heahh compelled him to resign this position, and he went to Mendocino 
County, California, where he fully recovered. His second joumey to die Northland 
was made in 1697. He left San Francisco August 16. sailing on the steamer North 
Fork. He was accompanied by his brother-in-law, Louis Melsing, and 1^ Harry L. 
Blake and A. P. Mordaunt. He spent two winten in the Fish River country. At 
die present time he is at the head of a prospecting expedition in the unknown and un- 
explored country of die Kuskokwim Valley. 

Miss Louise Melsing, of San Francisco, and Captain Libby were married in 1862. 
They have two children. Daniel B., Jr., and Adeline EL The son is now a young 
man of eii^leen years and an assayer. When he was fourteen yean old he accom- 
panied his father on a trip to Alaska. 

Captain Libby is a prominent figure in the history of Northwestern Alaska. He 
has trodden many miles of the "toe-lwisdng tundra," and his work has been distinct- 
ively of the kind that falls to the lot of the pioneer explorer and prospector. The region 
be is now bvestigating is so far away from the direct and usual mediods of communica- 
tion dkat possiUy a month or more would be requu^ for him to send a message 
to the nearest postoffice or telegraph station. It >s to men of this type diat futive 
generatiMis will be indebted for a better knowledge of Alaska than we possess today. 


NB. SOLNER has been identi- 
• Red with the banldng interests 
of Nome since the early 
spring of 1900. He is the manager 
ot the Bank of Cape Nome, one of die 
leading banb of Alaska, transacting 
a very large business in die Nome coun- 
try. He came to Nome in June, 1900. 
siqiervised the construction of the bank 
building, and has since bad the man- 
agement of this financial institution, 
which is doing its share to pmnote the 
welfare of Seward Peninsula and de- 
velop the mineral resources of this coun- 

Mr. Solner is a native of Janesville, 
Wiscoosm. and was bom January 10. 
1864. In 1880 lie entered dw First 
National Bank of Moorehead, Minne- 
sota, and m 1684 was cashier of the 
Tobacco Exchange Bank of Edgerton, 
Wisconsin. In 1 686 he went to Cat- 
fomia on account of ill health. Two 
years later he vidled Seattle, v^iere he jj_ B aouJBB 

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obtained employment u paying teller of the Firal National Bank of diat city. 
He hai held other poulioni of re^Miuibilily and tn»t in banks, and hat had a motf 
thorough training in all d«f>artmentt of the banking buiincu. 

Subsequent to the estabhshment of the Bank of Cape Nome he was elected vice- 
president of that institution. In November, 1903, with James D. Hoge and other 
representative citizens of Seattle, he organized the Unicw Savings and Trust Co., of 
Seattle, and was selected as cashier of that institution. This is one of the most suc- 
cessful banks ever organized in the city of Seattle. In the brief period of its existence 
it hat accumulated more than $1,200,000 in depoMts. 

Mr. Solner fills both positions — that of manager of the Bank of Cape Nome, and 
cashier of the Union Savings and Trust Co.. of Seattle. He visits Nome during the 
lummer seasons, and exercises a general supervision over the Nome bank. The prin- 
cipal buunesi of banks tn Nome is the purchase of gold dust, and the Bank of Cape 
Nome handles annually $1 ,500,000 of the product of the mines of Seward Peninsula. 

Mr. Sober, by virtue of his trainbg and natural aptitude for the busine», is a 
successful banker; he is a courteous and genial gentleman, exact in business methods, 
punctilious in his work and the discharge of the duties devolving upon him, and posseu- 
ing an unusual clarity of perception of the ways and means of building the business to 
which he has devoted the yean of hit life nnce early manhood. He has many friends 
in Nome who esteem him for his moral worth and for the sterling qualities of his character. 


JOHN BRYNTESON is one of the first discoverers of gold on Anvil Creek. He 
was a member of the party that started from Golovin Bay to investigate a report 

brought by natives of gold on the beach al Sinulc This parly, on account of rough 
weather, was forced to make a landing at the mouth of Snake fUver. and during their 
detention at this place they proq>ected some of the adjacoit country. Mr. Brynleson 
found encouraging prospects on Anvil Creek August I, and it was thete prospects 
that induced him to return to this place accompanied by Lindeberg and Lindblom in 
Sq>tember following when the great discovery was made by which the Nome coimtry 
became known, and developed mto one of the notaUe gold producing regions of the world. 

Mr. Brynteson came to Abuka in the spring of 1898. He had been a worker 
in the iron mines in the northern part of the United States, and the object of his trip 
to Alaska was to proq}ect for gold. His first prospecting in Alaska was in the Fish 
River country. The result of his efforts in this region was not entirely satisfactory, 
although cobrs were found; and he jomed the expedition to another part of the 
peninsula as told in the preceding paragraph, and through this trqi became one of the 
discoverers of gold in the Nome District and the owner of very valuable muing pr^>erties. 

Mr. Brynteson is a native of Oakland, Sweden, and was bom August 13, 1871. 
Hit father was a farmer and the subject of diit iketch received his education b the 
public schools of his native land. He came to America m IS87, but Dame Fortune 
never smiled on him until he went to Alaska. He was one of the original members, and 
one of the organizers, of the Pioneer Minmg Company, and he is now a director b that 
corporation. Sbce hit acquisition of wealth from the mbes of Alaska, he has pur- 
chased a home in Santa Clara Valley, Cal.. where he is following the quiet and unpre- 
tentious life of a farmer. He has valuable and extensive interests b Seward Peninsula. 

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While the producb of hk mines have made him a capitahit and placd him in a pontion 
of absolute finwni'iftl bdependcnce, he stiO remains the unauuming roan and courteous 
gentleman that he was before the days of his affluence. 

Mr. Brynteson was roanied May 2, 1900. Mra. Brynteson was fonnerly Miss 
Eroma Fonborg. Three children, one son and two daughters, have been bom to 
them. f-Iis identiiicatioii with the early hisloiy of Nome, the discovery of gold, organizalioo 
of the Nome District and the development of the rich mines of Anvil Creek and Snow 
Gulch, is told in a preceding chapter of this bode. 


THERE is not a man in the Nome 
country who is better known or 
more hi^ly esteemed than Ma- 
ior Monroe. He came to Nome to 
supervise the construction of the Wild 
Goose I^boad, and is the man who 
built the first railroad in Northwestern 
Ahuka. After its construction he acted 
as superintendent of the line, and sub- 
sequently when the road was acquired 
by the Nome-Arctic corporation and 
its name changed, he was selected as 
manager and placed in full charge of 
the road. 

Maior Monroe is a native of Indiana, 
and was bom June 4. 1841. He is 
of Southern lineage, his parents having 
emigrated from Kentucky to the Hoo- 
sier state. At the age of eighteen he 
enlisted as a soldier in the First Iowa 
Cavalry. For meritorious service he 
was promoted to first lieutenant of the 
Seventh Iowa Cavaliy. He served his 
country as a soMier during a period of 

four years and a half, and was in a major w. n. monroe. 

number of engagements in the Civil 

War, notable among them the battles of Perry Grove, Arkansas, and Springfield, Missouri 
During the latter part of his service in the army he was transferred to the Western De- 
partment, and for two years fought Indians on the frontier. He was in Wyoming 
during the serious trouble with the Sioux. 

Major Monroe was accredited with being the best drilled cavalry officer in the 
Department of the Platte, and has a certificate from General McCane. the commander, 
for his proficiency as a horseman and a swordsman. He was mustered out of service 
as Brevet Major, and began the work of civil life as a railroad contractor and super- 
intendent of construction. He helped to build die tUon Pacific, and in 1872 went 
to Cabfomia, and (or many years was connected with the construction department of 
the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. In 1884 he established the town of Mon- 

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rovia in Southern California, and lived there until the firing of 1900. being engaged 
in the real estate busineu. In 1900 he came to Nome with Charle* D. Lane and coo- 
itnicted the mott northerly railroad in NtHth Amarica. 

Major Monroe was matried in Omaha, E)ecFmber 23, 1864. Mn. Mrauoe was 
(onnerljr Mi** Mary J. Hall. The iaue of this mamage ii (our children. Mikoo S.. 
George O.. Myrtle M. and Mabel H. The elder daughter it now the wife of Bruce 
C. Bailey, and the younger daughter i* the wife of Bruce T. E)yeT. 

When Major Monroe wai stqterintendent of conttniction on the Southern Pacific 
line* of the Southweit he wai known among the employe* by the name of "Red-Cloud." 
At that time hi* hair, which i* now beginning to ihow the frott of many winter*, was 
red. and to recall a familisr *tory, he rode a white hone. Then a* now, he poMcssed 
an inexhaustible fund of good humor. He ha* the happy faculty of teeing the silver 
lining of the cloud, and he can fence a thrutt of anger with a joke at dexteroutly a* he 
could fence with a cavalry tword i^en he wat an officer in the Department of tbe 
Platte. He ownt a big heart; and with the aggrestivr-ness and induttry that are nec- 
essary pre-requisitet for butinett enleiprise. he ha* a *oul that req>ondt to every tentimenL 



H. LANG is at die head of one of the large 
• -, ditch enteipritet of Seward Peninsula. He 
it the general manager of the Flambeau 
Ditch and Mining Conqiany, which i* constructing a 
thirty-mile ditch from the Flambeau River to Hastiiigs 
Creek. This ditch will cover a large area of valuaUe 
mining ground. 

Mr. Long i* a native of Rock Counfy. Wiscon- 
sin, and was bom September 25, 1856. He was 
educated in the public school* of Eau Claire. When 
he was a young man he and hi* brother formed tbe 
Line Construction Company. The busincs* <(f this 
company wat constructing and building, and its field 
of work wat in Northern Wticonsin. Several decbic 
light plants were constructed by the company. An- 
other feature of the company'* woHc was the building 
of lumbermen's log driving dams. Mr. Lang followed 
this character of work until 1 897 when he started for 
the Kk>ndike by way of White Pas*. He tpent two 
yean on the Yukon in the bu*ine«* of mining. He returned home in 1899, and m the 
following ipiing went to Nome ra the Robert Dollar. Inuring his first two yean in the 
Nome country he mined on Hungry, Oregon and Bourbon Creek*. In 1903 he organ- 
ized the Flambeau Ditch and Mining Conqumy and ha* been associated widi the enter- 
prise a* general manager ever since. 

Mr. Lang wat married in 1878 in MinneapfJit, Minn. Mn. Lang was formerly 
Mi** CeGa Kelly. They have two children. Will and Cora, both of whom have 
reached maturity, the latter being the wife of W. J. Heiier. The family rendct m 
Portland. Oregon. Mr. Lang i> a careful and prudent bu*inest man and on upright, 
hmiorable citizen. Tbe economical monogemnit of his company'* affain in the Nome 

W. H. LANG. 

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couDby ii atletted by the low cott of the ditch work he hat done. Aa one of the ditch 
promoten and builden in thit countiy he it doing much for the developmoit of the re- 
Murcet of Sewvd PeniniuU, utd when hit company coiuiunmata the work in which it 
i> engaged, the renih of Mr. Lang'i labon ihould be more than latiifactory to hlnuelf and 
hit BMOciatei. 


A SCHNEIDER it the French 
• Vice^^ontuI in Nome. He ii 
alto largely interetted in min- 
ing and ditch conitruclion. being pres- 
ident and general manager of the Nortfa- 
wettem Ditch Company. This com- 
pany own* a valuable ditch Efteen miles 
long between Osborne Creek and the 
beach of Bering Sea. Thit ditch en- 
leiprise was started by the Fort Davis 
Hydraubc Mining Company. The 
company constructed eleven miles of 
ditch. Last season it sold its inter- 
est to the Northwestern Ditch Com- 
pany, which conttructed the other fotir 
miles. Mr. Schneider was associated 
with the first corporation and was 
elected to perform the dutiea of president 
and general manager of its successor. 

A. Schneider was bom in Paris 
March 3, 1864. He received bis edu- 
cation in the Chaptal College of Paris. 

and tubtequcndy engaged in the com- a, Schneider. 

nistion exporUtioo business. He left 

this busiiMM to go to Dawson in 1 899, and came to Nome the following year. In 1 901 
he was appointed Vic»Contul for France at Nome, and has filled this position satii- 
hctorily to his country and to the French residents of Northwestern Alaska. Betides 
hit mining and ditch enlerpritet. Mr. Schneider i* a director in the Minen and Merchants 
Bank of Nome. He and Mile. Marguerite Bourgeois were married in Parit in IS90. 
Two daughters, Simone and Helene, are die itsue of thit marriage. Mr. Schneider is 
an esteemed and popular residoit of the Northland, possessing the urbanify and courtesy 
that are die bereditaiy quahties of the French pe^le. He hat thown tact and witdom 
in die management of the affairs of the consulate, and at all times has pursued a policy 
in bis oficial ads diat has received the ^tproval of the best element of the communis. 
He it OIK <rf the pioneer ditch constructors of Seward Peninsula, and is identified with 
mining entcipriset of considerable magnitude. He has manifested an a^^ in business 
that make* him prominent in the field of enterprise and finance of the Nome country. 

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JD. LEEDY was the &nt in«n to 
* land in Nome from the steam- 
er Garonne in the spiing of 
1899, and the steamer Garonne was 
the hrsl veuel to arrive at Nome from 
from the states. Mr. Leedy's descrip- 
tion of the handful of men found in 
the new camp is both interesting and 
instructive. At this time Nome had 
the atmosphne of an unusual environ- 
ment. The inhabitants had lived 
through the long winter without a suit- 
able or adequate food supply, and there 
were a few minor cases of scurvy. 
Among the inhabitants who had spent 
the winter m Nome was a brother of 
Mr. Leedy. When the subject of this 
sketch swung over the rail of the Ga- 
ronne and descoided by a rope to i 
home-made dory he carried with him 
two valises — one iillled with fresh 
fruits and other with fresh vegetables. 
He describes the gratification of the 
boatman when he was presented with 

an onion, and how he ale it like he '' ^- i^P-EOY. 

was eating an apple. The snow had 

not entirely left the ground, and the only log cabin on the present site of Nome was the 
one occupied by G. W. Price, the dq>uty recorder of the district A few tents in 
which two or three lines of business were conducted, completed the ensemble of the 

Mr. Leedy had acquired considerable experience as a miner in the Black Hills 
and in British Columbia, and he immediately devoted himself to the work of acquiring 
mining pr^Mrty by lease or appropriation. During this year and the yean that fol- 
lowed he proq>ected and mined with varying success. He staked the first quartz claim 
ever staked on the peninsula. This quartz property is at the head of Nome Gulch and 
Mr. Leedy believes that it contains the possibilities of a mine. He was employed by 
tbe Alaska Banking and Safe Deposit Company as an expert to investigate properties 
offered as collateral for loans. Mr. Leedy hjis the record of never luving advised a 
loan by which the company lost a dollar. 

Mr. I.«edy worked faithfully and wailed patiently, but his opportunity did not 
come until the season of 1904. He and H. T. Harding had often canvassed tbe 
proposition of a ditch to supply water to the valuable mining claims lying on the south- 
erly slope of Anvil Mountain. These numerous talks finally crystallized in the initial 
work of the Seward Ditch, which diverts water from Nome River near Dorothy Creek, 
and will deliver water for use on Dexter Hill under a pressure of 100 inches. With 
the co-operation of Dr. Cabell Whitehead and Henry Bratnober this ditch project was 

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amply finsnced during the winter of I904''05, utd with the airival of the Grat fleot 
of iteuner* in dte ipnDB of 1905 the work of perfecting this important enterprite wu 

J. D. Leedy wu born in Fredencktown, Knox County, Ohio, February 4, 1S63. 
Hit father was a lumber manufacturer, who moved to Trenton, Miuouri, when the 
•on wai an infant When he was eleven years old J. D. Leedy went to the Black 
Hils. In addition to a public school education he hat been a ttudeni in the State 
School of Mines m Rapid Gty, S. D. He began the work of mining at an early age. 
•biking hit first drill when he was fourteen yean old. He left the Black Hillt country 
in 1889 and went to Seattle, and ever since that date he has mined in British Columbia. 
Washington and Alaska. 

Mr. Leedy married Nellie G. Norton in Nome September 16, 1899. His edu- 
caticni has been practical. He has learned by work, and his judgment of mines and 
mining it accurate and reliable. He is a man of big brain capacity and the pottettor 
of that most excellent quality and estimable trait of human character — honesty. 


A VETERAN of the Spanish-American war, a 
lawyer, a United States Commissioner and a 
man who commands the respect and esteem of 
hit attodatet, friends and acquaintances — this epitom- 
izet the story of die life of Captain Aklrich. Although 
he is young, his character is commendabiy strong, 
and hb unvarying rule of ctniduct hat been a 
recognition of the ethics of the many phases of human 
life. He wat bom at Tipton, Iowa, Sqilember 7, 
1872. His father was a farmer and slock raiser, and 
one of the pioneen of the state, and a member of a 
Family that came to the United States in an early day. 
Capt. Aldrich's boyhood days were spent in Tqiton, 
where he was graduated from the high school. Subse- 
quently he took a literary and law course at the State 
University of Iowa, and wat graduated in 1896 with 
the degree of LL. B. 

He was practicing law in Manhaltown, Iowa, 
the beginning of the Spanish-American war. He atsisted in recruiting tlie 49th Iowa 
Volunteers, and was selected at captain in tliit regiment, serving under General Fitz- 
hugh Lee until after the conclusion of the war. Hit company was muttered out in 
Savannah, Ga., May 13, 1899, and C^tab Aklrich returned to Iowa, and resumed 
the practice of law at Marshaltown. The stories of the new gold fields discovered in 
Northern Alaska induced him to go to Nome. He arrived b the camp in the spring of 
1900, and opened a law office. He practiced law until the spring of 1903. when 
judge Moore appranted him to the office of United Slates Committioner of the Fair- 
haven Dittrict. He took charge of the office July 20, 1903, and resigned the faDowing 
Kummer upon receipt of the tad news nf hit father's death and the further information 

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that he wu urgently needed at home. During his incumbency in the Faiihaven Dis- 
trict, residing at Candie, he had, by the obtervancc of that rule of conduct — trying to 
do right — which ha* impelled him in all hit endeavors, made many warm ftiendi, and 
it wai with sincere regret that he severed the*e relations. 

During his reudence in Nome Captain Aldrich took an active and a leading part 
in the organization and mamtenance during the winter teawni of a literary society. The 
weekly meetings of this society were well attended, often overtaxing the seating ca- 
pacity of the assembly room, and indicating a widespread and general interest in tbe 
work of the sode^. The k>ng winEers in Nome create a lot of leisure time for the rea- 
dents, which may be ^>ent in idleness, or a part of it may be pro6tably lAUzed if the 
opportunity arises. The literary society gave tr>any persons the oj^Mrtunity of free enter- 
tainment of the most wholesome character, and has been helpful to many people ot 
this isolated communi^. 


A TAILOR and a sailor and iben a lucky miner — this is a rythmic story in brief of Ibc 
life of Erik O. Lindblom. When told in detail it sounds like a romance. It contains 
all the essential elements of a romance. The humble life of a journeyman, plying 
his trade in many tovnu and villages of Europe, is the opening chapter. Immigrating to Amer- 
ica he works diligently with die ambition of acquiring a modest competence. He hears tbe re- 
port of a newEMorado in the far north and decides to abandon the ceaseless grind of bis trade 
and try his luck as a gold aaaa. In order to husband hit meager funds be shqn as a tailor 
btfon the matt. Before arriving at bis destination, and after suffering all the rebuffs and 
humiliation that are meted out to a green sailor under the command of an old whabng cap- 
tain, he leami that the gold Gekis for which he was bound are a fake, as mytbical as the 
Golden Reece vainly sought by the ancient Argonauts. In desperation ova: his plight as an 
ine]q>erienced tailor, and discouraged by the eclipse of hit mining prospects, he deterti frmn 
the vestd on a barren shore, whither he hat been sent to Gil the water casks of the 
ship. He wanders over an uninhabited country, and is luckily rescued frtHii starva- 
tion by some traveling natives; is tranq>orted in a skin boat on Bering Sea a distance 
of 200 miles to a little settlement of white men in this bleak country; becomes a pros- 
pector, and before the close of the brief Arctic summer makes one of the ntott wonder- 
ful discoveries of gold in the history of that precious metaL It not thit tbe synopsit 
of a story? 

Erik O. Lindblom it the sod of a school teacher. He was bom in Dakme, 
Sweden, June 27, 1657. When a young man he learned die trade of taikir, and 
gratified a nomadic instinct by travebig over a large part of Eunq>e. He went lo 
America in 1886, and wat following his trade m Oakland, California, at the time <^ 
the Kotzebue excitement. April 27. 1898, he shq>ped before the mast on the bark 
Alaska, commanded by Captain B. Cogan, carrying passengers and their outfits to 
the new gold fields. The vessel encountered ice in Bering Sea, and it vnt not deemed 
safe lo enter the Arctic Ocean until the season wat hirther advanced. While at Indian 
Point <» the Siberian coast, Mr. Lindbkim learned from whalen that no discovery of 
gold in paying quantity had been made in the Kotzebtie Sound country. The reports 
of the whalen were vay discouraging. Captain Cogan was an oM whaler, and as 
Grantley Harbor was a favorite rendezvous for whalen, where they waited for an op- 
portunity to follow the ice through Bering Shrait. he sailed across the sea and anchored 

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in the Karboi. While here be sent a part of hn crew ubore for freih water. The date 
wat July 5. and Mr. Lindblom wa« one of the sailor* in the detail. 

The tailon landed at the mouth of a (treani wdiich flowed out of a cavern of inow 
and ice. The tundra wat bare, but the gulcket of the dittant hilli were still filled 
with mow. Snow that had drifted in the depressioni of the water counet had not 
melted, but the creelo had been flowing for weekt beneath the*e drifu. Mr. Lindblom 
bad made iq> hit mind to quit the ship, and the snow cavern throu^ which the stream 
flowed offered him hts only opportunity, at all (hit country it barren of tree or ihrub. 
Entering die cavern unobserved by his companions, he followed the water coune up 
itream. In some places the arched roof wat to low that he could make progrett only 
by stooping. The way was dark, and water dripped from the roof. It seemed a long 
lime before a welcome ray of light indicated a place where he might emerge from the 
dark and tortuous course. Cbmbing to the surface widi difficulty, he carefully noted 
his position, and was gratilied to discover Aat he had reached a point where he could 
not be observed from the vessel. Hit next purpose was to place as great a distance 
between himself and the vessel as pottible, and he started for the interior and kept 
going until overcome 1^ fatigue. He knew that there was a mission and a trading 
station on Golovin Bay, which could be reached by crossing the country a hundred 
miles or more, and he started on the trip. But he had no conception of the difficulties 
in the way, the streams which wvrc now at flood aiK) which had to be crotted, the 
slow progress one makes traveling over die country, and betides this he was without 
food. The third day out he encountered a white man, a lone proqiector on one of 
the streams in this region, but the protpeclor's food supply wat nearly exhausted. But 
if die prospector could not supply him widi food for the trip he had undertakei, he 
could and did furnish him with timely and useful advice. He told him to go back, 
that his bones would bleach in die mountains if he persisted in die attempt lo cross 
the country to Golovin Bay. 

His experience had demonstrated the wisdom of die advice, but the problem 
he had to soke was how to get back to Port Clarence and escape the vigilant eye 
of Captain Cogan. If he could only manage to Hve until the vesid tailed he could 
find tuccor at the r«ndcer station at Teller, on Grantiey Hariwr. But he started back, 
and when he got within tight of the harbor he saw die baric Alaska still riding at 
anchor. It was evident dwt a part of die aew was searching for him, and here he 
was, back where they might discover him at any momral. This wat a cridcal situation 
ftom which he ecsaped by the aid of an Eskimo. Promarshuk, a chief, an oomalik 
among the Kavaiiagmutes, with his family, dogs and wares, was starting on a trading 
expedition to Golovin Bay. He took the forlorn sailor into his big boat made of 
walrus skins, and covered him vrilh the pells (rf many kinds of animals. Beneath dtese 
he was secure &om observation, but he nearly died of suffocation, and the stench of the 
tldns made him dreadfully tick. Promarshuk's oomiak sailed within a few rods of 
ihe Alaska, and passed unmolested out of the harbor. Skirting the coast soudieasterly 
the Eskimo craft was soon out of tigjit of die bark, and Mr. Lindblom thankfully breathed 
the pure air again. 

On die way down the coast Promarshuk stopped at the mouth of Elgothoruk River, 
now known as Snake River, the spot where Nome it kicated. Mr. Undblom prospected 
on the bar at the moudi of £}ry Creek, and found colors. It was July 27 when Promar- 
shuk's primitive tran^iort arrived at Oexter's trading station on Gokivin Bay. Mi. 
Lindblom told the trader of hit discovety at die moudi of Bourbon Creek, and Dexter 

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wanted to send him back to the place on a proq>eclins trip, but be cboM the work 
offered him by N. O. Hultberg, the miiMMiary at thk station. Hit bnt employment 
wai ai protpeclor on Ophir Creek. At the »me time Mclnng and Libby were proa- 
pecting on the came stream. Later he. Haglin and BryntcMn prospected on Mystery 
Creek and Fish River. Subaequently diey were joined by Jafet Lindd>erg, who had 
been pro^>ecting on the Casadcpoga and Neukluk. Both BryntewMi and Mr. Lind- 
blom had been in what is since known as the Nome country, and found prospects, 
and arrangements were made to go to that region. A keel was put on an old scow, 
a sail was made, and the queer craft was rigged. EJik O. Lindbk>m, Jafet Linde- 
berg and Jdm E. Brynleson sailed in this vessel on a hundred-mile sea voyage. They 
skirted the coast, making slow progress, as the weather was stormy and the rain in- 
cessant September 15 diey arrived at the mouth of Snake River, and effecting a 
landing without a serious mishap, they began the work of proq>ecting. September 22 
they made discoveries and bcations on Anvil Creek, and subsequently prospected on 
Snow Gulch. Glacier, Rock, Mountain and Dry Creeks. They panned gold vahied 
at near $50, and had it in shot-gun shells when they returned to Golovin Bay. 

At Golovin they met Gabe Price, who was returning from Kotzebue Sound. 
He was a miner, fully understanding the laws governing die k>cation of mining claims 
and the organization of districts. It was necessary to have more men to organize a 
district. The origirul discoveren conhded to Mr. Price, Dr. Kitlihen, who was the 
Government physician of the reindeer herders, a deer herder by the name of Tnmensis. 
and Mr. Haglin. Retumbg to the Nome country, the claims were properly meas- 
ured with a tape line and staked so as to comply with the kw. By this time winter 
was encroaching, but notwithstanding the freezing ground, the prospecton constructed 
a crude rocker and worked assiduously with it and with pan and shovel. In three 
hours paiming on Snow Gulch Lindbiom, Lindeberg and Brynteson obtained gold valued 
at $166. Withb a few days the party extracted more than $1,500 of gold 
dust. They then returned to Golovin, and preparations were made that winter for 
the next season's operations. 

The readers of this book know the value of this discovery. Through it Mr. 
Lindbiom has acquired more than the modest competence he had hoped for in his early 
hfe. He is die owner of a valuable quartz mine in Mexico, and has varied property 
interests. He is also operating in the ICotzebue country, where he owns some promising 
property. His objective point when he started for the North was this region. He 
took a deq>erate chance to avoid going there when he heard discouraging reports of 
the country, and through this action he was one of the discoveren of the Nome gold 
fields. After the lapse of a few yean a strike was made on Shungnak, a tributary of 
the ICobuk fUver, and Mr. Lindbiom sent his brother with four men into this region, 
and they have located some good ground, if gravel that yields as much as $4 to the 
pan may be called good ground. In an interview Mr. Lindbiom said: "I have good 
faith in die KobuL" 

During the winter season Mr. Lindbiom lives in Oakland, Cal. He is fond of 
automobiling, and being able to indulge in luxuries, owns a valuaUe machine. He 
IS a retiring, unassuming gentleman, and wealth has not given him false ideas of the 
supeiiori^ of those who possess it. 

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the be*t knovm men la die North- 
bmd. He went to Al>^ linl 
in 1694. and wu on the Yukon in 
the early days, the days of the Yukon 

Captain Gciger wu bom in MaricKi 
County, Ohio. June 14. 1865. In 
1867 he followed the advice of Hor- 
ace Greeley and went wciL In 1894 
he (tarted for Alaska. The object of 
hit trip wa* to mine, and he went 
equipped widi a dredger, vrhidt he 
took over die Chilkoot Pau, using a 
block and tackle to tranaport the heavy 
machineiy over this difficult pass. At 
Caribou Crossing he sawed timber with 
which to equip his dredger, and began 
work mining on Cassiar Bar on die 
upper Yuk«i. These mining opera- 
tions were stopped by high water and 
Captain Ceiger was then employed by 
die N. A. T. & T. Co. as master 
of die steamer P. B. Weare. In the 

■^ I . ■ / .1 K1 A f CAPTAIN W. E. OBIOER. 

capaa^ of captain of the N. A. T. 
& T. Co.'s river sleamen, he navi- 
gated the Yukon until 1699. He unkiaded die first expedition of projectors at the 
mouth of Indian Creek. twoity-Gve miles above die Kfendike. 

After the Klondike strike he acquired interests in the Dawson country and in- 
cidentally did some work as a miner. Reports from the Nome camp induced him 
to quit die Yukon Territory in 1699 and join die sUmpede to the new diggings on 
American soil. After he arrived in Nome he saw the necessity of a bridge across 
fmake lUver, and also saw the ofqwrtuni^ of making tome money by constructing a 
Inidge across this stream. The serious difficulty that he had to overcome was the lack 
of suitable lumber in the camp for building the bridge. He did not have any money, 
hii total assets consisting of four dogs, but he did not consider this an impediment tq 
the enteiprise. With his dog team he gathered drift-wood on the Nome beach, and 
began die worit of building die bridge. The bridge was Gnished and ready for trans- 
portation by the openmg of navigation in 1900. Its construction cost $19,000, and 
that sum represented Captain Geiger's indebtedness. In forty-two days after the first 
steamer landed in Nome, 1900. he did not owe a dollar — die bridge had paid for 
itself. During the seascm of 1900 he built two bridges across Nome River, but both 
of these structures were carried out by the floods resulting from the heavy storms of 
that season. The largest traffic over the Snake River bridge was on June 21, 1900, 
when the receipts were $1,013. Captain Gciger never exacted any toll of women 
and children. This bridge was a mint in 1900. yielding an immense revenue. Cap- 

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tain Geiger sold <im propfrty in 1902, and the biidge wu nibtequeiitly bought by die 
City of Nome. 

Captain Gcigei left Non>e (or Valdei during thi* year and ejqiended coixidenLble 
mcHiey in Valdez in the conitniction of a vrhaif, which he Mibtequcntly lold. Aftei 
the Tanana itiike he went to Faiit>anki, and hai tbice made leveral brqM to ihii rcgioa 
of Alaika. 

Captain Cicigei ponmet the qualitiei contpicuout in nxMt of the Yukon (Honeen 
— liberal to prodigality, franidy and bhmtly honett, energetic and hopdiiL and be- 
lievei b the innate goodnen of human nature. He hat many friendi in all parts of 

e. W. PRICE. 

QW. PRICE u one of the pioneen of the Nome country and one of the orgaoizen 
• of the Nome Mining DiitTict In 1898 he wai a member of the C. D. Lane 
fxpedition to the Kotzdiue Sound country. When thit expedition ditcmbarked 
on dw ihoret of KotzdMie Sound, Mr. Price ascended the Kobuk River and ^toit 
the tummer in proq>ecting, but failed to find anything that wat encouraging. Late in 
the leaion after the memben of bii party bad gone into winter quaiten, be boarded • 
imall schooner for St. Michael. He had been told by Mitnonary Brevig that goid had 
been found on Ophir Creek in the Gokmn Bay country and he intended to get in this 
region and if potnble do tome prospecting. Mr. Lane had returned to the statei and 
Mr. Price in going to the other part of Alaska acted iq>on his own judgment, being 
prompted by the story told him by the missionary. 

When he arrived at St. Michael he met P. H. Anderson v^ had recently cnne 
into dte country to take charge of the Swedish Mission on Golovin Bay. Anderson 
and odicrs told him of d>e gold discovery on Fuii River and he at once made arrange- 
ments with Mr. Anderson for passage on a schooner from St. Michad to Golovin Bay. 
During this trq> Mr. Andeison told him of Undeberg, Lindblom and Bryntesm's pra*- 
pecdng trip to Anvil Creek, and said that these prospecion were not miners and in case 
they found anything he would like to have Mr. Price return with them. Three daya 
after his arrival at Golovin Bay the proq>ectors returned and reported the strike that 
they had made. They had about $35 in gold dust as evidence of the genuinenesi of 
their discovery. A return trq> was immediately arranged and with Dr. Kittiben, John 
Tomensis and the three discovcren of the Anvil Creek diggings, Mr. Price started m a 
small schooner for the new Eldorado. October 1 2 was the date they left Golovin Bay, 
and they arrived at the mouth of Snake River October 15. 

After organizing the district and locating claims they devoted a few days to 
rocking on Anvil Creek and Snow Gulch and succeeded in taking out of the ground 
about $1,600 in gold dusL By November 3 the weather became so cold that they 
could not do any more mining. The party concluded to return to Golovin Bay and let 
the people know what had been accomplished. The news traveled like wild fire, and 
all througji the winter stanqwden with dog teams made their way to Nome. About 
January 12. 1899. it became necessary, on account of the number of pntptOon at 
Nome and the locations that had beoi made, to keep the records at that place and Dr. 
Kittiben. who had been selected as recorder of the district, appointed Mr. Price 
deputy recorder. Mr. Price ihereupmi returned to Ninne and buih die first cabin in 
the town. This k>g cabin is shown ra the engraving in this volume made from the 

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fait pbotopapb o[ Nome. He acted u depu^ lecorder imti] Maicfa. 1699. wben he 
returned to Golovin Bay for the pmpoM of V^iM% hk nippEei to Nome for the opening 
of hii claim in the qiring. 

After the diicoveqr Mr. Pike wrote a letto- to C. D. Lane tdEng him of tbe 
tttike. Mr. Price ays that it vnt one of the greatest pleanires of Ui fife to be able 
to write ^ letter and a letter which convcred the glad tiding* to hii wife. He wrote 
Mr. Lane that one claim that he had ataked. No. 8 above, on Anvil Creek, would 
produce $100,000 the next leaton, and he underettimated the output It wai dn 
letter that impaled Mr. Lane to organize die "Wid Gooee Mining and Trading Com- 
pany, which ii now the bigeit mining corporation in Nortfawertem Alaika. 

Mr. Pike was boni in Sonora, CaEfomia, Auguit 24. 1869. He ii a mu of 
a miner. proq>CGtor and pioneer of that state, and acquired a knowledge of mining by 
inberitaiice, at wdl a* by experience beginning in his bojdwod day*. He was educated 
m the publk Khoob of Cafifomia. When eighteen yean old he began woHi in tbe 
famous Utica Mine at Angels, Gal., and continued in the eiiq>loyinent of the company 
owning this property until he started for Alaska as heretofore related. Mr. C D. Lane 
it one of die ownm of the Utica Mine. This property has produced more than 
$17,000,000, and Mr. Price has been connected widi its devebpment and exploilation 
m nearly every capacity from miner to (brtman and manager. 

Mr. Pike mined some of the most valuable property in the Nome country during 
die seaton of 1099 and 1900. He was working No. 6 Anvil Creek the summer of 
1900, yrhm Receiver MdCenzie woke him up at midni^t to inform him that l^ an 
order of the court, he, McKenzk. has been placed in postesskn of the property. Tbe 
following season he diqxMcd of hit interest to die Wild Goose Mining and Trading 
Company and returned to hit native ttate, investing in a stock ranch prop eity in the 
county where he was bom. Mr. Price is a type of the West He is a good natured 
but an aggressive man, Kberal in hit judgment of human motive, generous and pubfic 
Virited. By privatioDs, hardsh^w and faithful work in the Northland he has hooettly 
and fully earned all the good fortune thai has come to him. 


DR. KITTIL5EN was die first recorder of die Nome Mining DitlricL He it one of 
the picmeers <rf Northwestern Alaska. After Dr. Sheldon Jackscm had succeeded in 
seeming the co-operatkn of Congress in the undertaking of introducing donertic rein- 
deer m Alaska, and after die experiment had proved successful, further Govenuncnl aid was 
obtained to the extent of procuring reindeer herden from Lapland to teach die natives 
how to take care of the reindeo'. One of the terms of the contract, between die United 
States Govenunent and the Lt^iland reindeer herden. q>ecihed that the Government 
should provide a phytidan who would go to Alaska and locate at the reindeer station 
where his services would be availaUe in time of need. Dr. Kittiken was selected for 
ittts post He was of Scandinavian ancestry and su£ciendy familiar with the language 
of the Laplanders to be able to communicate widi them. He accordingly came to 
NorthwesUni Alaska in the spring of 1896, and bendes practictng hit profestion ^^mk 
his services ¥rare needed, he filled the position of asnstant tiqierintendent of llie reindeer 
station. During the second year of his residence in Alaska he was acting supeiintendcDt 
of reindeer. 

The reindeer station was first established at Port Clarence, but in December. 1 897, 

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it wu changed to Unftlakleel. Dr. KittUten mi M ^m itation when LSbby, MdnnB. 
Blake ud MonUunt were pnMpectiog on Ophir Cntk duiintt tlie (ummer of 1896. 
Tliree yean previoiu to thu date a man by die name of Johaucn had diicovcred gold 
near t)ie head-w&ten of the Neukhik, and had whipaawed lumber and made ■hnce- 
boxes with which to work the claim, when he received a letter from iodm friend or 
idative mi the Yukon infonning him of a itiike which induced liim to abandoo hit plun 
and leave thii part of die country. 

Dr. KittiJien ii [amiliar with all the ciicumttancet connected with the diacovery 
of gold on Seward Peninsula. He knowi the itoiy of the trip to Smuk I^er in July, 
mm Thii trip wai made by John Brynteton. J. L Haglin. H. L Blake. M. Porta'. 
Quit Kimber and N. O. Hultbcrg. The party ttarted frcHn Golovin Bay in a mull 
boat to invttdgate the ditcovery of g(M in die beach near the moidh of ^uk Rtvcr. 
rqxrted by nativei. A ttorm coming up forced the party to make a landing at the 
mouth of Snake River, and while waiting there for the itorm to abate they went 19 the 
left limit of Snake River pro4>ecting the couittiy for giAd. They ctOMcd Anvil 
Creek and found colon in thii itream but did not itake. Returning to dieir boat they 
continued their trq> to Sinuk but did not bud anytUng at thi* place. 

After thii party returned, Brynteaon, Lindblom and IJndd>erg arranged to rctum 
and investigate the pro^>ect> found on Anvil Creek. Dr. Kittilten had quit the 
Government's lervice and wai at Golovin Bay at thii time. When die three proq>ectDn 
get back from Anvil Creek they had with them thirty-&ve dollan in gold which they 
had panned, and their npott was evidence diat a big itrike had been made. A 
schooner was chartered and Dr. KJttihen, G. W. Price and Tomeniis accompanied the 
three discoveren to Anvil CredL The diitrict was organized and Dr. Kittiben wms 
selected as recorder. The great richncM of Snow Gukh was indicated by the result 
of four men panning a few houn and obtaining seventy-six dollan (rf dwt A 
couple of crude rocken were constructed, and $1,600 was rocked out of Snow Gulch 
and Anvil Creek. 

The party lived in a tent on Specimen Gulch until November 10. By ttiis dale 
the season was so far advanced that it was imposuble to do any more mining and th^ 
returned to the Sandipit on the westerly side of the mouth of Snake River, vdiere they 
waited for Missionary Anderson and a Laplander to come after them with a deer lean 
according to promise. The team failed to arrive when they expected it, and they started 
to return to Golovin Bay in their boat and got as far as Cape Nome when they met the 
deer team. 

As Dr. Kitlilsen assisted in the organization of the Ncrnie Minmg District and was 
its first recorder, holding that office until August, 1900, he obtained some valuaUe 
properties which he has unce operated and is still working. Dr. Kitdken's first residence 
in this country was contbuously from the spring of 1 696 to the fall of 1 899, and during 
this period he traveled more than 5,000 miles behind reindeer. During his incumbenqr 
as recorder, the office was conducted in an admirable manner. The records today bear 
evidence that they were well kept, even though there was a scarcity of stationny supplies 
vrhta the district was organized. 

Dr. Kittilsen is a native of Wisconsin, and was bom in March. 1 870. His htfier 
was a Norwegian and his mother was the firat white child bom in the town of Christiana. 
Dane County, Wisconsin. He was educated at the University of ^X^sconsin, and was 
graduated from the Rush Medical College of Chicago in 1694. After practicing his 

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profatioii two yeui in WucmuiD, he went to Alaika u nurated in the bnt paragraph ot 
thii itory. 

In 1901 Dr. Kittiboi and Berdic Knatvold were nuurned in Tacoma, Wathington. 
They have one child. Anne Claiiua, now three yean old. 

Dr. Kittiken i> a man of >teiling worth. The good fortune that hai come to him 
ai a remit of hii toioura in the Northland could not have fallen in a more deierving place. 
Ai a pkneer of ihk country, and as a man it^o heb>ed to frame the ruki and regu- 
latioiu governing the new canqi. hii record ii an interesting experience and a part of the 
early hiitory of Seward Penimula of which his friendt and descendants may be proud. 


GEORGE M. ASHFORD U one of the pio- 
neen of Northern Alaska. He ii a civii 
engineer and surveyor, and was the £iit man 

of bis profession to arrive in Nome. He was one of 

the unfortunate stampeders to the Kotzdiue Sound 

country in 1696. At die time of the excitement 

caused by the report of the discovery of gold in this 

region he and twenty-seven others bou^t a schooner, 

in which they made the trip to the Aretic country. 

Mr. Ashford qient the winter of 1696 and 1699 on 

the ICobulc River, a short distance below Squirrel 

River. In the tpiing of 1 699, the news of the Anvil 

strike having previously reached the Arctic slope, he 

started over the ice with two companions for Nome. 

They hauled their sleds and accomplished the long 

•od arduous joumey, full of peril and hardships, in 

a month's time. They left the fCobuk and started 

across Kotzebue Sound on May 1. This season 

was unusually late, and while crossing the ice of Kot- GEO. M. ashpord. 

zebue Sound they encountered extremely severe 

weather. On the diird day out Dr. De France, one of their traveling companions, 
became eihausted and ^ze to death. They were ten days on the ice before they 
reached Cape E^Mnberg. 

After reaching die coast of Bering Sea and crossing Pod CUrence Bay the sea- 
son was pretty well advanced, it being the latter part of May. and the ice over the 
sea in many places was rotten and unsafe. At a place above Sinuk River two men. 
who were traveling with a dog team and following Mr. Ashford's party, narrowly 
escaped being drowned. The dog team, sledge and all of their supplies were lost 
by die breaking of the ice. 

Mr. Ashbrd says that when he arrived within forty miles of Nome he saw evi- 
dence <rf the "pencil and hatchet" miners. At dtb early date the beach for this 
dtslance west of Nome wu staked. He arrived at N<Mne May 31 and found a 
busthng. thriving mining canqt. His most serious regret was that he did not have hb 
transit with him, as there was a pressing demand for the services of a surveyor and 
much work that he could have done if he had had his instruments. 

During die early part of this season Mr. Ashford became associated with J. M. 

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D>vi(lK«, and Axy did tbe fint work vf Mirvcying ud engbeenng that w« ever doK 
oo Sewud Pwitnwib. Mr. A^kford wm cue of ihc engineen of tbe Mioccoe D^ 
Co■I^>uqr. and ku nnce becD oonnected w^ nuft of the important ditch cntespiWH 
of (hit regioii. 

Mr. Adifocd wu bora n«r Lifbon, Ohio, Januarj' 2, 1866. When be wu 
fight jnn M hi* family moved to Iowa, utd be wai educated in tbe public idiook of 
diat ilale, and wat rabaequcotlr graduated from tbe lovn State College in the dam 
of "92 with tbe degree of B. C E. Hii bit work a* an engineer wat wilh tbe 
Carnegie Steel G>. of Pittiburg, Pa. For a period of diree or fom- yean be was an 
cmgiDeer for the Rttiburg Bridge Co., engaged in tbe drafting and cooitrwtiiMi de- 
partment of that company'* extensre work. He «ra« Knt to North CaralinB as an 
Tigmw* in connectioB w^ die construction <^ George W. Vanderbilt'i mfnriftfi at 
Bibnote. The positions he filled required technical btowledge and practical a- 
perience, but the gold fever was latent in his blood, and when die report of ticfa dk- 
Goveriei m Alaska reached him. die malady rapidly developed. The vi c i saiL ude i 
of Ufe in die Northland have not entirdy destroyed the gams that caused die gold fever 
in Mr. A^iford'ssystem, as be is sdll identified widi the country. His compctCBCy u an 
engineer and hit high standing in his profe w ion enable him to find very profitable anploy- 
ment. and he hat mining interests from which he may yet realize tbe (kouns be had befoR 
starting to this frozen land. 

Mr. AAlard postessei unostentatious merit, and is capaUe. trurtworthy and booor- 
^le in all <rf bis relatims with hit fellow men. 


J A. WESTBY is a well known and highly r»- 
* pected citizen of Nome. He has been identi- 
fied with the mining intcretti oi the Nome 
District ttoce tbe fall of 1699. In the foUowing year 
be was aifioinled by Judge Noyet to the positioD of 
United Slates Commiitioner and Recordor of die 
Norton Sound Precinct, but this podtiott being a 
cause of eipense instead of a lource of profit, he re- 
signed. Hit mining interettt are situated on Willow 
Creek and Caiadepago and Sobmoo Rivers. 

Mr. Wettby is a native of Norway and was 
bom October 19, 1846. When fourteen yean of age 
be left home and went to America. He recoved 
most of hit education in the public ichoob of the 
United States. For several yean he wat a sailor on 
Lake Micbigan. and for a poiod of five yean wat 
on die police force of Red "Wiag, Minn. Subse- 
quently he received an aj^Mintment of Deputy United 
Slates Surveyor, having learned die profession of tur- 
veying under die first Deputy United States Surveyor 

in die slate of Michigan, h 1685 be was deputy warden of die Michigan Slate 
Pimm, and tubsequendy for a year and a half filled die office of warden. In 1692 
he moved to Idaho and engaged in mining. He went to E>awson in 1896. and lived 


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in the YuIcoD Tenitoiy a Kttle more thsn a year. Whik in the Yukon TenitiHy be 
mined od a fraction between 1 6 ud 1 7 EJ Dondo CreeL AttnLCted by the Noom 
tltike he came down the ttver. uriving in Nome November 26. 1899. Mr. Wcsd>y 
hu been a leading mend>er of &t Anvil Maionic Ch^, being No. 14 on the roll 
of chaitei nembei* of Ihii wganization. whicb hai done much good woik of a helpful 
and chaiilable character. 

b Sq>lember, 1872, he and Mim Mane Summen were married in Red Wm^. 
Minn. They have had ten children, ci^t of whom — Bve giili and three boyt — are 
living. Mr. Wolby ii a man of unconqirominng honesty; a man of ftrong character 
and the courage to do ri^t 


NO. HULTBERG it one of tbe earliett pionem of Sewud Peninwla. He was 
• lent by the Swediih Miiaonaiy Society to Golovin Bay in 1693. the object 
of thii trip being to wtahlith an induilrial ichool for nativet. Mr. Hultberg b 
a native of Sou^eni Sweden, and wa* bom March 24, 1 863. Hii father wai a manu- 
^turer of farming implement*, and after receiving a public tcbool education hii ton 
learned the trade of a wood and iron worker. He left Sweden m 1687, and went 
direct to Pullman. IlBnoi*. when he wai employed for a period of e.'veral yean by 
the Pullman Car Conq>any. Hit mechanical knowledge and ability induced die Swedidi 
Mitnonary Society to tend bim to Alatka. 

When be arrived in dii> deaolate and far-away country, and became acquainted 
with die ptop\£ yfhom he was to initruct in mechftnical arts, he wa« not pleaied widi 
the material or hit environment He taw the futility of teaching the Etkimo a trade 
which he would never put to practical um; he taw the injury that thit wo^ would do 
to the nativei by taking die young men away from their hunting and bhtng at a time 
when their tervice* wem needed to procure the winter food supply for dieir familiei. 
A* a tetuh of all thii he did not enter into hit work with the zeal and entbuiiann that 
be had when be started from the state*. Realizing that he had to stay, he built a 
station at G^ovin. established a school and began his work. 

He had not beoi here king before he learned dut the country was mineralized 
and contained gold. As early as 1695 nativet brought him gold prospects fnm Nome 
River, which was dten known by the native name of larcharviL He wrote lo Ate 
society to send bim tome one who posieited a practical knowledge of mining, at he 
believed die prospects warranted an attempt to discover gold mine*. In 1694 a mner 
by the name of Johansen, who came from the California mines, arrived at the nuMion. 
In die spring of 1895, Johansen discovered gold on Neulduk and Catadepoga Rivers 
and on Mebing and Ophir Creeks. Johansen sawed sluice lumber and made sluice- 
boxes and, with natives to astiit bim. prqMred to mine on l^e Neukluk. About dui 
time he received tome newt from Birch Creek at Circle on the Yukon, became excited 
over it, ^Mndoned his Neukhik undertaking, and went to Birch CreeL 

In E)ecanber. 1695 a man by the name of Howard came down the Yukon 
and proq>ected in the Fish River country, finding gold. But Howard did not remain 
long enough to develop any of hi* pnMpect*. Mr. Huldierg held a conference with 
Missionary Karbon and decided to send out to Chicago for minen and i«Q)plies. In 
thoee day* it required a year to send word to the states and get a reply. 

In August, 1697, P. H. Anderson arrived at Golovin, having been sent out by 

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the Swedith Mistiotiary Society u « iniMif>n4ry to this atatioii. Thit gave Mr. Huk- 
berg a chance to get away (rom the w«lc in which be had been engaged, and to derote 
hi* time to protpecting. September 1 7, the Hemner North Fork broogiit Libby, 
Melting, Blake and Mordaunt. Mr. Huhbcrg lokl tiui party about the diicovery that 
had been made, and pnnpected with Libby and Blake. In Apii of the foUowing year he 
BHiited in organizing the Council Dittrict. In July of dw year Or. Taylor and C. L. 
Haglin were coining to Alatka in retpome to hit requett for practical minen. Having 
heard a report of a goM ttrike on Sinuk River, he aiked Blake and Chrit Kimber to 
go on an expedition with him up the coatt to inveitigate the rcpwt which he had received 
from native*. Taylor and Porter reluming from OfAar Creek, he agreed to take Mr. 
Porter with him on the trip up the coatt. Brynleton and Haglin arriving in the meanliiDe, 
a party wa* made up consiiting of the*e two men. Mr. Hultberg. H. L. Blake and 
Mr. Porter. Mr. Blake rqireiented «4iat wa* known as the Libby party, and Mr. 
Porter represented what wat known as the Dusty I>iamoad party. Before starting he 
fitted out Mr. Lindbbm and John Watenon and tent them to the Council Di>tiict 

The expedition sailed in a small craft, but a storm arising before they reached dieir 
destination, they were forced to make a landing in dke mouth of Snake River. During 
their detention at this place they prospected <»> L>ry Creek, finding colors. They went 
acrou die tundra to Moonlight, Anvil and Rock Creeks. On Anvil Creek Mr. Hult- 
berg obtained a pan of gravel in which he got sixty-eight colors. Subsequently he I^ 
die party and went up the creek and took another pan of gravel kora which he obtained 
169 colors. This was the best proqxct that he had ever seen from this part of the 
country, and he thought very favorably of the ground where he obtained it. Tire dale 
upon which this party left Golovb was July 3 1 . They landed at the mouth of Snake 
River August 4, and started prospecting the following day. 

There wat a great deal of disagreement and bickering between the members of 
the party, all of whom proceeded on their foumey to Sinuk as soon at the tea permitted 
them to resimie the trip. After having prospected at Sinuk a ooiqile of days Mr. 
Huldterg left with two men named Taylor and Molligan, who were going to St. Michael 
by die way of Golovin. On the way they encountered a very severe storm which 
prevented them from going ashore. They were lying out on the raging billows br 
three dayi and four ni^ts, without any thdter, in a tmall <q>en boat and thort of 
|MOviu<»)s. On their arrival at Golovin Mr. Hultberg wat to exhausted that he did 
not dare to return to what he considered the greatest discovery he had made on hb 
various proqiecting trips. He therefore made anangemcnt widt LindUom to go along 
with Brynteson upon his (Bryntcson's) return from the coast. L^wn Brynleton's return 
he persuaded him to go back to where the di*covery was made and lake Lmdblom and 
postibly pertuadc Lindeberg alto to go along. After this arrangement was ntade, Hult- 
berg wat compelled to go to the state* on account of poor health. He returned to 
Nome in die spring of 1899, landing at Nome the 18th day of June, without funds. 
Shortly after hit arrival he was orM of the first victim* of the typhoid fever epidemic, 
raging during the season of 1899. 

Mr. Hultberg't vicissitude* during the early ht*tory of Nome are many. The nar- 
ration would (ill more space than can be spared in a work of thit charader. I pause 
here, however, to briefly narrate one of them which has some historical vahie, as it ihowt 
that the native* had knowledge of the existence of gokl on Candle Creek. In 1899 
Huhberg received nuggets from native* who told him that they had obtained diem on the 

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(tream -which hu lince beeo known as Candle Creek. )n 1900 be organized a party 
and started to go acroM country from Norton Sound to thit (tream; becoming ill while 
on the way, he had to stop with natives, and was conq>elled to abandon Uie liip. Mr. 
Hu]d)erg has been more fortunate during the part two years in his ventures in Alaska. 
Among other enterprises which he hat promoted and successfully Bnanced is the McDer- 
mott Oitcb in the Solomw River country, and he is also interested in oBier enterprise* 
which possess encouraging prospects. 

Mr. Huld>erg and Miss Hannah Hohn were married at UnalaUeel July 8, 1894, 
by Missionary Korbon. It is the &nt viidtt marriage solemnized in Northwotem Alaska. 
Mist Hohn, v/ho was a resident of Calesberg, Illinois, and whom he met before he went 
to Alaska, was brave cnou|^ to take the long journey to the Swedish Mission on 
Gokmn Bay in order to wed die man of her choice. They have four children. The 
oldeal, Albia Abita, wai born in Alaska. The other children are Hilmar Aronmi, 
Charles Obf and Hazd Opherima Alaska. Betides hit Alaska interests, Mr. Hultberg 
hat a colonization enterprise in Turlock, California, this place being his winter home. 

Mr. Hultberg is a courteous gcntlenun. A modest and quiet demeanor hides 
a sincere and eamett character that it full of kindness and charity. He hat done much 
for the benefit of the Etkimo, and hat always lou^t to avoid publicity, hence the general 
pubhc is not aware of hit benefactiont. 


CHARLES W. THORNTON is one of the 
pioneers of Nordiwettem Alaska, having been 
a member of the Kotzebue Sound expedition 
of 1898. He hat been identified with the country 
ever since. Mr. Thornton is a ton of Wesley Coatet 
rhomton, who was a grandton of William Thorn- 
ton, of the Revolutionary Army. Mr. Thornton 't 
mother wat Rachel Livingston, whose grandfather wat 
olao a soldier in the Amy of the Revolutim. 

Tlie tubjecl of this sketch wat bwn in Le Seuer, 
Minnesota, March 25, 1869. He lived on a farm 
in Hennepin County in that state until he wat thir- 
teen yeart old. The death of hit father, hit mother 
having died six years prior, caused the family of diree 
hoys and one girl to decide to leave the old home 
and take up didr reddcnce with various friends and rel- 
atives, where they could continue their schooling. The 
little property left by the father was not available for 

the purpnae of nqiporting the children while they were c. W. thobnton. 

in school, to they were tlirown upon dieir own re- 
sources. Charles, having determined to become a lawyer, was enabled through hard 
work, strict ecomxny, and diligent study to obtain a college education. 

Early in the spring of 1898 and while he was a resident of Seattle and reading 
law under die guidance of Z. B. Rawson, city attorney of Seattle, he wat attracted 
by the excitement over the Alaska gold fields, and joined the misguided ilampeders 
lo Kotz^ue Sound. He q>ent one winter and two summers in the land of the mid- 
night tun. During the winter of hit residence in Northern Alatka he wat on the trail 

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for forty <Uyi, u»] during thtrtjr dmjn of dm tinw the mn never ihowed itaelf above the 
boriuHi. and the average record of die thennometer wai 62° bdow tan. 

Not finding any gold mioe« m the Kotzebue Sound country he went to Nome 
in the lummer of 1S99. Hii fint work in the Nome camp wat mining oo the t***''** 
b 1890 he engaged in the general merchandiN buaneH, and was the head of the 
firm <A Thornton & tCeidi. The big tform of SeptenJ>eT 12-13 of thi* year wrecked 
their building and camed th«n luch financial injury that they diKantinued buniM**. 
Mr. Thornton again took up the study of law, and wai achnitted to the bar in die 
Dirtrict Court of Nome in August, 1902. 

Subsequent to this dale he was associated with the Archer, Ewing Compw^. 
prominent merchants of Nome, and during I903>'04 vns the manager of their steac 
in Solomon. I-Ie also practiced law in Solommi. During hit Alaskan career he bas 
acquired soene valuable mining property. He q>ent the winter of 19O4''05 in the 
stales, and wiU return to Nome this season for the purpose of disposing of his intereits 
there widi the intention of locating in Chicago for the practice of law. 

Mr. Thomtim ti a genial gentlanan possei i mg a harmonious Mending of traits 
of character. A mind of native bii^tness has been burnished by studious reading 
and a useful education, and die executive and moral attributes of character have been 
strengthened by the strenuous Ufe of die Nordiland and die glaring revelations of 
human frailty on the ftootier. A host <^ Alaskan friends will wish him good hick 
and God speed in his professional work. 


THE dcvebpment of die Solomon River mines 
and the rapidly increaiing populadon last year 
in consequence thereof, made die appointment 
of a U. S. Commissioner for this district advisable. 
The Judge of die District Court selected Wll Henry 
for this positimi. the appointment dating from June 
15, 1904. Prof. Henry is an educator with thirty 
yean' experience in educational work. He filled the 
position of principal of Nome District Schools during 
die tenn of 1 902-'03. He is a speciahst in philok>g.v 
and matheroatici. two branches of learning to w^ich 
he has given much time and diought. During a resi- 
dence of many years in Colorado he spent his vaca- 
tions in the raioes, studying practical mineralogy, and 
acquired an expert's knowledge of ores. It was this 
fact diat led to his employment by a capitalist to visit 
Nome m 1900, with die q>ecial object of ac- 
quiring extensive holdings if his judgment was favor- 
able to the investment. The subsequent ilbess and 
deadi of the capitalist thwarted these plans at a time 
when Prof. Henry's future seemed die brightest But he had acquired a knowledge of 
the country which impelled him to stay, although he realized the difficulty of ac c om p lish- 
bg satisfactory results without adequate capital ^X^en he left Colorado he sacrificed 
a profitable business as mining expert, but since he has coine to Alaska he has obtained 
a knowledge of the stupendous wealdi and great possibilities of this country, and an- 

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oouDcct hit intentioD of remaining here and fighbng to a fmkli on the condition he hu 
had to accept 

Prof. Hcniy ii a native <rf ^uo, and wa> born April 25, 1855. Hii family 
moved to Colorado during the Gvil War. He wa« educated at OberBn College, and 
began the vrork of a teacher early in Kfe. In May, 1897, he and Mim Amu S. Sker- 
rett were married at Cripple Creek. Mn. Henry ia a niece of Admiral Skcrrett, of 
the United States Navy, Pi^. Heniy't learning and wide experience enable him to 
creditably fill the judicial podtion to which he hai been appointed, and discharge the 
duttci of the <Ace to tbe latiifaction of the public and the Diitrict Court 


IN 1 897 the United State* Government hired rix^-tcven Laplanden, Finns and Norweg- 
ians to take care of the retncler in Alaska. Most of the Norwegians were bri^t young 

men v^ were selected to fill the positim of foremen of the herders. At the 
lime of die eoi^oyment ^ these people 500 reindeer were purchased by the Govern' 
aaent. and tran^xxted fnnn Northern Europe to I-laines Missiui in Alaska. The obfect 
of Ibe expedition was fw the relief of destitute minen on tbe Yukon, aitd ibe carefully 
laid plan was to drive tbe deer across the countiy horn Haines Misskm to Dawson. 
But the plan miscarried on account of a lack of forage for the deei, tbe countiy being 
cmnparattve^ destitute of the moss iqxin which they feed, and four-fifths of the herd 
died <rf starvation before the expedition reached its destination. 

Magnus fCjelsberg was a member of this exped i tion, having been employed in 
the c^Mcity of foreman of the herders. He is the son of a merchant ttf Kaafjord, 
Norway, a town nqiported in a large measure by die industry of copper mining. He 
was bom Odober 1, 1876, and received his early education fnnn private tutors, sub- 
sequently aHending school at Bergen. He had not attained his twenty-first year when he 
left hmne. but he poneised a robust physique, good health, native mtelligence and an 
inexhaustible fund of good nature, and in diese respects was well equipped for any 
kind of life fate might have in store for him. The discovery of gM at Dawwn was a 
spur to his endeavor to gel into the for nordi of America. 

The trip from Haioes Missim was one of great hardships. The expedition 
started in Mordi. but before it got 200 miles on its ioumey half of the deer weie 
dead. The ratioas for the trip proved inadequate as more lime was consumed than 
contemplated, and as the death of lo many deer made it possible to diq>ense with die 
services of a number of herden several members of the e:q>edition were sent back 
to Haines to go by steamer to St Michael and thence to die remdeer station at Lba- 
lakleet Mr. Kiekberg was a member of this party. The return trip was eventful. 
The greatest number of tbe party returned m ruddy constructed rafts, and there 
were many narrow escapes from drovmmg. Food gave out and diey neady famidied. 
Beans thai careless pro^Mctors had dropped on the trail were picked up and eagerly 
devoured. But finally, gaunt, half starved and nearly exhausted, all the members of 
die returning party arrived at Haines, and were sent to Port Townsend the latter part 
of May. Soon after they were sent to die region in Alaska that has since become 
famous became <rf its womlerful gold resources. 

Mr. Kjebberg formed a pajtnerdiq> with Jafct Lindeberg. another young man from 
Norway, who had come to the country in search of g(^ By the agreement Kjelsberg 
was to remain in the employ of the Government, and his salary was lo be used to buy 

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■upplio for the UM of Lindeberg ia proq>ectuig. Little did they think when byinc 
their pUns (or a long period of proqiecting that within a tew months they would own 
(ome oi the moat valuable mining propertjr in the world, and poMeo greater wealth 
than they ever dreamed of owning. 

Mr. Kjebberg wat at Unalakleet when be heard oi the great rttike on Ant-il 
CreeL He immediately went overland to Golovin and itarted widi MivioDaiT 
Anderton, driving deer team* acioM the country to Nome. At Cape Nome tfaey met 
Lindeberg, Lindblom, Brynteun, Kittiben and Price, who had $1,800 in gold duat 
which they had rocked out in a few dayi undet adverae conditMHu, ai winter wa« e»- 
croBctung and the ground wai beginning to freeze. Hut wat a memorable meeting. 
The proipecton waived their hats and shouted, manifesting the great joy that blled 
their hearts on account of suddenly acquired riches, when they saw the reindeer teams 

The entire party returned to Golovin Bay where roost of the winter was spent 
making preparations for the next season's work. Supplies were obtained at Sl Michael 
and froghted over the ice to Ncune. In the early spring before the snow disappeared 
Mr. Kjebberg whq>sawed liunbcr out of drift wood found on the beach. This hu>- 
ber was used to make shiicc-boxes. In June Mr. Kjebberg established a camp at dte 
mputh of Quartz Gukfa at No. 6 Anvil Cieek, but he made slow progress with ifae 
work of mining on account of the frozen ground. Snow Gulch teemed to ofer a better 
Importunity for expeditious wo^ and he determined to move his camp. He and hi* 
brother carried the sluice-boxes on their backs over the hiO a distance of three milca 
to Snow Gulch, each man carrying one of the heavy boxes at a trip. 

By the date of the arrival of the Brst steamer in 1899 Nome had a considerable 
population. A large number of people had cmne down the Yukon from Dawson, 
and the Alaska Commercial Company and North American Trading and Transpor- 
tation Company had established stores b the new camp. The N. A T. & T. Co. 
otfered to transport die first $10,000 of gold dust to Seattle hree of cost, and 
there wat great rivalry among the mintn. G. W. F^ce was the hicky man. Mr. 
Kjelsberg was mining on Nos. 2 and 3 Snow Gulch when the strike on the beach 
created a stampede. He immediately reaUzed that some extra inducements must be 
made to retain the services of his employes. He was paying diem $10 the day, and 
he informed them that every man who remained with him until the end of the season 
would receive a bonus of $4 the day. By this liberal offer he was able to woric tbe 
mines as extensively as the limited faciHtici would permit The wage mduccment 
secured for the employer the best services of his workmen, and ever since then he has 
been known in Alaska as the friend of the working maiL In 1902 when he was mining 
on Candle Creek he paid mora than die going wages because he believed that the men 
employed were capable of earning all he paid them. He modestly disclaim* any social- 
istic or altruistic ideas on the subject, but proceeds on the dieory that the best labor is 
cheaper at a high price than inferior labor at a bw price. 

Mr. Kjebberg has operated in the Nome country since the discovery <rf gokl on 
Anvil Creek. In the winter of 1699-1900 he visited his old home in Norway and 
traveled over Europe. He is a stockholder and director in the Pioneer Mining Com- 
pany, and has invested in real estate in Oakland and San Jose. California. He i* mar- 
ried, and he and Mr*. Kjebberg q>end die winters in a pretty home in Oakland. 

I have often been impre**ed by the appro[Hiatene*t of name*. The names of 
things are usually derived from the character or surrounding of the things, and it is 

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not itrenge that thcte name* ibould be apnamt, but die name* of people are giveii 
to them in their infanqr, and it ii not toU in our philoaophy why diey tbould potMM 
the attributet of theae namei when they are grown up. Magnut ii the great It makei 
ui think of the Magna Charta. Immediately our mindt perceive the Elnglwh boum and 
adjectivet derived from the Latin root, magnitude, magnificent and magnanimoui. 
Thne words convey a picture of something poueuing a nzc that ii ample and pleasing 
to >ec, and a character by which the world is made better and the joy of living intensi- 
fied. Magnus Kiebberg possesses die attributes of hit name. He is big. l»oad-minded. 
gowront. magnanimous, kind-hearted, always genial, and hit soul u full of sunshine. 


FOREMOST among the men i^o are developing the marvelout retouices of 
Seward Peninsula it J. M. Davidson. He was one of the pioneen vdw 
arrived in Nome in Ae early teaton of 1899. He did not own capital wfaidi 
hat been found necessary in the work of the development of this country, but he was 
e()uq;iped widi a practical knowledge of mining obtained by experience in the mines of 
California; he knew die vahie of water for the operation of placer mines, and withal 
he was by profession a civil engineer, and brou^t to Nome the first surveyor's instru- 
ments that were ever biou^t to the country. Working at his profesiion until be had 
acquired sufficient meant to undertake b a modest way s<»netliing for himself, he began 
<m a line of work that had for its object die iiqq>ly of water, first for domestic use for 
d>e residenti of Nome and subsequently for the use of minen in operating their properties. 
He it one of the pioneer ditch builders of Seward Peninsula, and his work along these 
lines for the devdopment of Northwestern Alaska it second to none in the country. 
He was one of the promoters and organizer; of the Miocene Ditch Company, a corpor- 
ation wliich has constructed forty-seven miles of ditch, covering the most valuable mineral 
ground in the Nome region. He » the organizer of die Kugarok Mining and Ditch 
Conquny, which will begin work this teaton on a thirteen-mile ditch in the Kougarok 

Mr. Davidson is a rtative of Siskiyou County, California, and was bom December 
3. 1653. After receiving an education in the public schools of Siskiyou County, he 
attended die Uuversily of California and was ro the same class with James Budd, who 
subsequently became Governor of CaUforma, f^fcssor Christie, Professor George C. 
Edwards, and Harry Webb of South African bme. He took a course in civil en- 
^eerng, and after he returned to Siskiyou County was elected to the office of county 
clerk. He served four years as clerk of the county, and fiUed positions m the clerk's 
office during a period of eleven yeart. As mining was the p^nc^)Bl business of Siskiyou 
County, he was associated with mining enterprises on die Klamath fUver. On account 
of Uling health he left the clerk's office and engaged in farming. During the financial 
crisis of the early '90's he struck die reef of failure and went under. 

Attracted by die posubUities of the Northland as shown by the Klondike itrike he 
determined to go to Alaska to mend his fortunes. He arrived in Juneau in Febniary, 
1898, and was one of die first United Slates Deputy Surveyor! in Alaska to make 
surveys in die great Yukon Valley. He worked his way over die Chilkoot Pass, and 
Wat in the region at the time of the disasterous snow-slide at Sheep Camp. He buih a 
boat at Lake Lindeman and went to Dawion. His dissatisfaction with Canadian 
laws and Government mediodt at Dawson impelled him to go to Circle before die close 

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of the •etion. Ai Mon u he and his puty crowed the bounduy line thejr unhnled a 
little Amencan Flag which tbey had with them and dirturbed the itiUiMM of the 
wilderaeu with three rowiiig cheen. They were once more upon their native heath and 
bcoeath the |»ratect)aD of the itmn and itripei even though they were in soTtben wikk. 
He ipent thit fall and winter mining on Maitodon Creek near Circle. 

During die winter a letter w«» received from Magnw Kjehberg, telUng a oawin 
of hit at Circle of the ttrike on Anvil Creek, and Mr. Davidton took paaaage oo the 
Gnt iteaincr down the Yukmi (or Nmne. He anived at Nome on the 4th of July, and 
uted the little mooqr that he had to bujr a lot on which to pitch hii tent On Juljr 10 
he Kt up the fini nirvqror'i transit in Nome. Mr. George Athfrnd, a piooecT wrr^ioc 
of diii country, was in Nome at dke time but hit iustnuncnts had not yet arrived. Dming 
thit leaiOD Mr. Davidson and Mr. Ashfwd wen aiM>ciated in die surveying butinem. 
and did connderable work turvejong daimi near Nome. Mr. Davidton was present at 
the lint clean-up on No. 1 below Discovery, Anvil CnA. TUt was one of the first 
big clean-ups in the country. The boxes after a dmrt run contained near $20,000 in 
gold dust. Mr. Davidton rememben the ttrike on the beach which was made by two 
loldiert in a little dtpresiion in the beach, since known at Soldiers Gulch, in tbe 
vicinity of w4ial it now known as the A. E. Company properties. This strike vras mule 
July 17 or 18, and a few days later several hundred people were rocking <m the be«cfa. 

On September 25 Mr. Dividson located the Moonlight Springs Water Right. 
He originated the Moonlight Springt Water Company, and the foHowing season with 
monQT fuinidied by die Pioneer Mining Company constructed die water worln wUch 
have been a boon to Nome. In 1899 zymotic diteaiet were prevalent in Nome at a 
result of drinking impure tundra water, and in nqiplying the mmty to build tbe Moon- 
bf^t Springt Water Works the mcmben of the Pioneer Mining Company were actuated 
primarily by bene&cait motivet. and these men are deserving (^ unstinted praise For 
accomplishing this work, which has provided Nome with a quality of water equal to tbe 
best water supply <rf any town in die United States. During the summer of 1900 moat 
of Mr. Davidson's time was taken up in the conitructi«M] of this water system. 

He was able to (ortee the great value of ditchet for mining purposes, and the 
following year atK)ciated himself with W. L Leland and W. S. Bliss, and began the 
construction of the Miocene Ditch. Mr. Davidson was the engineer <^ the company; 
he supervised the conttruction <^ this entire ditch, and was engaged continuously in this 
work from May, 1901, until the close of the season of 1903. The mining intentions 
of the company were conducted Iqr Mr. Leland and Mr. Bliss. Mr. Davidton spent 
most of the season of 1904 in the Kougarok Dittrict invcttigating tome wild-cat prop- 
erties which he had taken m exchange for town bts. The result of thit investigation 
was the organization of the Kugarok Mining and Ditch Convany. whidi will begin 
this teaton, 1905, the construction of a thirteen-mile ditch to convqr water to the 
company's extensive properties. Prominently associated with Mr. Davidson in 
thit enterprite it Mr. J. E. Chilberg, one of the most progressive and aggressive of 
Seattle's business men. The Miocene Company in which Mr. Davidson ttill holds an 
mierest it one of the moit successful corporations on the peninsula, and the new com- 
pany organized to devekip the nuneral resources of the Kougarok Mining Dittrict hat 
the most encouraging prospects, and under the experienced management of Mr. Davidsra 
undoubted^ will be an important factor in the gold product of this district. 

Mr. Davidson is a man of mailed abili^ and sound judgment. His knovdedge 

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of nuniiig and ditch coiutTuction hu made him ■ valuable acqiiintion to tbe Xurdy 
men who are developing the Toource* of die frozen north, and hat given him the 
on>ortunity to lay the foundation of the fortune which ii the quest of every nun who 
goea to Alaska. Hii character ii broad, deep and itrong, and the attributes are 
harmoniously blended. He powenes die force >^ich is indispensable to success but 
with the tar^>erament that docs not permit annoyances to distanb nor obttado to dis- 
courage him. Broad, liberal and accurate in his judgment of men and afturs he is 
bodi a successful man and a good and useful citizen. 


WIIXIAM H. METSON. lawyer, finanon- and man of afain in San Francaoo. 
is prominently identified with the work of devek^ing Seward Peninsula, being 
president (tf one of the largest ditch enterprises in the country, the Mioccoe 
Ditch Company, and president of tbe Nome-Arctic Railw^r Company. The two most 
important problems diat confnmt the miners of Northwestern Alaska relate to water and 
Iranqiortation. and the man dut digs ditches and buUdi ratlioads in this country is one 
of the leaden of the industrial army that has recently invaded the Northland. In die 
practice of hii profession Mr. Metson assisted in maldng die history of Nome. As 
attorney for the Pioneer Mining C«iq>any, m the notorious injunction and receiveT law 
suits during the regime of Judge Noycs, he took an active and a leading part in the 
famous litigation which makes one of the most interesting stories of this volume. This 
story reveals Mr. Metscm as a man of prompt decinon and aggressive action. It shows 
ihat he is a master of detail and that he possesses an accurate knowledge of character and 
•notive; that he is frank and fearless, resolute and sincere. Htmes^ of purpose and 
directness of method are correlatives, and always accon^any a character dkat il not lacking 
in courage. 

Mr. Metsw is a lutive of CaHfomia. He was bcnn in San Francisco March 16, 
1864. The family moved to Nevada shortly after his birth, and most of his boyhood 
days were spent in Virginia City. It was here he received his eariy education, and 
developed a character tyjAcMi of the West Leaving Virginia City w^ea sixteen yean 
old, he went to Bodie and entereil the law oAces of Hon. Patrick Reddy. A few 
years later he accompanied Mr. Reddy to San Francisco and attended the Hastings 
Law School. University of CaHfomia, and was graduated in die class of '66. He continued 
the study of die law under Mr. Reddy, one of die most distinguished barriiten 
of California, whose reputation as a mining lawyer was preeminent, and in 1900 
Mr. Metson became a member of the firm of Reddy, Canqibell & Metson. This 
was a leading law firm of San Francisco, enjoying an extennve and a lucrative practice. 
Ahhou^ time has changed die persramel of the firm, vdiich is now conqxMed of J. C. 
Campbell, Wm. H. Metson, C H. Oatman and F. C. Drew, it has not dimmed its 

The news that came from Nome in die fall of 1699 revived in Mr. Metson the 
menxtry of early days in Virginia Gly and Bodie. and he reaohred to visit the noitheni 
mining caiiq>. Going to Nome the following firing he became interested in the litigatiota 
aaentiwied above, and perceiving the prospects and posdbilities of the country he associated 
himseH widi bdostrial aterpriset. and is taking an active part in developing diese gold 

Mr. Metion is widely known in Cabfomia, both as a lawyer and a useful citizen. 



He ha* (sdeavored to keep out of fmictica] polhici, ahkou^ be hat accepted oficc whete 
there b do pecuniuy rewud wliile penitteiitly decHning taUricd poutiocw. He bu been 
CommMMonef of YoMoule Pail nnce 1898, having been appmated hy Govemoc Budd, 
a Democrat, and reappointed I7 Governor Gage, a Repubhcan. He ia <xie of tbe 
ComnuNioDcn of Golden Gate Padt, San Fianciuo. receiviog hii appointment horn 
Mayor Schniilz in January, 1 905. He abo held thii pootion under Governor Budd, bat 
the new chatter of San Frandaco legitlated him out of oAce. Mr. MetiOD baa ex- 
tcnaive buuncM intereaU in Califoniia, Nevada, Wathingtoo and Ahuka. He it a 
director in a number of coiporatioDa, anwng them the Scandinavian'American Bank 
of Seattle. He hai earned and gained a rq)utat)on a* a financier, and by tnhennt 
•trenglh of character hat drawn around him (taunch and kqral friendi who knovr bii 
moral worth and repoac confidace in hit judgment 

He it a member of the Pacific Union, Bohemian, San Frandtco, and Mcrchanli 
Chibf of San FranoKO, and ii prominent in tbe Order of Native Son* of Ae Golden 
Wett. Socially he b an urbane gentleman and a genial comrade. In all matters 
he ahown a keen perception of ethica, and foUowi a rule of conduct which may be 
briefly exprcMed in the following wwdi: Work, fi^t. if necetaary. and have no fear, be 
bonert and be true to your hienda. 

The law firm of which Mr. Metaon it a member hat l^anch t^cei in Nome. Tonopah, 
Goldheldi and Bullfrog. Mr. Melton direcU diete tdficet, mott of tbe buMncM of which 
relate* to minet and mining. 

8. C. HENTON. 

SC. HENTON it the United States Commit- 
• ttoner of the Port Clarence Mining Dittrict, 
with headquartert at Tdler on Port Clarence 
Bay. He wat appobted to thit petition in October, 
1901. The Port Clarence precinct and recording 
diilrict compiitet an exleiwive area inchiding the con- 
tolidated precincta of Pott Clarence, Blue Stone, Agai- 
apuk, York and Good H<4>e. It is the largett record- 
ing district of Seward Peninsula, exlending from Pott 
Clarence Bay to the Arctic Ocean and Kotzebue 
Sound on the north. Bering Strait and Bering Sea on 
the west and south, and the Sawtooth range of moun- 
tains on the cast Tiat region comprites die tin fieldt. 
both placer and vein, of Seward Peniniula. Other 
valuable minerab betides gold and tin found in thit 
ditttici are galena, silver, copper and graphite. 

Judge Henlon it a native of Iowa, but wat reared 
and educated in Indiana. In 1886 he moved to the 
Pacific Coast and began the practice of law in 1 890. 
He wat United Statet Coromittiooer for the Slate of 
Washington for a period of several yeart, creditably filling thit potition until I 

Judge Henton it a courteous gentleman, and by close appUcation to I 
pohle treatment of the people he hat won the retpect and confidence of the mmert 
throughout the dittrict, and the good opinion of the Ditttici Court from whom be 
received hit appointment. 


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THERE it in America a ipirit <rf unreX. - It may be the product of social coa(liti<xu 
thai peimit men to roe from humble walkt to exalted ttatiom. It may be the reaull 
of the wonderful of^wrtunilie* afforded l^ the development of a new country for 
men to acquire moaty and the power >«4uch wealth givei. lu primary manifeslatioiu are 
Jixatiihctioa with poverty and an ambition to get away from the lowly lurroundingt into 
ik.iich many great toub are bom. A higher and itrongcr manifestation ii uniuual energy 
and extraordinary activity. The man who abhon idlenew and finds pleasure in his work 
has emerged from the environments of mediocrity. But the highest manifestation of this 
dntinctive American trait ii the initative. The ambitious man may accomplish tome- 
thing; the ambitious and industrious roan will succeed, but the man who it ambitiout. 
industrious and has confidence in himsdf and the courage to urukitake inqiortant new 
enterpritet will be atrong the leaden in the commercial world. To tee and graqp oppor- 
tuiiibes that do not lie in the beaten path of commtrcialitm. to explore new realms of 
ihoui^t, to open up new avenues through which may come more lit^t and power, more 
convenience and comfort to the human hmily — this it the initiative. 

Thit foreword it suggested by the narrative that follows. Somebo<fy has written: 
"In the leaucon of youth which fate reserves for a bri^t manhood there it no such word 
as fail." The life of A. E. Boyd it a ttory in which the potsiUlity of failure never . 
occura. When he wat a boy and had a tatk to perform, he set about to do it well and 
with all postfttle detpalch. He wat a farmer't boy. and as Lowell said of E^zeUel in 
"The GMirtin'," "None could draw a furrer itraig^ler." When a boy he studied the 
character of hones, and learned to know diem, and they knew him. In after years he 
wat known as one of the bea bone trainen in the Nordiwest Territory. Most oif hit life 
has been spent on the frontier. He knows the language of the wildemen, the stories of 
the mountains and the plaint, and the lore of the Indians. 

This knowledge and the experiences by which it was obtained, taught him to be 
•elf-reliant and gave him confidence m his ability to accompHth %^lever he undertocA 
to do. He came to Nome in 1900. and m 1904 he had cmutructed and wat the owner 
of a telephone system dmnecting the principal campt of the peninsula, a very vahiable 
property — vahiable as a money maker for its owners and as a money saver for the minen 
and business men who use it During the year 1 904 Mr. Boyd went to New Y^k. and 
incorporated a company capitalized at $100,000 of vrimii he is vice-president and general 
manager, widi funds to extend the hne to all parts of the peninsula where the devek>pmcnt 
of die country creates a demand for the service that will warrant the extension. 

Mr. Boyd it a native of County Grey, Province of Ontario, Canada, and wat bora 
in 1662 within a mile and a quarter of Georgian Bay. Hit father wat bom m Man- 
chetler, England, and hit modicr wat Scotch, a titter of the Rev. Geo. McDougall, the 
pioneer mistionary of the Northwest Territory who founded missions from Lake Superior 
to the Rocky Mountains. Mr. Boyd's father was a pioneer who cut a trail from die 
shores of Georgian Bay through the woods to a home in the "forest primeval" Albert 
wat the youngest in a hmily of six boyi and two girls. His early education was acquired 
in a log school house, but he never attended school afta he was fourteen yean old. When 
he was tixteen yean old he determined to go to the Nordiwett Territory. One of hit ritten 
had married the Rev. John McDougall and then was located at Morley Mission. To 
decide wat to act. His parents decided to go with him. It wat a long )Owney, hj 
br>at to Duluth, by train to Bismarck, Dakota, by boat to Fort Benton, and thence 600 

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milet acroM ooimtiy and into Canadian lerriloiy — into a new, wild coimby where wliiit 
men's habilationt were hundred* of milei apart 

Mr. Boyd lived in the Northwe*! Territoiy nine yean, and the«e nine yean woe hdl 
of moving incident and thrilling expeiiencd. From hit early boyhood a proficient hone- 
man he became known tfarou^ut thit region ai an expert rider and a great hone traisa. 
He teamed and freighted, Mmetimet unng the old Red River Cart, a product of the ntw 
country. The wheeU of tlm cart were made entirely <rf wood. The burd^ of bread 
winner of the family fell iqwn hit ihouldert, and he worked antong the Indiana and nit 
the range, and did cveiything that wa* necexaiy to do or required of him, alwayi Aiv- 
ing to do well any duty he had to perform. He lived a life of adventure and frootiei tx- 
perience, the nanative of which would make an intoettbg volume. 

The itory of one incident ii told here became it illutrato the character of the mu- 
When twenty-ooe yean old he made a trp <rf 262 milei in two days and thirteen boun 
and a half, total time, and during thit trip he drove thiec teamt diat had never been h 
kamett before. A woman in Morley was ill, and the nearett doctor wat the army mr- 
geon at McCloud, 1 3 1 milet away. Mr. Boyd went after the doctor. He ttarted at 
horseback Saturday evening and rode acrow country, and at nig^l came on be saw at i 
ditlance vria.t appeared to be a black cloud jutt above the horizon. It wat oaiy a few 
momentt until hit keenj eyet ditcovered that he wat riding into tbe moti dreaded of il 
thingt in that country, a prairie fire. To change hb courte and ride for miki aromd 
the fire, and thui occation boun' dday, or to brave everything and ride throu^ it wot 
hit only altemativct. He chose the latter. After ridmg through the ihickett of At 
fire aud imoke tuccettfully, he found nothing but blacknett before him. The night 
became dentely dark, and with the burned gran, smoky atmosphere and Uackcned ground. 
it wat made ttill more dente. But undaunted he kept on hit courte at near at his jwff- 
ment dictaled. After traveling long after midnight he decided he should be near the oU 
trail which he had started out to mtercept, and getting ofi hit horse and taking a ff 
slept forward he struck a raise in the ground and feeling with hit hand ditcovered a pW«i 

He knew at once what that meant. Some one had pbvred around a haystack 
to protect it from fire. In a few more steps he found the haystack where he concluded lo 
let hit horse feed and wait for daybreak. At the fini U^t broke the darkncM he di)* 
covered that within two hundred feet of him lay the trail. He had traveled tixly mik* 
on hit journey through the darknett of night. To taddle and away took but a nKHMXt- 
After a few milet ride he encountered a Government surveying par^. and pressed inlo 
service a fresh horse. Arriving at a stock ranch he secured another relay, and rode ea 
to "The Leavings of Wilbw Creek," ^ere he expected to obtain anoUicr fresh bone- 
But the owner of the ranch and the range riders were away, and the only hone in '^ 
corral was an "outlaw." Many had tried but no man ever had been able to ride bin- 
But Mr. Boyd had to have a fresh horse, and in this case it was "Hobson't choke. 
He drove the wild beatt into the tmall corral, roped him, saddled and bridled him, i^^ 
folded him and mounted. To brief the ttory, the hone traveled a bucking gait iIk 
fint few milet but finaly l»oke into a run, arriving at Fort Mcl^ud at 7 o*ck>ck Sundty 
evening having traveled the latt thirty^five milet in three houn and ten minutes. 

He found the doctor, who was a man of excellent parts and a good pkyaoui. 
aa one of hit periodical ipreet and in a bad state of intoxication, but a friend ngited 
to get itte doctor into a buckboard when he wat ready to ttart on the return tr^. Mr- 
Boyd wat alto delegated to bring the minitter at the tick woman wat not expected to 

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live. He [oimd the preacher b the midtt of a lermon, and il<¥ped the ducoiUM to tell 
him of his mission. Arraogenieiits were made to start at the earlieit hour of light in the 
momiug. and Mr. Boyd sought a few hours of much needed sleq>. 

Long before it was light preparations were made for the return trip. The hor*e 
ridden into McGoud was not broken to harness; neither was the only available hone in 
the stable xrf a ftiend. But they were harnessed and hitched to a buckboard, and driven 
lo the barracks. Tlie doctor, still under the influence of liquor, was brought out and 
loaded into the vehicle. His dress in part consisted of carpet slippers and a little red 
coat and cap to match. The team was off with a bound and on a keen run. the 
minister following on horseback. It usually keeps a roan pretty busy when he attempts 
to drive an unbroken team, but in this instance beudes the driving there was work to 
do to prevent the doctor from falling out of die rig. It soon became apparent that the 
good man on horseback could not keep pace widi the team, and he was induced to 
abandon his horse and get in the buckboard. He rode behind and wore out a pair 
of new gloves holding on. This trip was made without any ittqx, except to change 
hoiMt, and of the four team* used three had never been in harness before. Morley was 
leached at 6 P. M., and the doctor and minister were at the bednde of the (lying! 
woman sixty-one hours and a half from the hour of the beginning of this strenuous trip. 
Driving time was thirty-«ix houn, delays twenty-Rve hours and a half. It is needlea 
lo add that the doctor was sober. 

This is only one of many record trqts he has made. He has driven from Council 
City lo Nome, ei^ly-nine miles, in seven hours and fiftl'-six minutes, changing hones 
once, and has driven over die same route in nght houn and a half with one teariL 
"The driving it like the driving of Mu, the son of Nimshi: for he driveth furiously." 
But he always keeps his hontt in the bnest condition, and never takes them beyond their 

Mr. Bcofd took the first surveying party of the Canadian Paciiic Railroad mto the 
Rocky Mountains. But wh3e he had Uamed the lessons that nature teaches those who 
live close lo her and fck the Ubext^ of the frontier, which civilization restricts, the oiqx>r- 
tunitie* to accomplish something in the ordinary line of human ambition were lacking. 

He left Canada and went lo the United States, arriving m Seattle m 1 668. Here 
be bought aikd aold stock, broke nuu^ wild hones; also conducted several other kinds of 
business, and always with fair success. May 8, 1900, he sailed for Nome on the ei^ty- 
ton scbocmer Laurel The vessel carried a cargo of lumber and odier supplies. He 
was the managing agent oi the schooner. He arrived in Nome June 18, and after a 
satisfactofy consummation of the business cormected widi (he schooner he found 
many of the smaller opportunities during that memorable year to do something that 
would yield a profit, but die <qq>ortunity that he was looking for did not come until 
the following year. It was in the latter part of the aeaaon of 1901 that he began die 
woric of constructing a long-dittance telei^ione Hne, and since then he has applied him- 
self widi diligence and a singleness (rf purpose to the successful accomplishment of the 
undertaking. And he has succeeded. With more dum 250 miles of wire ooimecting die 
principal camps trf the peninsula and with die tyston in the ci^ of Nome, he organized 
a company in New YoHi in 1 904, the Alaska Telephone and Telegraph Conqiany, and 
is prqiaied to eztend the line to any part of the country. While a company has been 
organized for the toon extensive work to be done. Mr. Boyd, widiout attittance, Uxk 

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the initiative and constructed a line which it one of the bc«t paying properties in tiic 

A. E. Boyd and Min Avaloo M. Steel were marned in Victoiis. 6. C. August 
31, 1699. Mn. Boyd ii an intelligent woman, a he^ful wife, and a vmluable 
unstant to her hiuband. Mr. Boyd is a man of broad ideas and liberal impukcs, more 
of a believer in ethics than rehgion, in charity than creeds; decidedly a believer in doing 
his life work according to the dictates of hii own head and heart. 


HENRY SMITH was bom on a 
ranch in Lavoca G>un^, Tex- 
as. December 28. 1856. Hb 
early life was spent on the ranches of 
the "Lone Star State." When fifteen 
years old he rode the range and did 
tbe woHc of a man. He subsequently 
learned the trade of a blacksmith and 
carriage maker. In 1888 he went to 
Tacoma. Wash., and engaged in the 
real estate business; and also conducted 
a blacksmith shop b the same city. Hb 
home has been in Tacoma ever since 
he went to the Northwest 

In 1898 Mr. Smith went to Skag- 
vray. He subsequently established a 
blacksmith shop at Canyon City on the 
trail to Dawson, and in the fall of that 
year went into Dawson with a stock of 
goods, w^ich he sold and then en- 
^ged in mining. Hb first mining ven- 
tures were in 1866 in the Slocan 
country, British Columbia. In the Klon- 
dike country he mined on £1 Dorado. 

Dombion and Canyon Creeks, mee&ig henry smith. 

with varying success. 

When he left home in 1896 he pUnned to be gone two months, but did not 
return until after the lapse of live yean. In 1901 he and Jefl McDennott came down 
the Yukon together to Nome. During thb season he began mining operations on Dry 
Cieek, <^>ening Claim No. 5. He had an option on thb property, but failure tq 
secure a title compelled him to abandon it after he had done a lot of expensive pre- 
liminary work. In 1902 he mined on Oregon Creek. During the winter of 190 1 -'02 
he proq>ected on El Dorado Creek near Bluff. In 1904 he conducted artensive op- 
erations on Dry Creek on Nos. 6, 7 and 8 below. At one time fifty-seven men were 
ea^loyed by him on these claims. The result of thb work was very satisfactory. 

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Mr. &nilh it intemted in the McDcnnolt Ditch, a valuable water right and ditch prop- 
erty in the Sdonon River region. 

Heniy Smith is a square man. Scrupulout honetty has been hii rule of conduct 
aU hi> life. 


JEFF McDERMOTT. a* he i. fa- 
miliarly knovm in many mining 
campi of the West, wat bom in 
Ireland October 31, 1839. and went 
to America with hit parent* in 1852. 
The family located in CMiio on the Old 
Western Reterve twenly'four mile* 
weal of Cleveland. In 1855 the lub- 
iect of thii jkelch went to Iowa and 
thence to Kansai, which wu then a 
tcrritoiy. He wa« a resident of 
"Bleeding Kansas" through the days 
of the slavery excitement and lived there 
until the spring of 1659. 

At the beginning of the Pike's Peak 
excitement, m the day* when the old 
prairie tchoonen. labelled "Pike's Peak 
or Bust," croued the wide expanse of 
plains, then a wilderness, he became a 
F«lgnm to the "New Golconda." He 
had saved up $300, and after arriving 
at Pike's Peak he invested in a prospect 
hole, agreeing to pay $1,000 for the 
claim. When he started to work on 

the property he didn't have a dollar JBFP McDERMOtt. 


In those days the work of crushing ore was done by a custom mill, and the ore 
was measured by the cord. He paid $100 a cord for crushing his ores and $25 for 
hauling i( from the mine to the mill. 

After this mining venture he went to Montana. This was in 1861. He was 
one of die fiist four men to set up a sluice-box on Pioneer Gukh. He mined oif Ban- 
nock and en Alder GulcJi until 1863. Montana was not organized as a territoiy, and 
did not receive its name until the winter of I863''64. 

In 1864 Mr. McDeimotl started back to his old home, but got only as far as 
the MisMiuri River. From Salt Lake to Atchison, Kansas, he traveled by stage, the 
trip requiring twenty-two days and the fare being $300. At Atchison he met an tdd 
Montana chum and they got six four-mule teams and started a freight line to Denver. 
600 mile* distant In 1866 he was back in Montana again. During this year and' 
the following year he was in the freighting business on the frontier, traveling between 
Sah Lake and Boise Basin: later he mined near Leesburg and woHced on Silver Creek 
widt Tom Kruse, ^^lo is now cme of Montana's milHonatres. 

In 1876 he stampeded to the Black Hills, and he has since mined in Colorado, 

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Mexico, Dawson and in the Nome country. Like all other minen, he bai had Iw upt 
and downi, but layi that aB the inon^ he hai ever made in hit bfe he made at mining. 
A proof that he has ahvays btm a pioneer, and hai been on the frontier most of hit 
life, is the fact that he never had but me opportunity of voting at a Presidcnlial eiectioo. 

His first trip to the mines of the North was to the Klondike coimby. In thii 
region he mined on Bonanza Creek and had charge of 39 for the N. A. T. & T. 
Company, f-le came to Ntxne in 1901, and having been in the mines all his life, 
realized and understood the great value of water. One of the iirst locations that he 
made was a water rigjit in the Sobraon River counlry. He was one of the first men 
to talk water ri^ts and the necessity tA constructing ditches. Because of the lack ti 
adequate capital he was not able to do anything with hit water right location until 
die season of 1904. The McDermotI £>itch. the highest line ditch m this part of 
the country, is the result of this water right location. It coven mineral ground tfist 
will not be entirely worked out for fifty years. 

Mr. McDermott is a mamed man and the father of three children, two hoyi 
and a girL His family resides at Oreville, South Dakota. While he has passed a 
great many mile posts on his Ufe journey, he is nevertheless still a young man, capabJe 
of doing his share as a prospector or a miner. Genial, witty, energetic and decisie 
ill action, he estimates that he has plenty of time left to make a fortune out of tht 
Alaska gold fields. 


PrHOS. NIXON is one of the 
• young men of Nome wlio 
has made a success of mining. 
With his associates, Paul Denhart and 
Chris Niebuhr, he was fortunate to 
strike an old channel on the Prague 
bench otf No. 4 above Discovery. 
Dry CreeL This old channel contain- 
ed very high vahies in gold, and has 
been one of the producing properties of 
the Nome region since the strike wa: 
first made in the fall of 1902. It is 
worked in the winter seasons, the dump* 
being washed up m dte eaHy spring. 
In the spring of 1904, die dump on 
diis claim was the largest in quantity of 
gravel of any winter dump in this coun- 
try, and it was abo one of the most 

Mr. Nixon is a farmer's son, and 
was bom near MaxviQe. Peny County, 
Ohio. November 10. 1676. His 
people are of Scotch ancestry, and have 
resided m America since Colonial days. 
He lived on the farm until he was 
cil^leen years old when he resolved p thos. nixon. 

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to Mek hi* fortiuK in the WeiL He (topped in Dakota (or awhile, afteiwant 
went to Vancouver, and the ipring of 1899 found him at Skagway, Alaska. Later 
ID die Maton he went to Dawwn. He proq>ected in die Porcupine countiy. and ia 
the firing of 1900 came down the Yukon in a tow boat, folknving the ice. He 
itof^ied m Sl Michael a couple of montbi, and did not airive in Nome until October 
of that year. 

In die winter of 1901 he and another man pulled a (led. kwded widi 500 pound* 
of lupplie*. from Nome to the fCougarok District. mo*t of the winter leaton being 
4>enl in proqtecting in thii region. But he didn't itrike anything rich unjbl the fall 
of 1902, when he and hi* paitnen found a fortune m an ancient channd on the Mt 
limit (rf Dry Creek. 

Mr. Nixon it the owner of some producing properties on Banner Creek, a tribulaiy 
of the Nmic River. He ii a pub1iC'H>irited citizen, genial, generoui and upright 


IN the history of the United States the ou^iosU of ovilization have been planted, begin- 
ning widi the Virginia and Masiachuietti ooloniet and following the star of empire until 

they reached the Pacific Ocean. E>uring all these days we had a frontier, a border' 
land between civilizalion and die wilderness. The period of this frontieT i* rapidly pa*sing, 
and when it u entirdy gone the type of men it produced will be only a memory of the Na- 
tiim. It cannot be kmgcr said that there is a frontier in the West Railroads and telfr- 
graph and telephone hnet cro** the plaint, wind dirougji canyons and stretch over moun- 
tains, and civifization is busy building cities where fifty years ago the butfab roamed in 
countless niunben. building cities where once was the heart of an ancient forest, building 
cilie* n^iere the scorching sands of the arid desert have been fructified by irrigation and 
converted into orchards and gardens. Up here in Northwestern Alaska is the extreme out' 
pott of dvilizalion in the United State*. Civilization has marched westward to the Pacific 
and at a single bound has gone nordiward beyond the Arctic Circle. We are on ttie 
frontier, but it it not like the frontier a quarter of a century ago. We have brou^t with, 
us the accessoriet of civilizalion. The frontienmen were here before the discovery of gold. 
before we had steamship lines and telegraph and telephone lines and railroadt, and bumecl 
hard coal in base bumen and illuminated the darkness of the king winter nights with elec- 
trie light*. 

Ed. R. Dunn it a type of the luccestful man who has spent thirty yean in the van- 
guard of the army of civilization. He has proqiected and mined from Central America to 
the country north of the Yukon. He has crossed the desert, and has seen the time ytiiea a 
canteen of water would outvalue a mountain of gold. He has suffered from privations and 
hunger in the remote fastnesses of the wildemesi, and has traveled in the Northland where 
the dangers of the bHzzard and intense cold are alwa}v imminent. He prefen the cold 
of the Arctic to die heat of the desert. 

Mr. Dunn was bom in the city of New Yodc October 3, 1 658. Hit parents emi' 
grated from Ireland to this country. Mr. Dunn's boyhood days were spent in New York, 
but at the age of sixteen he left home and went to Texas, where he rode the range as a cow- 
boy. He mined in Colorado and New Mexico, and when twenty-one was a subcontrac- 
tor on die Atlantic & Pacific Railroad in New Mexico and Arizona. But with the excefv 
lion of a short period of his life spent b the construction woHc of railroadt, he hat been a 
protpeclor and miner (or a quarter of a century. Mexico. Arizmia. New Mexico. Colo- 

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rado, Cabfomia, Montana, Idaho and Ala*ka are counbrifs in which he hat pfoapec ted 
and mined, la i879-'80 he operated extensiveljr in LcadviUc, and made a big poke. 
but diere have been lots of time*, to u*e hii own eq>rc>Mve words, when he "had no more 
monqr than a jackrabbit" He and hit l»other lode acroit the detert from Bmcbbavr 
Mountains to San Diego, CaL. a distance of about 600 mik*. The greatest dbstance 
between watering place* on this tiip was seventy miles. In 'S3 Mi. Dunn ■■ia<le aia- 
other long horeeback trip, riding from Prescotl, Arizona, to Portland, Oregon. He has hmd 
three narrow escape* from death on the desert, and on one occasion when thint had 
driven him and his companion ahnost crazy, they found water by following coyote tracJa 
into a little hollow in the scoiching hilts. 

In the spring of 1 698 Mr. Dunn went to Dawson over the Chilkoot Pass, and mioed 
Ml Gold Hili. The following year he came down the river to Nome, arriving June 28, 
1699. The next day after hb arrival he leased No. 5 Anvil creek, and on Juiw 30 
started the Brst pack train across the tundra with n^q)Iies and shiicc-boxes to begin ^rork 
on the Anvil property. He paid twenty-five cents a pound br transportation of this outfit to 
its destination, a distance of four miles. His was the fifth set of sluice-boxes set tq> in the 
Nome District, the odier boxes being on 6. 7, and 6 Anvil and No. 2 Snow Gulch. He 
operated on Anvil Creek during the season of '99. In August of this year he left the woric 
in charge of a f<M«nian and went to Seattle, where be purchased thirty-five bead of cattle. 
106 she^. a qun of horses, hrniber for a house and a quantity of general supplies. This 
cargo was shipped on the Laurada, and the vessel was wrecked on St. George Island Se|it. 
20. while enroute to Nome, and while smne of the cargo was removed to the island, sfa4>- 
pen sustained nearly a total kMt. A small number of Mr. Durm'i stock are reported to be 
aKve and running wild on die island at diis date. 

He did not conqilete the journey to Nome, but returned to Seattle on the Towns- 
end. The following season. 1900. he came to Nome, bringing ten head of bones, four 
wagons and a conqilete equipment for mining. In 1699 and 1900 he acquired consider' 
able prc^>erty b the Council and Nome Mining Districts, and since Aen has devoted most 
of his time to (q>erations on Ophir Creek. He has a six-mile ditch conveying water to his 
bench property on Ophir Creek, and operates by meatu of hydraulic and ground-shiiciiig 
methods, and has enou^ ground in this district for many years of work. His son, EA. R. 
Dunn, jr., owns a quarter mterest in the famous Snowflake Mine on the hill between Dex- 
ter and Anvil Creeks. The young man shows a natural t^ititude for muting, and m 1902. 
in the early spring before the arrival of his father, cleaned out the ditches and made all tbe 
preliminary arrangements for Juicing the Snowflake dump. The snow was melting, and 
the prcdous wata was nmning to waste, so he took the initiative, and did the work at 
well as an experienced miner. He vras only sixteen years old at this time, but he has al- 
ready shown an ability to handle men. originality in methods of work and an indqiendaice 
oi character v^ch are usually associated with persons of mature years. The young man 
i* now attending a preparatory school in Oakland, California, and will take die comae of 
mining engineering in the State University at Berkeley. He wiD begin his technical worlc 
mth a pretty good practical knowledge of mining. 

h the winter of I903-'04 Mr. Dunn came to Nome from Seattle via Dawson 
over the ice. He accomplished the trip in fifty-ei^ days. In die latter part of 1 903 he and 
others bou^t a quartz mine in Chihuahua, Mexico. The mine is a valuable pn4>erty 
and has proved to be a good investment. Ed. Dunn is a miner, a man of broad ideas 
and generous impulses, ^th the directness of manner and q>eech characteristic of the West, 
he has the poli^ of the gentleman. His is the kind of character that in success or ad- 

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MRS. E. R. nUNN. 

Dig'iizcd by 





venity renuuni unchanged, and impcU him to make the mod of life no matter what the 
environment it. What he hat accompUthed is due to wodc, to the execution of plana that 
required untiring induitry. If thit brief iketch hai indicated a (wedominant trait of char- 
acter, it it the ditpotition and ability to woHc 

September 23, 1685. Ed. R. Dunn and Miu Abbie Sullivan were married in 
Butte, Montana. The iuue of this marriage has been three children, only one of whom, 
the eldest son, bom in April. 1887, turvives. Mrs. Dunn hat shared the hardships and pri- 
vatioDi of her husband's work. She hat accompanied him on prospecting trips, ha* been 
his helpmate in adversity, and a faithful companioa through all the years of dteir married 


has traveled nearly the en- 
tire length of the Yukon on 
a bicycle. This trip over uncertain 
trails and sometiinei over country 
where there were no trails, acrou 
2.000 miles of the snow-covered 
earth, it a noteworthy journey. 
If he had done no more than 
this in Alaska, thit experience in the 
Northland would make an interest- 
ing stoiy. But he is prominently ai- 
tocialed with the devek>pment (rf 
the mineral resources of Seward Pe- 
ninsula, being the manager of the 
biggest ditch enterprise in the Port 
Clarence country. 

He was bom in Columbus, 
Ohio. March 25. 1877. and edu- 
cated in the Columbut and Youngs- 
town high schoc^. The family 
moved to New York in 1693 and 
Max obtained a little print shop and 
learned "the art preservative of all 

arts." He had an ambition to be max. r. hirbchberq. 

an electrician and obtained empk>y- 

menl in the Incandescent Electric Li^t Company of New York where he gained a 
practical knowledge of the electrical business. Attracted by the Klondike strike he 
started for Dawson m 1897. When he arrived at Juneau the season was growing 
lale and the Dyea Past was blockaded. He and hit party concluded that there was 
danger of the river freezing before diey reached their destination and determined to 
remain in Juneau until the folbwing q>ring. 

In the qiring of 1696 they started across the pats a short time before the dis- 
astrous snow-slide at %eep Camp. They escaped the slide but their entire outfit 
of 5,500 pounds was covered by the avalanche. Hit first mining experience was 

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digginK for hit outfit, only fifty pound* of whkfa wat recovered. They packed dw 
remnant of the outfit to the nimmit where it vm tt^en. Ditguited and diacouraged, 
hit auociatet turned back, but undaunted by theie tnkfortunea he detenniaed to cos- 
ttnue the journey. After several adventure) he reached Davnon, but was unable lo 
find employment in the canq). With meager meani he darted a road-house;. He prOf 
pected on Dominion and Sulphur Creeks. He left Dawson for Nome March 9, travel- 
ing on a bicycle. In crossing the Xanana he fell on the ice and broke the pednl of bii 
wheel. He made a wooden pedal and continued the journey. TheK pedab were not 
durable and he found it necessary to make a new me every fifty miles. 

When he arrived at Siaktohk the ice in the river was breaking. In attemptiDg 
to cross the ^laktolik River he got in the water and came near drowning. He lost 
hk watch, and his poke containing $1,500 in dust, but saved hit bicycle. He was 
ra the wmter for two hours. Wet and nearly ochausted he resumed his tiip. At tUs 
•eascm of the year the snow and sunshine make the light very intense, and before Mr. 
Hirschberg had gone far he became snow blind. During two days, suCenng great 
agony and almost deprived of si^t, he wandered over the country. He fortunately 
stumbled onto a tent and found assistance. He wat taken to an Elskimo village and 
subsequently to a roadJtouse -whtn he remained two wedcs recuperating. "When be 
was wrdl and strong be resumed the journey and v^eeled into Solomon. At thii 
caB4> he had the misfortune to break the chain of his Incycle, so he ligged up a sail 
and attached it to the wheel and tailed over the ice to Cape Nmne. In the fbUowing 
winter Mr. Hirschberg rode on a i^eel horn Dawson lo White Horse, so he hat 
travded the Yukon from White Hone to Unalakleet on a >^eeL 

He arrived in Nome May 2, 1900 and found cmpbyment at a cook on an 
Anvil Creek claim. During ttie teaton he foimd some float quartz which he Inced 
to the head of Nome River and k>cated the ledge. That fall he went back to the 
ttatet and organized the Arctic Mining and Trading Company in Youngttown, Ohio. 
Returning to the Nome country in 1901 he started a itore in Teller and made tome 
monqr for hit company out of the merchandise business, and began to acquire likely 
kx^ing mining property. During diis season C. D. Lane came to the Port Clarence 
country and oCeted to buy Sunset Creek, a gold bearing stream on the opposite sidt 
of the bay from Tdler. Mr. Lane did not consummate the negotiations, but this 
incident gave Mr. Hinchberg a vahiable pointer. He began quietly to buy and hood 
mining daimt on thit credc, and by the Ml of 1903 had the entire creek. compniiDg 
104 claimi, under bond. He also acquired a large ntunber of tin claims at Cape 
Prince of Walet and in die vicinity of Ear Mountain. He returned to the states thti 
season, and made arrangements to take up the bonds on the Sunset ptapaty and under- 
take the work of devel^ment. The company's capitalization was increased frwn 
$100,000 to $1,000,000, and in the qiring of 1904 he returned to Seward Peniniult 
with a complete outfit to butid a ditch from Agiapuk River, which will furnish ihe 
water for mining the Sunset proper^. The tteamthip Charles Nelson wat charterod 
in San Francisco to transport die outfit and supplies to Teller. Eighteen miles of 
ditch wat completed during the teason of 1904, and two hydraulic elevators bdJ 
several ^ants will be^ the work of waging the gravels of Sunset Creek this spiing, 1 905- 

While he was in the sUtes in the winter of I903-'04, he took a course in tin ami' 
ing in Columbia College, and lubsequently visited the tin mines of Cornwall Mr. 
Hinchberg has great faith in the future of the tin properties of Northwestern Alatb. 

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He belicvet that widi adequate c^tital to develop these tin mines within five yean thii 
region wiH nqiply all the tin that can be uied in the United State*. 

Mr. Hirschberg ackqited the light methods and foUowed the proper coune to 
win success. He began in a modest way, and from the beginning earned a little money 
for his stockholders, thereby secuiing the confidence of the pet^le who were associated 
wkh him. This confidence is illustrated by the company's investment of a large sum 
of money to develop the property, which should be among the best dividend properties 
of this country. 


HENRY OELBAUM was bom near Hamburg, 
Gennany, in 1660. At the age of fourteen 
he went to America and soon found tui way 
to Chicago, where he conducted a decorating enter- 
[ffise for twelve years. During that short period Mr. 
Oelbaum met with more than ordinary success as an 
expert decorator. He undoubtedly would have re- 
nuuned b that city if the Klondike excitement of 1897 
bad not aroused in him a desire to cast his lot with 
the gold hunters. 

On the first day of December, 1897, he left Chi- 
cago for the fClondike, intending to make the journey 
overland, but finding it almost impossible under exist- 
ing circunutancei he and his party of eight took pas- 
sage m a small sailing vessel. The little boat was 
loaded with provisions, outfits. 200 dogs, twelve horses 
and 120 pasiengen. The weather was bad and she 

was sixteen days out from Vancouver to Skagway. henry oelbaum. 

landing January, 1 89S. Mr. Oelbaum met with the 

usual hardships encountered by early prospectors of that year who undertook the journey 
to Dawson over the Chilkoot. His party broke up before leaving Skagway, and he 
and his partner, P. Freitag, determined to make the journey alone. 

The first day out from Skagway Mr. Freitag broke his leg, and that necessitated 
Mr. OeB>aum returning to Skagway, where he left his friend to receive medical aid. 
Mr. Oebaum put to work and sledged the outfits over the pass to Bennett and then 
returned for his partner, who hy Au* time was able to make the journey. Mr. Oefcaum 
had buik a boat out of boards he had sawed, large owu^ to cany the outfits and party 
of three. 

At Stewart I^ei Mr. Oelbaum proq>ected for gold without success, and re- 
turned to Skagway oveijand. In the q>ring of 1899, he became influenced by Mis- 
sionary Huld>ag, vrho advised him to go to Nome. He arrived on the Roanoke, 
and pitched his tent on the tundra on the place where the dty hall now stands. 

Mr. Oelbaum did not work on the beach, but began looking over the country, 
and to him belongs the credit of gold discovery on Sok>mon River. He has opened 
up two vahiable claims on Solomon River, Nos. 9 and 14, and is also interested on 
Little Creek. Nome District Mr. Oelbaum it a sincere, earnest man, of uncompromis- 
ing honesty. 

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HENRY BRATNOBER U one of die tturdjr uid dntmgunhed chancten of die 
weiton mining world. He poMcMcs an evenly-baluiced tempeniDent. the fiiar 
cidity of which it not easily niMed. and hit judgment of binincu opp<»tuiiitia 
u iUuitrated by the tuccett he hat achieved. By hit force of chaimctei he baa overcome 
obttaclea. lubdued difficuhief and blazed a trail from die obacuri^ of poverty and an 
humble life to the eminence of affluence; and it engaged in gigantic undotalcmga in the 
&eld of induttiy and endeavor where vatt capital it required at the initiatory expenae 
of the undertaking. Mr. Brstnober it now devoting much of hit time, energy and 
capital to die development of the mineral retourcet of Atailca. He ii anociated with 
two l»g enterpiitet in Seward Peointula and hat inlerettt in other partt of this great 
northern territory. The Seward Pcniuula enterpriies with which he ii associated are 
the Topkuk Ditch and Seward EKtch. 

Mr. Brstnober wai bom in Cattrine, Pnutia, in 1849, and immigrated widi 
bis parentt to America in 1854. The family located in Galena. Illinoit, and m year 
later moved to Wisconsin. In 1864 Mr. Bratnober joined the army. He vras a 
private in the Thirty-«xth Witconnn, Second Coips of the Army of the Potomac In 
1666 he journeyed across the plaint to Montana, and began hit career at a miner. 
He ttruggled along a great many years before he did any good for himself. But he 
possessed pluck and pcruttence, the two mott essential qualities to success in any 6eld 
of work. During the yean when he failed to win die tmilet of the fickle goddess be 
wat acquiring valuable experience and a knowledge of practical mming work, which 
he has subsequently made useful and hat turned to the account of profit 

In 1894 be vitited AiutraKa. vrhere he remained a year and a half engaged m 
quartz mining. He began his life work as a miner in the placet camps of Montanat 
but has had a varied txpaitace, which indudet OTery kind of mining for the predoui 
metalt. In 1897 he went to the Klondike country, and has been identified with the 
northern gold fields ever since. The trv> in *97 was an historic journey in the annab 
of Alaska, as he accompanied Jack Dakon. the irum who blazed the trail fran Haines 
Mission to Dawton. The foUowing year Mr. Bratnober took another journey across 
country throu^ an untraveled and unknown region in Alaska. This trip was from 
Hainet Mistion to the head-waten of White River. In 1903 hit eqibrationi of 
Alaskan territory extended in another direction. In this year a journey was made from 
Valdez to Elagle City, on the YukoQ. In 1904 he went from Skagway to Tanana, 
and thence to St. Michael, and this season, 1905, he is taking the tame trip. A part 
of his travels in Alaska this year will contist of little joumeyt from the main trail to 
regions in Central Alaska, where pro^>ecting parties tent out by Mr. Bratnober are ex- 
pbring the country and hunting for the yelk>w metKl. Three of these prospecting parties 
are in the Tanana region, one at Delta, one at Good Pasture, and one in the vicinity 
of the head-waters of the Tanana. 

Mr. Bratnober has a great deal of faith in the mineral resources of Ahuka. He 
has travded over a very large area of thtt frozen country. He it familiar with Ae 
geological conditiont that are inseparably associated with gi^d. He knowt mineral 
ground when he tees tt. and he believet that the mineral resources of the Nordiland 
cmitain immense possSbilitia. He has nrt seen any part of Alaska that impretted 
him as an agricultural country, nor does he believe that the timber of Alaska wilt con- 
tribute in any great degree to the lumber industry of the world. The best evidence ti 

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tat fkidi in the minenl retovicta ot thi> counliy ii die time, energy and money he hu 
wed to c3q>lore and develop these Tetourcei. 

Mr. Bratnober w a man ^ action rathei than of wordt; he doei more thinking 
than talking. He hai the courage of hii convictioni, and the hcuhy of niccenfully 
executing the plan* that he fonnulatet. Most of his Kfe hat been q>ent oa die frontia. 
He ii a pionecf — one of die men who have blazed tnik and aMiated in die devel^ment 
of the wildenieM, to ai to make it not only inhabiuble but attractive. 

He has been anociated widi die world'i gieatcit and moit succeuful financien. 
and hii reputatioa for quick and decisive grajp ot cooditi«u, for uniwerving honaty and 
mtegrity hat made hit advice and opinion eagerly tought aher by all those with whom 
he has come in contact He i* loved by aD men ^^k> know hit worth, and is always ready 
to extend a helping hand to h» old-time friends. 

Mr. Bratnober was married in Greenville, Ilbnoii. in early Kfc, and with his wife 
resides in Piedmont, Califomia, where they have one of the rooel beautiful homes m 
that part of the country. 


THE man that does hit life work well it he who obeys die dictates of conscience and 
foUowi judgment widiout shirking, even though the trail lead mto unpleasant 
relations with qxnlsmen and die class of dlizens wbote motivet are lelEih and 
ambitioos morbid. Dr. Whitehead hat shown himself to be a useful citizen <rf this 
dais. He hat pertittently ttriven to lecure an abatetneot of the anomaloui conditions 
which were imfortunately a part of die early hiitory of Nome. He hat done hit work 
without ostentation or blare of trumpet, and he may have made sacrifices of pertooai 
bteretls for the public good; but he possesses the broad comprehension of princqiles that 
enables him to know diat all things (or die public good mutt be (or die benefit of die 
hoDetl^nmded individuals comprising the public 

Dr. Whitehead is a prominent banker, ditch owna and mining operator of 
Seward Penintula. He came to Nome first in the firing of 1900 at the rq>retcnlative 
of the Bureau <rf die Mint. At that time he was chief assayer o( the United Suies 
Mint, and hit primary object in visiting the northern mining can^ was to make a 
repmt upon its prospects and permanency. Incidental to the main object of diit trip 
he established the Alaska Banking and Safe Deposit Company, and assumed the duties 
of manager of this inttitutian. This corporation was composed of Wadlington capital- 
ists. The business estabbshed at Nome has developed mto one of the leading banking 
enterpritet of Alaska. E>r. Whitehead's report to die United States Government, made 
at the close of the season of 1900. taid that five yean would be required to develop the 
Nome country: and that the v/oA o( thit development would neceMitate the expenditure 
of a great deal of money in constructing ditches to at to make water available (or min- 
ing pinpotet. He said in thii report that the Nome country did not offer die advantage* 
to the laboring man that it offered to the capitahtt. The hiitory of the coimtiy ha* 
verified the accuracy of Dr. Whitehead'* forecast. Befieving that Northwestern Ala^ 
offered better opportunities than a Government job for accumulating a fortune. Dr. White- 
head resigned his office in the United Slates Mint to devote his entire time and energies 
to the work to be done m the develcqiment of Seward Penbsula. After his resignatioa 
a prominent cilizeB of Washington atked him what he conodercd the moit inleresting 
event connected with his experience at a Government employe. Having in mind Andrew 

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Jacluon't (amou* expreinoD in a letter to a friend who was teeking a federal ] 
"Few die and none reiign," the doctor laid that he believed hii mo<t interesting ex- 
perience WM hii reugnation. 

IHts tret conipicuoui identification with the devdopment of Noithwettem AUika 
was in connection with the Tt^kuk Ditch Company. Thit company owni an tSteo K n 
and ■ valuable ditch property in the Topkuk region of the penintula. Anocwted with 
Dr. Whitdiead in thit enterpriu are O. W. Aihby and IHcniy Bratnober. Dr. White- 
head it also largely inlereited in the Seward Ditch Company. Thii it one of ifae moK 
important ditch proiecti of the country. It hat been amply financed, and the dibh 
will be conttrucled during the teaion of 1905. Hit mining intensti are cofieUlive of 
thete ditch entopriKt. 

Dr. Whitehead it a native of I^nchburg, Virginia. He wat bom October 5, 
1863. He belong* to an old Colonial family, hit father't people having come bom 
l^f^nd in the early part of the tbtteenth century and hit molher't ancetton emigratkf 
from the tame country in I 728. He wat educated in the Virginia pubKc tdKtok, and 
at the age of teventeen went to Lehigh Univertily, South Betfaldkem, Pcnnqrlvama. He 
wat graduated from the mining and engineering department of thil inititiition b 1685 
with the degree of B. M. He tubiequently attended the Columbian Uuvertt^ at 
Waihington, D. C, receiving from thit school the degree of Ph. D. 

After he was graduated from the Lehi^ School he went to Boite City, Idaho, to aocqx 
the position of atiayer at the United Slates Atiay Ofice at that place. In 1888. when 
he wat only twenty-five yean old, he wat appointed to the responsible potitiiMi of chid 
attayer in the Bureau oi the Mint at Wathington, D. C. One of hit prominent 
iponton was John J. Noah, a man of influence, who urged Secretary Windom to ap- 
pobt his young friend to the position. Postetsing references and tettimonialt tuch u 
Dr. Whil^ead held, there could be no question of hit ability and fitness for the Iruit, 
but it was urged by the Secretary of the Treasury that he wat too young a man for 
to re^KinsiUe an office. In reply to this argument, the doctor's loyal friend, Mr. Noah. 
laid "Give him time, Mr. Secretary, and he will overcome that objection." He held 
this office until 1901, resigning to take up the wwk he is d«ng in Northwestern Alatka. 

In 1895 Dr. Whitehead was tent to Europe to make a report on die subject of 
European mints, and to secure data to be uted in building a new Government mint in 
Philade^hia. He vttited the mintt of England, France and Germany. At a result of 
thit trip, the new Philadel|Jiia Mint embraces the best practice at obtcrved during Dr. 
Whitehead'i inflection of the mintt of foreign countries. In this connectiMi, and at > 
newt item not generally known, it may be interetting to know that it costs more to 
market gold in Europe than in Nome. 

Among Dr. Whitehead's duties as chief attayer was the nq>ervinng, assaying aoA 
letting of all coint ittued by the mintt of dte United States GovemroenL Tiie fint 
coins made were used for this purpose. The requirementi of this woHc not only ne- 
cessitated a comprehensive knowledge of metallurgy, but proficioKy b chemistry. In 
both of thete branchet Dr. Whitehead has a thorough technical knowledge aitd a wide 
practical experience. The wisdom that he gained in order to become matter of hit 
profession has been valuable to him in his experience at a practical miner. He it > 
member of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, of the Amoican ChemicaJ 
Society and the Society of Chemical Industry of England. During hit career at die mint 
he made a specialty of electro-metallurgy, and hat contributed 13>eraly to the Klerature 
of chemistry and metallurgy. While Dr. Whitdiead was chief attayer of iIm mint he 

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(nuned a number of young men (or ponbont m mint uid axay office* of the United 
State*, and many of tbeae young men are now Itolduig rapouible Govenmcnl poittkni. 
He vitited Seattle in 1898 and ettabliifaed the Seattle Auay Office. 

Dr. Whitehead wai married October 1. 1689. Mis. Whitehead wai formerly 
Mid Boia Ayrci, daughter of ColoDel E. W. Ayret, a welL-lmown newq>aper cor- 
re4>oadent of Washington. Dr. Whitdiead it a student and a thinko; a man <rf 
accurate olMervation, broad compreheuitni and generous in4>ukes. He has a theo- 
retical and practical knowledge of minerali and mining that few men have acquired. 
As manager of the Alaska Banking and Safe Deposit Company in Nome he has aided 
many miners in the work of developing their propotiet. Recognizing ethics as a most 
valuaUe religion, be has the honesty of purpose, die courage of cooviction and die 
strong individuality that are character qualities of eveiy successful and useful man. 


TWENTY-TWO yean ago two boys left a hog ranch in Miisouri, ythen they faad 
been bom and reared, and started to Alaska in search <rf a fortune. These two 
boys were O. W. and Thomas H. Ashl^. They reached Juneau May 1 1 , 
1884, and were consequently among die eariy pioneers of Ala^. O. W. Asbby has 
been identified with Alaska, and also with various enteipriset in the dirtrict, for a period 
of twenty-one years. In 1886 he and hit brother went into the Yukon River country 
and mined the bars of Stewart River. They poled 240 miles iq> the Stewart River 
in the fall and Boated back to the Yukon and pded out to Juneau, landing there in 
October of the same year. In the Ml of 1867 Thomas A^iby went into the Fw^- 
Mile country, O. W. Aihby remaining in Juneau. 

These early trips m this northern wildemcw were prospecting expeditions. Mr. 
Ashby and hit party mined on many bars of the Yukon and its tributariet, and made 
as hi^ at twenty-four diJIais a day to die man in the richest diggings which they (truck. 
The country at this time was new and absolutely unknown except to the natives and die 
few adventurous proipecton who were the pioneera of the northern gold fields. At 
Stewart River (Alaska as it was then known) b 1886 mail wai recdved but once a 
year. There are but few people now living who have seen as much of Alaska aa Mr. 
Ashby. He was a young man when he first came into the country, and many <^ Aik 
older Yukon pioneen who were htt astodatet have "mwhed" over the great divide and 
into that country whence no man returns. He was at die TreadweU Mine at the beginning 
of operationt on that wonderful ledge, when only five ttampt were used in cruthing the 
ore. Now there are 840 ttampt making die largetl and beit equipped plant in the 
United States. 

Twelve years after Mr. Aifaby first went to Alaska he visited Circle City. He 
was one of the earliest ttampeders to Dawson, arriving in that camp in 1897. During 
the summer of 1897-'9S he mined on 31 Eldorado, 2 bekiw Bonanza, and odier creeks. 
In his mining operationt in the Klondike region he was associated with hit old friend 
and partner, Billy Leake. In the fall of 1898 he went "outside" and purchased a fine 
residence at Tacoma, Wash., where his family now resides. 

The Nome strike and the excellent prospects of the country, which were developed 
in 1699, induced Mr. Athby to go to Nome in 1900. He ihipped in 1,000,000 feet 
of lumber on the Sko<Jnun, a nondescr^t vessel which was neither th^ nor barge. 
It bad a great carrying capacity and was kiaded with a miscellaneous cargo of himber 

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and Kve ttocL It wu lowed to Nome and utchored b the roadxead. Ahcr itt cai9> 
had been dncharged the big ftonn in September waihed the ciaft aibore and made a 
complete wreck o( it. 

Mr. Athby diq>owd of hi* lumber. In the meantime be acquired mining inteteits 
on the peninniU. and later be BMOciated bimaelf with Henry Dratttober and Dr. While- 
head. becoauBg vice-precident and general manager of the Topkuk Ditch Companf, 
v^iich ii one of the largest ditch concenu in Northwestern AU^. This ditch wu 
cmnplcted in the fall of 1903. It was operated in the season of 1904, and die retunn 
from the rich gravels of Daniels' Creek were fully i^ to the eiqiectaiions of Mr. Ashby and 
his aModates, who had expaided a small fortune in bringing water from the tCdtcbe- 
bk>k I^er, tweoty-lwo miles distant, for die purpose of mining this rich gravel depotiL 

Mr. Ashby is a native of Missouri and was bom in 1662. While he has been 
a pimecr ever since he reached man's estate, he is not the type of pioneer in appearance 
which we read about in story books. He is essentially a self-made man and still in the 
prime of life, possessing both mental and physical vigor. In character he possesses numy 
attrUwtes that we may associate with the pioneer, such as ^rmness, honesty, directnea of 
method and a detestation of anything that is unjust and not amenable to the laws of 


EUGENE E. AILES is the as- 
sayer (or die Alaska Banking 
and Safe Deposit Company 
of Nome. He liat held this position 
nnce the establislunent of the bank 
in 1900. Mr. Ailes is a native of 
Sidney, Ohio, and was bora May 
8, 1877. His father was a Virgin- 
ian whose ancestry reaches back to 
William Peon. The name is French- 
Hugenot, and the family from which 
the subject of this sketch it descend- 
ed has resided in what is now United 
Slates territory since the early part 
of 1700. 

After graduating from the hi{^ 
school in his native town Eugene E. 
Ailes attended the Columbian Uni* 
versity, Washington, D. C, taking 
a scientific course. In the qmng 
of 1899 he was employed in the 
Treasury Department of the United 
States under the supervision of the 
Director of the Mint and as an as- 

sayer m the assay office. In the euoenb E. ailes. 

summer of 1699 he was sent to the 
Seattle Mint as assayer, and came to 
Nome m the spring of 1900 as assayer for the Alaska Banking and Safe Dqwi' 

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Company, « posibon which b« hu held ever ibce. Mr. Ailet ii a itodcholder and 
a c^irector in the bank corporation, and ii alto a director in the Seward Ditch Company. 

Mr. Ailet' father wat a lergeant in the 1 18th Ohio Regiment during the Civil 
"War. Hit brother, Mikon E. Ailei, was aiaiitant aecretaiy of the United States 
Treasury for a period of three years, and it now vice-president of the Riggt National 
Bank of Wathington. D. C. 

Eugene E. Ailei is a young man of native ability and integrity. Poitetting a 
thorough education in the line of work he it punuing, and having a natural aptitude 
for chemistry and metallurgy, his proficiency in his profettion is attested by the re- 
9|>ODuble Government positions he has filled and the position which he now occupies. 


NE of the best known and moil 

higjily esteemed young men 

of Noine it the subject of 
tfaii dcetch, who holds the position of 
cashier in the Alaska Banking and 
Safe Dqiosit Cmnpany. He vnu 
bom April 20. 1874, at Mount 
Sterling, Iowa, a little town lituated 
one mile from the northern line of 
Mitsouri and locally blown as "Dog 
Town." Hit early education was 
obtained in the common schools of 
fait native town. At a later period 
he attended the Columbian Uni- 
venity at Washington, D. C. His 
hther was a lumber merchant who 
went to South DakoU b 1886, 
thence to Florida and back to Iowa, 
finally locating permanoitly in Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Mr. Thatcher's first employ- 
mcDl was b the Pott Office Depart- 
ment of the United States Govern' 
ment From 1894 to 1697 he wat 
b~ the Railway Postal Service and 
was then trantferred to the Post Of- 
fice Department at Wathbgton, D. 
C. terving three yean. He wat 
then transferred to the War Depart- * 

J . . Al L u F. H. THATrHFR. 

ment and tent to Alaika. He came 

to Nome b 1900, on the statf of 

General Randall, and being favorably impressed with the prospects of the camp, 

resigned hit position with the Government and accepted a poiition at manager for 

Cloffim Brothen. a Nome mercantile firm. The year foitowbg, in June 1901, he 

wat offered a position by the Alaska Bonkmg and Safe Deposit Company which he 

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a m ptod and a few moatht later wai made aMtttant caatuer. Diuing the wwntirr 
of 1 904 he nicceeded to the pontion of caihier ol the UnL He » abo a riockholda- 
and director in the bank, and it the ovmer of Mme prominng mining i^opcny. 

Mr. Thatcher it the Km of a veteran of the Civil War. wrho wat a captain in the 
F(Kfy-£fth Iowa, a native of Virginia who went to Iowa in 1839, and a member of >■ 
M American famibr. 


TT. LANE ii dte elder Mm of Oiarlet D. Lane. He wai bon in Stanviaus Comt^. 
• Catifoniia, May 3, 1869, and educated at Santa Clara College, a promincat edo- 
catiooal inttitutioD of the itate. He hai bem connected with the work of wiwi-f 
iince hit earlieri rec^lection. When he wat tix or tevco yean old hit father wai placer 
mining in Idaho, and with plate and quickiilver the bt^ <&1 tome mining for himtelf, learn- 
ing to dean the platei and retort the goU. He (&d not make a foitiiDe, but the vrork was 
profitable early esperience, and dte retunn from it made enough for "^lending moo^." 
When he wai attending ■cbool hit vacatiom were qieni on a hydraulic mine operated hf 
hit father in Del Norte County, Califnnia. He learned Ae buiincM of minmg jutt at a 
hnner't boy learnt farming, and hat been operating both placer and quartz mine* for hjok- 
lelf ever nnce he wai twenty yean old. Hit eai4y operationt were in Cafifomia and Mczioo, 
but he hat been identified widi the Nome country nnce the t't"™'g ^ active wock in 
diit region. 

Id 1898 he wat inttrumental in outfitting C W. Price to go to Kotzebue Souod. 
Mr Price wat returning from thii trip with "naiy a color in hit poke" when be arrived at 
Gobvin Bay and heard cJ the strike on Anvil, and wat a member of the party tbat organ- 
ized the Nome Diitrict. In fact he wat the only member of the party wlu wat familiar with 
mining and mining lawt. Mr. Lane «£d not go to Nome the fallowing year, 1 699. on 
account of hit blerettt in Mexico, but he wat there in 1900, the year of the receiveit. 
and had charge of the vatt interestt of the Wild Goote Company during bit father's en- 
forced abtence in CaHfomia. It wat during thii period tbat he boui^t the Mattie. Lena. 
Edna and Roiahnd for the ^Hd Goote Company. The price paid teemed to be targe, 
but it let the teal of value on these bench piopertiet, and tubMquent development! have 
more than justified the inveitanenL 

The leaion wat near the dote when Mr, Lane found hit firtt opportunity to under- 
take tome explorations in a comparativdy unknown and unpnupected region of tbe penio' 
tuU. He had brought to Alatka a complete telephone equipment, and thii had been 
duly installed in Nome. In die latter part of September be went into the Blueitone country, 
but aa account of the itomu and heavy raint he wat not permitted to do any proipectmg. 
He extended hii trip to the Kougarok, and has been acquiring )»operty in thit dittrict 
every leaion lince then. Hii faith in the mineral wealth of thii district has never abated. 
He bought benches at a time ^en many people were abandoning creek claims and decry- 
ing this part of die country, and it now among the largest property holden in the districL 
He built the fint ditch in this part of the country. Work on this ditch was begun in the 
latter part of 1903 and con4>leted last falL It it ten milet and three quarten long, and 
brings water from Cotfee Creek to No. 8 Dahl, covering not less dian eis^t milei of 
auriferous gravel benches on Coffee, Dahl and Quartz Creeb. This ditch wat con- 
structed for fourteen centt the foot, costing lest than any other ditch of rimilar capacity and 
length in Northwestern Alaska. He it conttnicting another ditch from Henry CnA to 

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TOM T. l.AXE. 

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Homeitakc, a duUnce of thirteen milet; and cnMnm the Kouguok « ditch will be 
conitructed ten milet to Arctic cieek. Hiii ditch will be tweWe feet broad on Ifae bot- 
tom, and will cany 3,000 inches o( water, 600 iochet being available in the diyett part 
of a diy teaton. The ground that theie ditchei will cover will not be worked out in a 
generation. Up to thit date most of the work on the ICougarok hai been of a prebniaaijr 
character, but the waton of 1 905 ihould witncM the beginning of work that will produce 
fraction, a 
these prof: 

T. ' 
acquired i 
on the vet 
added to i 
Mr. La« 
River regi 

San Franc 
Sont. P( 
century in 
•pint for I 
character : 
"With the 
within the 


lee the tn 
every plac 
nor moiiti 
ditioni an 
rolling ilo 
where mo 
it for two 
intwert aii 
die CrippI 
quantity o 
made hit 

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and benchc*. uid c<Hitinued to acquire property. Claim owners would leaae mining grouiid 
in ttiit netghbwhood, and the laymen in moct ca*e* would work long enough to diacovs 
that the ground vnt not rich cnou^ to warrant ihoveling in iluice-boxe* and paying a 
royalty to ownen. But ditchei and hydraulic methods should accomplish something in 
a country where mui can shovel mto a iluice-box and make wages. This wai tbe 
opportunity that Mr. &nith recognized when it called t^Mi him. It b said d»t op- 
portunity hat a long fordock but is bald behind. When it has passed by, one Endi 
dificulty in getting h<Jd of it But Mr. Smith did not Id it pan. He got hokl of thai 
long fbrelocL He slaked and acquired water rights, and in June, 1904, begu the 
construction of ditches w^iich will supply water for hydraulic mining in the region of 
the iqjper waters of Cr9>ple Riv«r. and by citcnMon can be made to siv>piy watn :o 
neariy aP the vast area of mineral ground in the water-shed of Cr^le River. Tbe worl 
that can be done by this undertaking will not be accoi^Kshed in a life time. AMnu^!) 
having a modest beginning it is a big enterprise, filled with nagnificesl poenbtliliet. 

F. S. Smith ii a native of Utah, and of Elngbsh and Scotch Uood, by virtue of hii 
father's and mother's liiM«ge, reflectively. He wa* b<»n in Tooeiey City, April 24. 
1870. He it next to the eldest son in a family of four boys aitd (»e giH. Hit ftlbu 
owned and operated a farm and a saw mill in Utah. In 1880 die family moved to 
Idaho, and resided in Albion. Chalbt, Wood River and Boise Gty. the latter place bom 
dicir present hmne. Mr. Smith's fadier followed stock miting and ranching b Idibo. 
and the subject of this sketch received the benefit <A a public school education in tbe 
■cboob of Idaho. In 1898 he went to Dawion via the Chilkoo( Pass. Hit bnther. 
Ed. S. Smith, and P. W. ICoelich accompanied him. They arrived in Dawion June 22. 
having made a successful trip without serious mishap or accident While they escaped 
the perils of this arduous journey, they packed 3,000 pounds over the pass, and beuiM 
inlintately acquainted with the strenuous life to which prospectors bound for the Kioa^ 
were introduced in the early days of the Yukon mining camp. 

Soon after arriving in Dawson he and his brother and Mr. Koekch located a bcDCB 
claim on Hunker Crcdc, No. 8. ri^t limit. The pay-streak was found at a depth of 
twenty feet, and omsitted of from two to five feet of gravel overlaying bedrock. TIw 
first winter the ground was worked by drawing with wood fires. The second winter i 
steam thawer operated by a ten-horse power boiler was used. The grouitd w»i ncD, 
yielding as much as $43 to the pan. The last dean-up in the spring of 1900, of OK 
winter dump, yielded an average of eighteen and a third cents the pan. TkT 
■old the claim in the qiring of 1900, and hb brother and Mr. Koelsch letumed 
to Idaho. Mr. Smith came to Nome, arriving July 4. He and O. E. PenneB bou^ 
500 feet of ground on Hunfrry Creek, and began work on it August 20, Mid did not 
close down until October 10. They were satisfied with the icaton't work. Mr- 
Smith went home b the fall of 1900, and returned the following firing ^en he bougtt 
his partner out. and hat contbued hit operationi in this ndghborhood ever linc^ •* 
has mined on Trilby Creek. Oregon Creek and Nugget Gukh. He eitabliitied ifK 
Oregon Creek Road-house, and is engaged b the transportation busmess. owning le*n» 
that make round-trips every two days between Nome and Oregon Creek. 

Mr. Smith owns Trilby Creek, a tributary of Hungry. His property on "^ 
stream consists of Nos. 1 . 2 and 3 creek claims, and the Sullivan. Saturday. McCudm°- 
Smith and Accidental bench claims. On Hungry Creek he owtu No. 2 and >"^ 
feet of the Le Clair hvcti<m. Among other pK»ninng claims that he owns are "^^ 
above Ae mouth of Oregon, and the Eureka bench opposite 6 bekw. He bai k""™ 

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PhotoBraph by B. B. Dobbs. 




tone torm leue* on No. 1 Nugget Gulch, No. 6 below Oregon, 1 X L bench and the 
Portland and Laramie benchei. In 1903 he rtaked water righti on Oregon, Aurora. 
Sbte and the upper Oregon, 1,000 inchet on each stream. June 20, 1904, he began 
the construction of a (even-mile ditch, beginning at the head of Aurora Creek and 
tapping the waten of Oregon Creek. This ditch, which is four feel wide on the 
bottom, lix feet on b^ and a foot deep, will carry 600 inches of water. By Sq>tember 
I three tnilei of diii ditch had been completed, delivering water on the Portland and 
Laramie benchei, and the giants were at work on these benches, washing out the vast 
deposit of auriferous gravel which they contain. This ditch when extended will cover 
Nugget Gulch. Trilby and Hungry Creeks. Another ditch will be constructed in 
1905, which will bring water from the headwaters of Cripple and Stewart Rivera. When 
it is finished this ditch will be fifteen miles kwg. When these ditches are 
complete they will cover 1,000 acres of mineral land on the upper Cripple f^er, 200 
acres on Trilby Creek, 200 acres on Oregtm Creek, 320 acres on ClevelaiKl Creek, 
800 acres on Arctic CrtA and several thousand acres on the lower part of Cripple f^er. 
All of this country is b>w grade ground, and some of it is rich enough to yield a profit 
when worked by the ordinary method of shoveling in sluice-boxes. 

Mr. Smith is yet a young man, but he has matured plans, which will be the meaiu 
of extracting a great deal of gold from this part <rf Seward Peninsula, and these plans 
will be consummated before the close of another year. He has mapped out the work 
of a life time. Modest, unassuming, but energetic and persistent, he has gone about his 
woHc quietly, and the water was running through his ditch before many people in Nome 
knew anytiung of his enterprise, It is work of this character that will develop the 
country, and hasten the time when the annual product of gold in Seward Peninsula 
will be double, treble, possibly quadruple the largest output of any season heretofore. 


AMONG the first men to arrive in Nome in the 
spring of 1899 was I. B. Sverdrup, of Valdez, 
formerly of San Francisco. The people viho 
came down the Yukon over the ice were the first 
arrivals in that memorable year, but when Mr. Sver- 
drup landed from the steamer there were not more 
than ten tents m the camp. Since this early date 
be has been identified with the Nome country, but has 
spent most of the winters in San Francisco. He it 
extensively interested in mining in the vicinity of Nome, 
owning among other valuable properties. No. 6 E)ex- 
ter Creek. v4iich he has successfully c^>eraled. He was 
in Nome during the winter of 1902-1903, and look 
active part in the promotion of out-door sports, being 
one of the organizers of the sld dub. He was prom- 
ineftt in the construction and management of the skat- 
ing link. In these enterprises he was prompted by the 
desire to see the sequestered sojoumen of this new 
Northland provided with wholesome, healthful amuse- 
ment. Having lived during the days of his boyhood i. b. sverdhup. 

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and tuif muhood b Nortben Europe he wm funiliu with the winter oul-<loor 
iportt in high Utitiides, and beheved that dtdr introduction in NonK would be bcne&ical 
to die "cabin'd. cribbed and confined" minen who were patiently waiting for the long 
winter to pan. Thii wa> the inceptioo ot the moat popular winter iport of None. Men, 
women and chldito have learned the art <^ ilciing, and inchide it in exerciM for paitinie, 
or utilize thdr knowledge of the uie <rf the ski in tiavding over the connliy. 

Mr. Sverdnq) wai bom in the noidieni part oi Norway December 24, 1864, and 
educated at Tnmdhia. Hii father wai a mochont, and die family, which emigrated 
boai Schlenvig to Norway in 1620, it prominent in the pobtkaL educalioiial and ici- 
eoliBc afain of Ntmvegijui hiib»y. Prof. George Sverdrup helped to frame tiie Comti- 
tution oi 1S14. and Captain Otto Sverdrup, a counn (rf the (ubject of tlm iketch. wat 
coraroaDder of the Fiam in Nanacn'i fbnt polar expeditioo. He accompanied Nanxo 
twice in Arctic voyages, and in 1900 wat at the head of an expedition vrhicfa entered 
the Arctic region through Balftn't Bay, and u accredited with having accomplid>ed the 
mod valuable icientific work of any of the exploren in the Frozen Sea. 

Mr. Sverdnqi came to America in 1686, and k>cated in San Frandico. where he 
cwiducted a grocery bunncM for ten ycar>. In 1 696 he went to Valdez, Ahcka. thence 
to Nome in 1899. He ii ■ courteout gentleman, unvarying urbanity being a conq>ic- 
nout trait of hit character, and it the powew o r of thote qualitiei of mind and heart which 
create the etteero and friendihip of thote who know him. 


J P. PEARSON hat shown hit faidi in the future 
* of quartz mining m Seward Penintula by hi* 
invetlmentt in quartz property near Nome and 
m die SokMDon River region during the patt two yean. 
He came to NoTne in 1 903. and has been active in (he 
induttrial lield lince hit arrival. Beiidet being a large 
itockholder and director in two quartz mining com- 
panies, he ownt itxne placer ground, it aiMciated with 
a ditch enterprise, and hat a road-houie and mercan' 
tDe butinett on S<^mon River. 

Mr. Pearton it a native of Sweden, and wat bom 
September 1, 1636. He it the ion of a farmer, and 
wat educated in the tchoob of Tirup and Alfredttorp, 
receiving a special course in agriculture, v^ch quali- 
fied him for the work in which he wat tubtequently en- 
gaged in hit native land. After leaving school he was 
cnq>loyed as the superintendent of a three^houtand- 
acre farm, one of the largest in Sweden, at Sunnerborg, 
State of Smoland. He also had charge of a flour 
mill on the estate. He filled this position during a period of five years, when he decided 
to go to America. In 1662 he arrived in the State of Minnesota, and engaged in the 
creamery butinets. Until 1890 he was extensively interested in this industry, and in 
addition thereto owned a large milk business in St. Paul, being one oi the organJzen, 
and vice-president and superintendent of the Minne»ta Milk Company. 

In 1890 he sold out and went to the State of Washington, where i 


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in real otate nttpt away the earningi of yean. Undncouraged by the advene turn 
in the wheel of fortune, be turned hit attention to the line of work vrfaere hit knowiedce 
of the buancM gave him preeminence. For a period of four yean from 1S9I he had 
die management of stock fann* and dairies in Oregon, and for five yean subsequently 
was in the dairy buiinest in CaUfomia. During diii latter period he was prominently 
identified with the dairy industry, and was well known as a promoter of education in 
matten pertaining to the methods of the business. He tried to get a dairy school e»- 
tabhshed, and practically illustrated his belief in a technical knowledge of the industry 
by taking a course in dairy chemistry and bacteriohgy at the State Univenity in 

In 1900 he became a member of the firm <rf Sutherland & Pearson, grocen, m 
Oakland. CaUAMnia, and di^Maed of his interests in 1903 to go to Nome. Mr. 
Pearson is an educated gentleman, an expert in the Knes of work to which he has given 
hii best dioug^t and yean of study, and a prudent and an honorable busirtess man. 


identification with Northwestern 
Alaska was as the treasurer of 
the Pioneer Mining Company. He 
itill holds this position, but has alM> 
made his mark in the industrial field 
of this country as a mine operatw in 
connection widi the successful woHdng 
of the Hot Air Mining Company on 
Glacier Creek, - and as one of the op- 
craton of the Bdla KiA bench claim 
OD Dry Creek, h the faU of 1904. 
and upon die organizatim of the Min- 
ere and Merchants Bank of Nome, his 
high standing b die community and 
hit careful butincM methods caused him 
to be selected as the president of this 

Mr. Chilberg was bom in Seattle. 
Washington. October 29. 1875. He 
is the ton of A. Chin>erg. the highly 
respected and universafly esteemed pres- 
ident of the Scandinavian-American 
Bank of Seattle. Eugene wai educat- 
ed m the common schools and in the ei.oene chilberg. 
high school of Seattle. He also at- 
tended the State Agricultural College, and the School of Science at PuUman. Wash- 
ington. In l893-'94 he was a student in the Slate University at Seattle, and left the 
univenity to accept a position in the Scandinavian-American Bank, whch position 
he held until he became treasurer of the Pioneer Mining Company at Nome. Alaska. 
In 1904 he assisted in the organization of the Minen and Merchants Bank of Nome. 

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the atockholdcn of thu iiulilutioD being compoied almoat entirely of biuineu men 
and minen of Norttiwcstem Alulu. 

Mr. Chilberg is an estimable young roao, pradent in busineu, honorable in all the 
relations of life uid posMsong the moral attributes of character which make men of 
high standmg and good influence; the future invite* him to positioni of still hi^er trust, 
rcsponubility and usefulness. 


CG. COWDEN is the ouhier 
• of the Miners and Merchants 
Bank of Nome, (an institu- 
tion which he SMtsted to organize), 
has served diree years as city treuuret 
of Nome and is treasurer of the North- 
western Ditch Oxnpanjr; and is also 
interested in a number of valuable min- 
ing prcq>erties. He comes from the 
Jeney shore, where he was bom Feb- 
ruary 22. 1865. His Ixqrhood days 
were spent in Pennsytvania, and his 
education was obtained in a Kentucky 
univcnity. He is the son of a Christ- 
ian minister, is of Scotch-liish ancestry, 
and belongs to an old family of the 
United States. 

Hit first business venture was in the 
real estate line in Pittsburg, Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1888 he went to Tacoma, 
and was employed in the bind depart- 
ment erf the Northern Pacific {Railway 
Company, mailing and appraising the 
value of lands. After two yean of 

this work he was employed by the c. G. cowden. 

National Bank of Commerce of Ta- 
coma, working for this institution in various opacities (or ten years. Just prior to ftis 
going to Alaska, he was chief deputy county treasurer of Pierce County, Washington. 
He resigned this position to accept the position of cashier of the Alaska Banking and 
Safe Deposit Company of Nome, entering upon the discharge of his duties for this 
corporation m June, 1901. He reugned September I, 1904, and helped to organize 
the Miners and Merchants Bank of Nome, of which he is now cashier. 

Mr. Cowden has been twice married. His first wife, whom he married 
in Tacoma in 1891, was Miss Florence Lithgow. A son, Parker, who is now a 
bright boy of thirteen years, is the only issue of this marriage. In 1902 Mrs. Cowden 
died suddenly while visiting friends in the states. During the winter of l904-'05 Mr. 
Cowden and Miss Hatlie V. Thompson were ntarried m Nome. 

Mr. Cowden's high standing in the community is shown by the important po- 
sitions which he fills. He has been successful in his Nome mining ventures and 

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busmen enterpiiMf, and ii amonB the best known and mott hi^y etteemed citizen* 
of thii part of Aluka. 


THE man wbo it indwtrkHU. alert and watching for thit tide will xe it coming, and with 
bellying tail and bending oar will haiten to reach the anchorage in the haven of a 
competence. Shakopearc'i metaphor it the old atory of opportunity, of which the 
succcuful man takes advantage. There are few men to vrimm opportunity hat not 
come. Opportunity may mean the chance to accumulate a sudden fortune, and it may 
mean the chance for the manifestation of the buiineM ability that bet behind the in- 
dustrial features of the country. 

When L. B. Tamier came to Nome in the spring of 1900 he did not have much 
money, but he saw in the chaotic condition of business the opportunity to begin in a 
small way in a line of work with which he was famiUar, and he knew that the develop- 
ment of a new country would permit Uie buiinets to grow. Having learned the trade 
of a builder and contractor bom hit father, and having foUowed it for yean, he was 
familiar with the lumber business. A number of traden had brought stocks of lumber 
to Nome, and he set about to secure these small itocb. There was an apparent lurplut 
of many articles of nterchandise in the Nune market that year, and there were mer- 
chants and would-be merchants with cold feet With the material secured from men 
^to brought misceQaneout cargoes, including hmiber, to Nome. Mr. Turner started a 
lumbn yard. It was not an adjunct of another business — he dealt in himba ex- 
clusively, and devoted all of hit energy to hit business. The growth of the town and the 
devebqHnent of the mines created a steady and an increaiing demand for the material be 
was handling, and the lize of hit lumber yard mcreated at hit butinett grew. 

By 1902 the business had grown to considerable proportions. This fact, together 
with Mr. Tanner's plans to reduce the price of lumber by buying timber and operating 
a sawmill, and shipping direct from hit own plant, induced him to seek a good man for 
a partner to handle one end of the hne while he looked after the butinesi at the other 
end. Thit man was found in W. A. Cla^ and the firm of Tanner & Clark took 
charge of the butiness. Mr. Tanner went out to Washington at the dote of the season 
of 1902, and bought timber land equ^>ped with a sawmill plant in King County, and 
in two yean die firm has cut and thipped to Nome near 12,000,000 feet of 
lumber. Much of thit material has been shipped in chartered ichoonen. The yard 
in Nome at the close of navigation of the pait two teasont has contamed between 
5,000.000 and 6,000.000 feet of lumber. A complete modem planing mill it a 
part of the equipntent i^ diit yard. From a modest beginning this butinest hat advanced 
to a leading pontion, and in the history of the butinett of Nome it a monument to enter- 
prise, energy and honest methods. 

Mr. Taiuer is a native of Canada. He wat bom in Brantford, Ontario, January 
1 7. 1 866. and wat educated in the public schoolt of the province. He learned the 
trade of a builder and conlrator, which he followed, with the exception of a few yean 
devoted to mining in the Roiiland and Trail Creek country, B. C, and the Klmdike 
region, until he came to Nome. He emigrated from Canada in 1690, going to Seattle 
and subsequently to Portland, Ore. h 1898 he went to Dawson, but returned to 
Seattle the Mbwing year. He came to Nome m the spring of 1900 on the steamer 

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AIplw. and begui the tucceatful busncM career iMunted in the foregomg. Stftimbee 
5, I900( L. B. TuuMT and Miu M. N. Pickvd were mairied in Tacona. 

Mr. Tanner ikwrvo credit for hit succeM, but more credit for the ntetbotk fagr 
which be achieved Ihii tticcei*. In the earher dayi of hii thriving buiineM he hu laid: 
"If the tovm of Nome ibould be deatrc^ed by bre tmiig^t the price of lumber in tfaii 
yard would be the tame tomoirow ai it is today." In a new town, remote from its 
ba*e of nqipliea, there are frequent chance* to take advantage of other men'i necevities. 
but thete metbodi were not Mr. Tanner'i conception of the way to obtain the confidence 
and patronage of the ptMk. With the good quabty of bwineM rectitude be poweMca 
•ound judgment and quick pacrptimi, it brimful of energy which murt find a vent ia 
wotk, but never too buty for the locial amcnitiet of the gentleman. 


THE world'* iMogreti ii due to the combined etfwt* of the wocfcen. They mi^ 
not be compicuout n the battle of life, because they are "the mai behind the 
gun*." They are the men dial ntcceed, and in thew tuccea* not onfy obtain ibe 
bcBcft of tbeir labor, but contribute to the benefit of other*. Every enterpfi*e that is 
the means of private gain mutt have for its secondary object the public good, and every 
man who establithe* himself in a legitimate vocation, and builds his business until it is 
a helpful concern m the development of the country, it a very useful member of todety. 

W. A. Clark belongs to this class of men. He it a member of the firm of Tanner 
& Claris owning and conducting the largest lumber business in NorAwestem Alaska. 
The foundatioa of tfait large concern, owning its sawmill plant and timber lands in 
Wadtingloo. and hunber yards in Nome, Alaska, where from five millioa feet to 
nz million feet of lumber is kept in stock, wu laid by L. B. Tanner, the loiior 
member of the firm, in 1900. Mr. Clark's association with the businen dates fnm 
1902. The undertaking that Mr. Tanner had started in a modest way had grown to 
oontidcTable magnitude, and the new iinn ptaimed to supply the people of the Nome 
country with lumber direct from the taw mill, dureby '^■■"'"■♦■"b the expense resulting 
fr«n a commodity being bandied by middle men, permitting a reduction in selling piice 
without curtailment of profits. The prominent position in Nome that this firm occtq>iea, 
its reputation for fair dealing and honest method*, and it* constantly increasing business, 
are evidence of a successful career. 

Mr. Clark is a native of Youngttown. Ohio. He was bom October 10, 1670. 
When six yean old he moved with hi* parent* to Portland. Oregon, where he attended 
public ichool. When ei^teen he began an apprenticeship to leam the iron molder'a 
trade. After *erving hit time he took a course in a buaineit college at Seattle, and 
then worked for about six years at his trade. In 1 897 he caught the Klondike lever, aikd 
started for Dawson. He went over the White Pass route, and had an arduous and a. 
perilous trq>. The condition of the trail during this first great ruth was alinott in- 
describable. He and a companion packed 1.200 pounds over the pass tm their backs 
the greater part of the distance to Bennett, thirty-seven miles. They made eleven round-trips 
for every relay, and were from the middle of July until October 9 accon4>lisbtng this 
talk. After reaching Bennett a boat was purchased, and a itart was made to croet 
the lakes and descend the Yukon. The second day out they were wrecked in Windy 
Ann. on Lake Tagi^, but escaped without a more serious mishap dtan the wetting of 
all their suppBa. They had some exciting adventures m Thirty-Mile River, and their 

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boat akiKMt Uled with wkter when they ihot dw While Hone Rapidi. A dauter 
WW nuioi^ averted at Five Fkigen hudicr down the Yokon. Ice began to form in 
die Yukon befne they got half way down the nvcr to their de>tinatioB. and lixj en- 
c oyntered many wow itonnt. Sixty milei above Dawnn at the mouth of Stewart River, 
ice blocked the river, and they went into amp- Three dayi later the tee brake, and 
thcgr started with it down ttream, arriving in Davraon November 2. The foDowing 
day die ice froze m^Ixi «>h1 their boat had (o be chapped out of the ice to get it 

That wioler Mr. Clark mined on Bmianza. The following spring he went out - 
and boui^t a stock of merchandise, which he took into Dawson. He made three 
round-trips that seaioa, taking each time a stock of goods to Dawson, and was fairly 
successful in these ventures. During dte last trip he and Miss Laura Johnson were 
married in Seattle. Mrs. Clark did not accompany her husband to Dawson but he 
came out after her in the spring of 1S99. Returning to Dawson, he found the Nome 
dcitement at its heigbt, and determined to go to the new camp. He arrived in N(«ie 
September 22, 1699. and earned his first money in this town ferrying people across 
Sn&ke River. The rece^ front his ferry in seven days were $190. He was in some 
of the stampedes the Allowing winter, and staked a lot of ground. In the qnring of 
I9O0 he opened a road-bouse ra Anvil Creek, and later in the season buih a home in 
Nnne. During the winter he abo mined on the beach. He followed mining and 
conducted the road-bouse until the fsU of 1901 , when he went to Nome and went into 
partnership with L. B. Tanner. One member of the &rm lives in Seattle and attends 
to the manufacturing and forwarding of the lumber; the other in Nome attends to the 
sates and distribution. In l902-'03 Mr. Tanner was at the manufacturing end of die 
fine; this season. l904-'05, Mr. Claric is in Seattle, where he owns a pretty home. 

As noted in die outset of this sketch, Mr, Clark is a worker, and somebody has 
said that "industry is a ^>ecies of genius." The domestic trait of his character is coo- 
SfHCuous. He k)ves home, wife and children. In die commercial world he is known 
as an honest man, and anumg his friends as a companionable associate, an ethically 
honorable num and a good citizen. 


COLONEL WILLIAM T. PERKINS has been idendfied widi die Nordtland 
since 1696. He is not only a prominent citizen of Nome, but he is a prominent 
citizen of Alaska. He ii assodated with the leading commercial and transporta- 
tion company of Northwestern Alaska, occupying the position of auditor of the North- 
western Commercial Company. This company has exploited many avenues of the 
fiatural resources of Alaska and Siberia. 

Cokmcl Perkins is a native of Buffak), New York, and was bom November 2. 
1658. He is the son of Nathaniel Perldos and Annette Hawkins. He it a descendant 
of Revolutionary sires, and is a member of the Wa^ngton, D. C, Society of Amer- 
ican Sons of Revolution. His eariy education was obtained in the public ichoob of 
BuCalo and Lockport, New York. He prqiared for college at New Hampton Insti- 
tution, New Hampdiire, in 1677, and was graduated by Bates College of Maine in 
1681 with the degree of A. fi. In 1864 he was graduated from the law department of 
die University of Michigan with the degree of LL. B. He has been admitted to the 
bar of Michigan, North Dakota and Alaska. He began the practice of law in North 

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Dakota in 1864, and coalinued the practice of hia profeuiou until 1896. Frwn 1692 
unbl 16% he wai vice-prcHdcnt of die First Nattonal Bank of Bitmarck. Nmth Dakota. 
For a period of two yean after 1696 he engaged in mioing in Cobrado. He came 
to Alaska in 1896. and followed mining for two yean. In 1900 he arrived in Nome. 
and became the general auditor of the Northwestern Commercial Con^Mny. a positicn 
vthidi he still (ills. He is also attorney in fact in Alaska for die mn urging director of 
die Northeastern Siberian Company, Limited. 

Colonel Perkini has received a niimb«r of political honors from his friends and party. 
In 1 686 he was elected as one of the first aldermen of Bismarck, North Dakota, and 
was a member of the Board of Education and its secretary at Bismarck for a period of 
twelve yean. In 1 669 he was elected to the office of Coimty Superintcndest of Public 
ScJioolt of Burleigh Coimty, Nordi Dakota, and held diis position during his residence 
in this state. He look an active interest in both local and state politics in Dakota. He 
was selected as a delegate to the flepublican National Convention in Chicago in June. 
1904, and was one ^ die hrst delegates to repre s ent Alaska in a Republican National 

Colonel Perkins took an active and a leading part in educational work during hk 
residence in DakoU. He was president of the North Dakota Educational AssociatioD 
in 1695. He was commissioned Cokinel in the National Guards of North Dakota in 
1892. In May, 1903. while b Seattle, he was elected a* chairman of the executive 
committee selected to make the Alaska arrangements for the recq>tion of Presidenl 
Roosevelt. At the time of the visit of the United States Senators who were appointed by 
Congress to inquire into needed laws for the purpose of determining the best 
legislation that could be enacted for the district. Colond PeHuns was selected by the 
citizens of Nome as the chairman of the executive committee to entertain the Sena- 
torial Committee. 

Cokinel Perkins is a member of the Protestant E4}iscopal Church. He is a thirty- 
second degree Mason and deputy for Alaska of the Inqiector General for Washington, 
Idaho and Alaska, of the Scottish Rite and Noble of the Mystic Shrine. He is a 
Past Grand Master of the A. F. and A M. of North Dakota, and Past Grand Com- 
mander of the Krtights Tenqilar, North Dakota. He is abo a member of the Arctic 
Brotherhood, Camp Nome No. 9, a fraternal organization that has its home in die 
Northland; and at the last grand session of the order hekl in Seattle in November. 1904, 
he was elected Grand Arctic Chief. 

It will be seen from this brief and hasty narrative that Cokmri Perkins has had 
a very active and busy life; diat he has stood and stands high in the estimation of his 
fellow men with whom he hat come in contact; that he has been caDed upon to fill 
many positions of civic and fraternal honor. While he has taken an active part in 
politics he does not belong to the genus politician. He is a man of unquestioned and 
unimpeachable integrity, and his interest in politics is simply the interest of a good dtizen 
desiring better and cleaner government. His native intclligeDce has been polished by 
education. He knows his capacity and limitations, so that he does well whatever he 
undertakes to da No citizen of the Nome country commands more of the public 
esteem and public confidence than does Colonel Parkins. 

He was married December 16, 1864, at Deniaon. Iowa. Mn. Pnkins was 
formerly (Catherine Laub. 

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one of the organizen o( the 
Northweitcni Commercial 
Company, and is the vice-president of 
that coiporation. He it preudent of 
the North Coait Lighterage Company, 
one of the leading companici engaged 
m die biuineu of lighterage at Nome. 

Mr. WilHamt wat bora at Phila- 
delphia. March 14. 1872. and was 
educated in the public ichoob of Penn* 
sylvania. He learned the trade of a 
machiniit in Philadelphia and became 
an eipert workman. He was em- 
ployed in Cramp's thip yard, and hai 
he^ed to build aeveral of die large 
battleships which are now a part of 
the Navy of die United States. Mr. 
Williams was an employe of the 
Cramps during a period of nme yean. 
and a part of that lime hit services 
were utilized in many dq>artmenls of 
mechanical work where the highest de- 
gree of skill wat required. 

He severed his relations with the 
Cramps in August 1897, and started 

for Sragway. Alaska. He was among the first men to go over White Pass, and arrived 
at Lake Bennett Sqrtember 17. The lakes were crossed and the Yukon descended in 
■ canvas boat, and Dawson was reached October I . Ice was floating in the river when 
be and his party arrived. 

He devoted some time to mining and in l898-'99 engaged in shipping goods from 
Seattle to Dawson. In 1898 he made the record tnp from Lake Bennett to Dawson. 
This trip which never has been equaled was made in four days and seventeen hours. 
He was a pilot of one of the first boats on the upper Yukon. 

In the fall of 1899, with others, he organized the Northwestern Commercial Com- 
pany, which is now the largest commercial and transportation company operating in the 
Nome country. The North Coast Lighterage Company of which he it president, it com- 
posed of memben of the Northwestern Conunercial Company. It hat the best facilities 
for li^terage at Nome that can be devised. In one ilay the company lightered 1 ,008 tont 
of coal from the steamship Quito, and stacked this immense quanbty of coal in the 
yard. The superior facilities possessed by this company are due to Mr. Williams' in- 
ventive geniui and ingenuity. He constructed the first aerial cable way at Nome for dis- 
charging cargoes from the sea. This cable is 350 feet long and extends beyond the bar 
in the sea in front of Nome. Engines handle two endless turf lines. Connected with the 
lighterage plant u a ground and an elevated tramway, providing facilities for the easy hand- 


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Bog and oqMditioui tranqwrtatiQQ of freight from the wharf lo the con^Muy's wire' 

Mr. WiUiuM Uld Mia Amuxk Hum were manied in Camden, New }atj. 
Januaiy II, 1900. If energy, indwtiy, appLcation, ingenuity and honot eSott enAkle 
a roan to tuccen. Mr. WUbami ihould be among the most luccenfuL 


a weli-knowD lea captain on the 
diCerent ocean* of the world, 
and (Mte of the pioneen of Seward Pe- 
muuk. was botn in Phiiadrbhia in 
1660. He wai edncated in the 
•ckoob of Pbihdelphia and vicinitr. 
and in hit eariy numhood adopted a 
•cn-faiing fife u a prafetilon, iwag 
lapidly to a command. After Mrring 
oo the (ea for tweo^-two ycart, and 
hmring of the fabuloiit lichei of the 
^cnt Northland, be detennined to try 
lui hick at mining. 

Hii fint ttip to Norlhweiteni 
Ala*ka wai in 1698. In 1697 be 
wat employed by the North American 
Trampoitation and Trading Company 
ai ntperintendent of cooitniction at 
Dutch Haibor, and iiqierviKd the 
building of the con^iany'i river Aeti at 
that pUce. After conqileting hii work 
be went to St Michael b September, 
I69S. While then he heard of the 

•Hike on Ophir Creek in the Council ^^^^T. w, h. febgl'SON. 

Dittiict, and in company with Dr. 

Townibend, of New York, and a mining expert, he at once proceeded to the '^-ggi'^ 
In thoee days there were no Iraik or well-kept road-houtei, and traveling wai diCerent 
from what it now i*. The traveler through this country pitijied hit tent where ni(^t over- 
todc him, and cooked his meab over an open camp fire. 

Arriving at Council City die party found even at that early date that the credu 
in the vicinity of Council had been staked to the mountain topt, and not having time 
to meaiure fraclioni or to go far afield for new locitiont on account of the lateneu of the 
season, the party returned to Golovin Bay. While waiting at the Bay for tranq>oTtatioa 
to Sl Michael the Captain met Dr. A. N. Kittilsen and many of the old-timen who 
had during the season of 1896 proq>ectcd different parts of Seward Peninsula, and 
hearing good reporU from these men. he determined to return to the peninsuU in the 
early spring of 1699. He was unable to remain in Alaska that winter on account of 
die necessity of having to go to the states to consummate some unfinidied busineM. 

The great strike on Anvil Creek late in the season of '98 intenu&cd Ci^ttaio 

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FergusMi'i drare to return, and he wu anwng the uHy arrivalf in the Nome counbry 
in 1899. Duiing tint munmer he praqxcted A&d staked tome claima in neuly evciy 
Mctiaa of the peninsula. In the fall of 1 699 be engaged in buainen in Nome, and took. 
a proauDcnt part in die aJlain of that community. He was an active member of the 
Citizens Committee that deported a number of bad characten that infested the camp, 
and later, in the q>nng of 1900. when it became necessary for the citizens to again 
organize and assist in the government of the place, the Nome Chamber of Commerce was 
formed and Captain Ferguson was uaanimously elected the first president of this or- 
ganization. The good work dene by this body of men has heretofore been noted. They 
raised $20,000, most of which was used to drain the town and put it in a sanitary 
conditioo. In the spring of 1900 16,000 people arrived in Nome, but so tborouiMy 
had the Chamber of Commerce performed its work that only a few cases of tyi^ioid 
fever were reported during this season. 

In January, 1900, Sam C. Dunham organized Can^ Nmik of the Arctic Bralli- 
eriiood and C^>lain Ferguson was elected the Erst Arctic Chief of the camp. Ever 
since the organizatiMi of the camp be has been an ardent worker in the cause of the 
Brotberitood. In July. 1900, Captain Fergustm was app«Hnted United States Com- 
raissioaer at Council City, and lilled this pontion until October, 1902. During that 
entire period he was feared by evil-doen and claim-jumpers. He would not pennit 
any roan to go on a claim and endeavor to hold it against the original locator. While 
Captain Ferguson was commissicHKr the Council EKstrict was well governed. He mod- 
est^r disdains the credit, but says it was due to the co-operation and support of the 
good citizens of that locali^. 

Since 1902 the Captain has been engaged in tran^mrtation and mining. He is 
abo an attomey-at-bw, having been admitted to practice before the courts of Alaska 
previous to his app<Hntment as United States CommissioDcr. He is a rugged, fwceful, 
energetic man, and was a good man at the helm during the first winter in Nome. The 
readers of this volume will tee that he has left his footprints m the history of this country. 


SUCCE^ is the resuh of ability, ^ititude and work. Faihure, when it is not due to 
indolence, most often comes from inaptitude. Men try to do something tot which th^ 
are not quaEEed either by nature or education and training, and they fail Square 
pegs do not lit in round holes. Success waits on genius, but a musical genius might 
waste his life behind the plow, in the factory or the counting room. The Maker of man 
in His omniscience has fitted some for one kind of work, and equipped others for another 
kind of work, so that by natural selection and the exercise of our dominant facuhies we 
should be doing that which we are best qualified to do. A. J. Cody was made to 
order for a detective and an executive officer of the law. Possessing great physical 
strength, ahhou^ a man of not extraordinary size, a^ and alert, with a mind quick 
of perccptibn and an intiulive grasp of human motive, devoid of fear, yet cautious, and 
having withal a keen analytical mind. Mr. Cody has the traits of character diat Conan 
Doyle has given to the hero of his great detective stories. 

Mr. Cody is a native of Auburn, Oregon, and was forty-two yean old November 10. 
1904. He is a member of an old EJiglish family diat came to America about 200 
years ago. His father was a pioneer of California who emigrated from Indiana in 1649. 
A. J. Cody wa« educated in die public schools of Oregeo, and began the serious work 

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of life riding the range on a cattle ranch in Big Lake Coiuty, Oregon. Al a later period 
he woi engaged in the fith canoeiy butine*i on Columbia River. From 1 863 to 1 869 
he wa« in the hotel biuincH in Portland. In all of theie linet of butinen be achieved 
ordinary succen, but it was not until he became an officer of Multnomah County, by 
^^Ktintment a* deputy iheriff. that he found a vocatiMi in which he excelled, and in 
which progrcM and promotion followed in the natural order of event*. SuUequently 
he wai appointed to a poaition on ibe police and detective force of Portland, Orcgof). 
In 1896 when the patrol wagon wa> called out ahnort every hour of the day to what 
was brawn at die North End, Mr. Cody wat assigned al the request of Mayor Pmnoyer 
to duty in this tou^ part of the city. He rentained on duly in this part of Ak ci^ 
until June, 1 696, and did his worL so well that for three days covering the ink Fomdi <rf 
July after hi* assignmcnl ihoe was not a tingle call for dte patrol wagon. He toU 
the tou|^ dement that if there was any fighting to be done he would take a band in it; 
and a few illustratioo* (rf what he could do in this Hne avrakened a wholesome respect 
ha him, which deterred the bad men from viijating the law. During Eis connectiaa will) 
the police department of Portland he did a lot of clever detective wod^ embracing 
catca covering a wide range <A crimes, from the discovery of stolen goods and arrest of 
the thieves to the capture of desperadoes who had sent word that they would never be 
taken aBve. 

In 1898 Mr. Cody was appointed depu^ collector of custom* tor Alaska. He 
came to St Michael and ascoided ifae Yukon to the boundary bne. ettaUishing ca*toai* 
house* at Rampart, Fort Yukon and Ea^e. He resigned this position the following 
year and came to Nome, engaging in mining. In die fall of 1 900 he was appointed to 
the position of dqnily manhal by U. S. Marshal Vawter. Mr. Cody i* the man who 
broke vp the wont gang of malefactors that ever infested Nome. Sixty men of ciirainal 
I had formed a compact to swear alibis and thereby keep each other out <rf the 
' for their misdeeds. Judge Noyes, Marshal Vawter, District Attomqr 
Wood and U. S. Commissioner Stevens had a joint mtetview with Mr. Cody, and 
requested him to break i^> the ring. He agreed fo undertake the work upon the con- 
dition that warrant* should be issued at his request and the arrested men confined in jail 
without the privilege of any mie visiting them, and that there diould be no wiitt of 
habea* coipu*. By puruiing this mediod an opportunity was given to obtain testimony, 
and fourteen convicts were deported to McNeQ's Island the following 4>ting. The gang 
wa* effectually broken up, and *ince then Nome ho* been comparatively free fmn the 
depredations of criminals. 

Being a firid deputy in the office of the U. S. Marshal Mr. Cody had the privi- 
lege ^ conducting a detective agency, and was employed by all the big companies to 
protect thur mterests. He resigned when Manhal Vawter went out of office, and 
devoted hi* time to the work of hi* detective bureau and to hi* mining interests. In 
1 903 Marshal I^chard* tendered him the position <rf office deputy, which be accepted, 
and filled until the dose of navigation, 1904, when he resigned to return to tbe ttale*, 
the main object of his going being to give his son a collegiate education. 

Mr. Cody owns extouive and valuable mining interests in the N«ne District. He 
own* all of Extra Dry Creek, comprising fourteen claim*, and own* property on Anvil 
CreeL He and Miss AHce V. Campbell were married in Portland, Oregon, in June, 
1864. They have one son, Albert R., a bright young man tweiAy years old. Mr. 
Cody has had an eventful career, filled with thrilling experiences, but there ii another 

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phaae of hit chonctcr ot which the wotld Icnowt le« than it does of hu public cveer. 
He it an affectionate and devoted hiuband and father, a loyal friend, and he hu a nul 
diat feek keenly and tuffen from the Mnow and miicry of the world with which he is 
inevitably brou^t in contact 


been identibed widi the lighter- 
age buancM in Alaika since the 
bat •lampede to the Klondike in 1 897. 
When the newi of the gold di*covery 
OD die upper Yukon electrified a large 
part of the civilized world. Captain 
Johnston wu a rendent of Seattle and 
wu engaged in building lighter*, c^ 
eprating ■ itrae cguany and conducting 
a general freighting butinett on the 
Sound. He immediately >aw the bu*- 
ineff opportunity of Uttering freight 
and landing pauengen frun iteamers 
at Skagway, and wu the Bret roan to 
engage in thit buiineti at that place. 
The imallert E^ter diat he took bom 
Seattle had a carrying ciqiacity of 400 
toni. and when he wu preparing to 
tad with hi* equipaicnt, hoiaet, men and 
tqipliet, there were people vdto talked 
loudly about invoking the law to pre- 
Tcnt hit departure. They knew iuX 

be wu taking the poor dumb brutet captain e. w. johnstos. 

and deluded people to cstaia death. 

At that time the pubUc't knowledge of Aluka was very indefinite, and the conception 
of condition* in the far North wu hazy or distorted. 

Captain Johniton conducted this bunneu during the teaaont of '97 and '96. He 
W^wd ahnost incestantly. Only a penon of extraordinary physical ttainina could 
have itood the strain to which he was subjected. He roade money and made fiends. 
Probably there it no man in the North who knows more of the Klondikert than 
C^>lain J<4ui*lon. 

The Nome gold discovery and the development of these gold fields in 1699 con- 
vinced Captain Johniton that there would be another business opportunity in his line 
of work on the waterfront of Nome. He fully understands and appreciates the wisdom 
of the old Spanish proverb: "Opportunity has a long forelock, but is bald behind." 
Being a man of prompt decisim, he immediately set himself to the work of constructing 
a fi^tasge plant to take to Nome in the spring of 1900. Every year since that 
memorable season he hu been in Nome, and hu handled a great many thousand tons 
of freight that have been shipped into thit country. From the beginning of his work 

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at Nome be law At otaaMy of a hubof to provide better facifitiei fof diiduirging 
cugoec and to provide a w(e anchorage during itonns for the small oaft of the sea. 
He held thb itka in abeyance, knowring that the time tiad not yet airived (or tbe 
inauguration of such an enteiprice. The public quettxmed the permanency of the 
camp, and educated witeacret laid that a pier could not be built to withftand ttocnis 
and the impact of the ice. 

In 1904 a better general wutiiueut about the Nome country Fnevailed throu^iout 
the United States, and C4>tain Johnston concluded di&t the time was auq>icious to 
undertake the vroA «^iich he believed could be successfully dtme, the value of which 
if consummated was obvious. During the seuion of Congress in the winter of 1905, 
a charter was secured to build jetties from the mouth of Snalce I^er into Bering Sea. 
the work to be dime under the supervisicm of the war dqiartmoiL This woHc invt^ved 
the expenditure of a quarter of a million dollan. and to secure the necessary funds was 
die next task. The plans proposed required the construction of rock'bUed crib* covered 
with edg&4>olted timbers, the cribs extending from the mouth of Snake River out into 
the sea a distance of 750 feet; the conitruclioa of wharves and ttie building of 
necessary warehouses. Ci4>tain Johnston believes that "Where there's a will thoe's 
a way," and by using the facts of Nome's commerce and all available infonnatioB 
cmceming the sea and beach at Nome, he was ^le to secure the organization of a 
company which subscribed the necessary fuitds and gave him the cmttract to perfocm 
the work. He is making a Nome harbor this season. He believes that the None 
harbor wiU eSect a saving to the residents of Seward Peninsula of $200,000 tbe year. 
It will furnish a fadli^ for landing passengers in roughest weather; it wiH lessen the 
danger of lougshoring and will be a great benefit to the town of Nome, aitd should 
be a profitable mvestment to the men who have shown faith in the enterprise by sub- 
scribing the money to perform the work. 

Captain Johnston was bora in Chicago November 30, 1660. He is a son of 
Dr. Johnston, a well-biown citizen and pioneer who settled in the "Windy City" in 1 634. 
Captain Johnston is self-educated. When a small boy he was sent to school, but had 
the misfortune in the very early part of his scholastic opportunities to be challenged by 
die bully of the school He gave the bully an unmerciful thrashing and the paternal rebuke 
caused the independent youngster to leave home. He began life for himself by catching 
minnows and selling them to the fishermen for ten cents the dozen. He got a berth 
on a sloop saihng on Lake Michigan and woHced for a year at a sabry of two doUara 
and fifty cents the month. When he was sixteen years old he and his dder brother 
bought the schooner El Painter and sailed her on the lake. At die age of twenty he 
was in command of die lumber schooner Dan I. Davis. He sailed the lakes for many 
years, and has built piers m Lake Michigan and is consequently familiar with the kind 
of work in which he is now engaged. 

In 1886 he went to Seattle and engaged in the hardware business for two yeus 
prior to resuming the line of work on Puget Sound with which he has been familiar 
from his early boyhood. 

Captain Johnston possesses great force of character. In the lexicon of his youth 
there was no such word as fail, and in the brighter days of successful manhood there is 
no impairment of his courage and energy. ' 




FB. PORTER WW in Seattle in 
• the early part of 189S when 
he decided to join the Kotze- 
but Sound expedition, and arranged for 
tranqiortation on the schooner M. 
Merrill. He wrote hi> Gancce. Mitt 
Stelh H. Sco&eld. of New York, and 
die came to Seattle where thqr were 
married May 27. 1898. Never did 
bride itart on a more remarkable wed- 
ding tour — a trip to a bleak, iiihoq>it- 
able wildemeu beyond the Arctic 
Grcle — a trip in quest of gold. 

Mr. and Mn. Porter ipent the 
winter of 1898-'99 in the Kotzebue 
Sound country. They built a h^ita- 
tion OD the upper waters of the Inma- 
chuk. not far from the hot firings, and 
as a section of this river near the hot 
springs never freezes in the winter. Mrs. 
Porter found divcrtiiemcnt in trout 
fishing. They were die first white 
people vAm ever wintered in this part 
of die Arctic slope. From New Yoric 

to ICotzebue Sound represents the ex- ^' ^' ^ 

tremes of social life, and yet they look 
back iqion this winter of loneliness and isolation with many pleasant r 

When die news of the Nome strike reached the Kotzebue Sound proq>ecton a 
number of Mr. Porter's party made the trip across the peninsula during the winter, 
and located several claims in die Nome District. At the opening of navigation Mr. 
Porter and his wife abandoned their cabin and took passage on the steamship Towns- 
end for Nome. During his sojourn on the Arctic slope he found prospects on the 
Inmachuk River, and had an idea when he left for Nome that he was leaving a better 
country dian the one for which he was bound. The "destiny which shapes our ends" 
sent him back to the Inmachuk during the latter part of the season of 1904. He 
went back widi a lease upon property which had been developed to the extent diat 
proved it to be among the best mines of the country. 

Mr. Porter is a native of Freeport, Maine, and was bcmi May 3. 1869. He b 
descended from the Pilgrim Fadien. Throu^ his mother he is a descendant of Col. 
EUhan Allen. He received a public school and academic education, and at the age 
of sixteen went to Boston where he obtained a business course under a private tutor. 
He began the serious work of Ufe as a stenographer, and was at one time stenogrif^er 
for John Alounder, first vice-president of the Equitable Life Assurance Company. 
He filled the position of private secretary for Congressman Logan H. Roots. He has 
also fiDed positi«ii in the offices of Kimball Ac Bryant, of New York, and the Mingo 
Smelting Company of Salt Lake. While employed by the latter company he acquired 

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a knowledge of ore* and an inclinatioii for mining. At a later date he wa« ccmnccted 
with the Smith Premier Typewriter Company, and wai in the employ of that company 
when he contracted the gold fever and foined the Kotzebue Sound itampeden. 

WbcB he came from Kotzebue Sound in the ipring of 1899 he retided 
b N(Kne continuoudy until 1902. He then returned to Portland. Oregcm, and took up 
hi> old line of work ai manager of the typewriter con^Mny, but still retained hii mining 
intererti oa the Inmachuk and Kugruk Riven and Candle Creek. Mr. Porter leased 
the Polar Bear Group on Inmachuk River and in the fall of 1904 took in thirty 
tons of fuel and supplies. He intended to work with two thawer* and take out a 
large winter dump from the rich pay-streak that he knew (o run through this groiq>. 
of mines. A* this book goes to press, news comes from the Arctic region that the spring 
dean-iqi of dumps on Inmachuk this year will show a splendid proKt for operaton. 

Mr. Porter is an educated gentleman, a man who has Uled responsible and im- 
portant podtioos, and has succeeded m dobg well whatever he has undertaken to do. 


IT was not long after the dtscoveiy 
of gold on Anva Creek and od»er 
■trcanis in this neighborhood until most 
of the available ground was afqiropri- 
ated for mining puiposes. Tbe beach 
strike in 1 699 furnished profiuble em- 
ployment for all the men in die camp 
who were not empkiyed on the creeks 
or engaged in business in Nome, but 
vthtn winter stopped active mining work 
diere began a period of exploration and 
prospecting in remote parts of the pen- 
insula. Jerry Calvin, who arrived in 
Nome from Dawson late in die season 
of 1699, was one of the first prot- 
pecton to go to the Kougarok District, 
the great interior and as yet compara- 
tively undeveloped district of the Nome 
country. White men had bem as far 
inland as Mary's Igloo, but beyond this 
die country was unknown. Jerry Cal- 
vin and George Oitrom were the first 
v^te men to enter this unknovra region. 
Piloted by an Eskimo who told them 
he knew where gold could be found, ^^^ 

they went up the Kuzitrin to Idaho 

Bar. where prospecting revealed coktrs in the lul^ sand. They were the first white 
men to visit die mouth of the Kougarok River. At this place diey camped a couple 
of days, proqiecting m the bars and discovering gold. They went up the Kougarok 
■a far as the mouth of Windy Creek, but did not go farther because above Wmdy 

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Creek there wu do fuel. The only vrood in diii country it vrillow, and it it a ilunted 
growth, attaining a hogjit of only a (ew feet. A stick >vith the diameter of a man'> 
ann ii big timber. The winter season of 1899-1900 was the mildest in the recent 
history of this countiy. and the pioneer prospectors did not sutfer any great hardiliipc. 
While the ground W8s frozen, they were able to do coiuiderEble prospecting, and Mr. 
Galvin became convinced that there were pay-streaki in this region where prospects 
could be found with to little difficulty in the ban. He worked all winter in this part 
of the countiy, excepting the time spoit journeying to and from Nome, 200 miles 
by the coast trail, distant from his camp in the solitude of the treeless hills, Ua the 
puipote of obtaining food supplies. He found a pay-streak which has yielded as much 
as $225 the pan, and he has since discovered other pay-ttieaks, and therein ii com- 
pensation. He is the discoverer of gold, on the Kougsrok, and one of the pioneer 
miners in this district 

Jerry Galvin b a native of Wisconsin, and was bom in Eau Claire April 22, 1669. 
The family moved lo Michigan, and he was educated in the pubbc scbocJi of that 
state. He began life for himself at the age of sixteen in railroad woric on the Soo Hne, be- 
giiming as a freight iHalcenian, and going throud> the lisl of promotion for effidenl 
service, until he was a passenger conductor. In this last capacity he worked br the 
I'lorthon Pacific for tweKe years. After be was promoted to freight conductor on 
the I>uluth, Superior and Western Road, he had charge of the construction train on 
his division, and it was here that he learned a lot of useful lessons about expeditious 
and economical methods ^ handling earth, which he has found of great value in 
mining. In railroading he was both successful and fortunate, and he never had an 
Accident during his entire career at conductor. 

In 1898 the microbe that causes the gold fever got into his system, and he quit 
the business in v^ch, I>y yean of work and painstaking attention to details he had 
become prolkient, and started for Dawsmi. He acquired a bench claim off l^per 
Discovery on E)ominion Creek, and mined it successfully until the Utter part of the 
season of 1899, when he sold it and came down the Yukon on the last boat down the 
river, arriving in Nome in October. His lirst experience after arriving m Nome was 
« thrilling adventure on Sledge Island where he and a party of prospectora were 
marooned for twdve days. The story of this eq>erience will be bund on another 
page of this book. Soon after diis adventure he and George Ostrom got a dog 
team and started for the fCougarok, where at told m a preceding paragraph, he qient 
the vnntcr. He staked Discovery claim on the Kougarok March 2, 1900. During 
AfC winter he made two trips to Nome. On the third journey back to this region he 
was accompanied t^ GriS Yaraell, and diey crossed over to the Arctic slope. 

The next spring he and Martin Dahl, Griff Yamell and AL Kerry went ova 
the ground to lix tq> the stakes, which could not be put in the ground pnv>erly in the 
winter time. They stopped for hmch oa a bar of C2uartz Creek, where pamiing showed 
values of from Rve to fifty cents the pan. 

Mr. Calvin went up the creek to the confluence of a small tributary. He wadied 
out scnne gravel <m his shovel and found coane gold. This was the discovery of 
gold on Dahl .Cre^ now the roost famous creek of this district. This is the pay-streak 
-w4iere $225 was obtained from one pan of gravel picked out of tbe frozen ground. 
During tbe subsequent seasou Mr. Gahrin has mined in itiit district, princvally <m 
Dahl Creek. Notwidislanding the short seasons and the difficulty of gating iiqipliei 

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Since this period he has followed the bunMM of minitig with the exception of the 
efott directed to the coiutTuction of the Aguui CuaL He devoted five yean to 
miaiDg in Calaveru County, Calif«nia, deveb^Mog and opoabng a cryital nuDc, taldng 
out the laigeit rock ciyttak lecorded in geology, die product of tweWe tons bcmg 
•old to Tiffany Ac Co.. New YorL. He aito opened the Green Mountain Hydraulic 
Mine and extracted from this proper^ gold to the value of over $40,000. FaiUng 
healdi fnted him to return home in 1900. 

Hit attention having been directed to the Northern Ahukan gold fields, be ob- 
tained all the infmnation be could get about the Nome country, and decided that it 
was a promising field for exploitation. He accordingly acquired oUentive interests 
of both gold placer and tin properties in this repon. The gold mines are ait u ated 
near Nome in the most promising part of the Nome District, and the tin pn^>ertie« ate 
near Cape Prince of Wales oa Cape Mountain. At this place the proq>ects for obtan- 
ing tin in commercial quantities possesses almost infinite possibihties. Mr. Burton's 
company has ^i^iped a ten-stamp mill and concentrators to its mines on Cape Mountain, 
and a large quantity of ore will be mined, cnnhed and cmicentrated and the concea- 
tnted ore shqiped out to be smelted this year, it is hoped in Seattle, which will be the 
first practical tin smelting in America. 

This energetic initial move marks the opening, no doubt, of a new world su[q>Iy of 
commercial tin, and if the various tin interests of the York District, Alaska, take tfaeir key- 
note from hit action, the combination of Alaska tin interests will secure the attention it 
deserves in future. The capital which controls the tin markets it sensitive, but seldom does 
pioneer work. If Mr. Burtmi unites the producen of Alaska tin in the near Future, a 
deserved recognition will come to all; which up to date has beco withheld or treated with 
indifference. I believe that five years hence will see these Alaska interests united and under 
such leadership, and to the betterment of all concerned. 

It it said in the beginning of this story that Mr. Burttm is a strong man. He hss 
shown hit ttrength in the successful culmination of the many fii^'Kinl enterfsites in vbiA 
he hat been engaged. He hat also shown his strength of character in other ways. At 
the age of twelve years he began to accumulate a collection of coins, and when he wu 
dtirty-four yean old he had the most valuable collectioa of American coins ever owned 
in die Northwest. This splendid numismatic collection was sold under the hammer m 
New York Gty to ti4>ply Mr. Burton with funds to assist him in paying a secuii^ 
debt of $26,000. The coUection was sacrificed for $10,800 — and diis was die 
penalty he paid for endorsing a biend't notes. A writer in referring to diis act of Mr- 
Burton's says: 

"This was a sacrifice indeed, view it as you may. It was an act of dauntksi 
courage — backed by a heroic sense of integrity — for it required much more than oidh 
nary courage to give up one's cherished possessions and to sevcrdy flagellate one's leV 
without flinching. Mr. Burton was now left to face the wot4d empQr handed. To 
begin is a taik, but not a severe cme, for it it the common lot of all; but to begin over 
again is w^t tests the metal of which we are made. The wodd smiles benignly upon 
the beginner but not so hiendly «i him who seeks to retrieve of fortune lost" 

Mr. Burton it a thoughtful man and a student He owns a private 13>rary of 
1 1,500 vohmes, which is said to be die finest in die stale of ^X^sconsin. This Hhiaiy 
represents the careful aand constant accumulation of more than thirfy yean. It coo- 
tains 2.160 vohmies on Abraham Lincoln and Lincolniana. Everything that hsi 

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eva been publitlied kbout the martyred presicleiit may be found in the iplendid col- 
lectkm that ha* been gathered by Mr. Burton. Mr. Burton hu written an oration on 
Abraham Lincoln which ii a clauic. Regarding him a* the best man of hiatory, tXu6y- 
ing hit character ftom every actual and imaginary point of view, and being absorbed 
with hii (heme, it it not lurprinng diat hit eulogy poit et i et the ttrong individuaKty 
which entitles it to live with the bett tbou^t of the age. 1 quote a part of a tingle para- 
graph which it (he climax of Alt tplendid oration : 

"With odier mea it wai literary achievement; the triumphi of war; die aggrand- 
izement of conquett: the gktry of new ditcovery; or the flight of imaginaton in the 
ijngdom of Art and Song; but with Liitcoln it wai character, Character. CHARr 
ACTER. Thit it why hit name growi with each mcceeding year." 

Mr. BuTton't ancettora were nativet of 0»iningtby, LiocohthiTe. Elngland. Hit 
father and grandfather immigrated to the Untied Statet in 1629. Hit father married 
Ruth Jeannette Allen, the dau^ter of a toldier in the war of 1612. ^e wat a devout 
woman. Her ton'i (John E. Burton) reiigioui training wat in accordance with the 
Metfaoditt ^itcopal Church. For tixteen yean he wat a member of ihii church, bat 
drifted into agnoiticitm. He hai been all of hit bfe a worker in the Republican 
party, but in die Biyan-McKinky canq>aign bodi hit judgment and lympathy were in 
favor of bi-metallitm. Mr. Burton it a Royal Arch Maton, and alto a life member 
and vice^rctident of the State f-Iittorical Society of Witcomin. At die tociety't 
request in 1668 hit portrait wat painted by Frank B. Carpenter, the painter ot 
Emancipation-Proclamation fame, and hung in the tociety't gallery. Thit wai in 
recognition of hit contribution of many tpeciment to die tociety collection which he had 
gathered m Cuba, Yucatan, Hmidurat and Mexico, but chiefly in recognition of hit 
eSorti at die leading promoter in developing Wiic<M]tin'i iron interesb. 

December 7, 1669, John E. Burton married Lucretia Delphine Johnton, of Killa- 
wag, Broome County, N. Y., hit ichootmale at Cazenovia. The iitue of diit marriage 
11 four children — Howard E. and Warren E, both graduate* of the Uoivenity of 
'^X^tcontin, and now in butinet*. and Kenneth E. and Bonnie E.. Kennedi being 
superintendent of the Madcmna Mine. Monarch, Col., and the dau^ter it the wife of 
Ptai. Edmund D. DeniitMi. 

John E. Burton it a man of ttrong conviction* and unswerving hcmetty. He it 
very practical, and yet he it an idealitt Tbe tucceii he has won in butineti enterprite 
u a manifestation of the practical man; hit k>ve of books, hit ideaUaztion of the ttrong 
and masterful men of bittocy. hit work in the lubde realm of thought are evidence that 
there are time* when he ii an intellectual dreamer. He hat no uie for the tawdry tiniel 
of society, or for tbe iham and hypocrity of the world. If he ha* been aitiduout in 
gathering gear, it hat not been entirely "for the gbrioui privilege of being independent," 
but for the gratification be would derive from uting wealth for tbe accomp&thment of 
I diat will be helpful to odien. 

OTTO S. M08E8 

OTTO S. MOSES it a young man who hat been connected with the mercantile 
interetti of Nome and hat mined in die BHk Stone region. He has contributed 
in no imall degree to the social life of Nome. He it die fortunate postestor of a 
remarkably fine baritMie voice, which bean unmiitakable evidence of aitiduout cuhiva- 

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lioD. A dmnfttk enlerUunment or t (odal tewion b Nome would not be oomplelt 
without K MMig from Otto Mom«. 

He wu bora in Cermuiy, November 18, 1672, and inmiignted to New YoA 
whoi a (inaJI boy. He WM educated in the New Yorit public icho^ uid in the C^ 
College. He received hi* mudcal education horn private tulon. He went to StmUk 
in 1900, and in the filing of that year came to Nome. 


JOHN DeBUHR u an Inmachuk 
miner, and one of the diicovcnn 

of thic hmou* oaek. He wrai 
bom in Geraiany, April 16, 1868. and 
wai a tailor for teventeco years. Dur- 
ing hit retidence in the United Slatea 
be hat followed mining in Montana, 
Idaho, Oregon and Alatka. 

He arrived in Nook June 21, 
1699. He wai one of the paMCBgert 
on dte tteamer Garonne, the fint veiael 
to reach tbe new mining camp diii lea- 
■on. He took 500 feet of lumber with 
him and wat oCered $1 a foot for it. 
l.^>on hit arrival he obtained a lay on 
No. 3 DcKter Creek and woAed thii 
ground until Auguit I. when he told 
out and went to vroHc on tbe beach. 
He wat very fortunate on the beach, 
where he itnick tome rich ground and 
locked out at mudi at $300 a day. 

He returned to dte ttatet that fall 
and came back to Nome in the firing 
of 1900. He wat in the Kougarok 

•tampede, and m December, 1 900, he, john De buhb. 

Bill Davit, Jim McCorroick and Mr. 

Pa^cT left Nome with ten dogt and 1 ,000 poundt of pioviiioni for die Arctic tkpt 
They were out on thit trip forty-nine dayt. It wat die fint overland trip by pto*- 
pectors to tbe Arctic. The weather wat ezcq>tionaBy tevere and betides niienng fmn 
die very cold weather, during the latt twelve dayt of their trip they were compelled to 
Ive on two dayt' rationt. Returning, one of didr dogi froze to death in the henot. 
and when they got to Mary'i Igkio, the recording oficc of the Kougarok Dittrict, the 
thetmcMDeler regittered 66° below zero. They arrived in Nome January 16, the diy 
b^re the occurrence of the wont blizzard that ever iwept over Nome. While they were 
(m die Arctic tk>pe diey ttaked Old Gloiy Creek. 

Mr. De Buhr returned to the Arctic the itext firing, and during thii teatoo be 
made three overland tript between Nome and Inmachuk River. One of Ibete tnpt 
was made without blanketi, and Acre were no road-houtet for thelter. He did Ml 
attempt to camp or build a fire, at rain or tleet wat falHng all the time. He traveled 

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coMtantlr for three day* until he mched Kougarok Gty, where he obtaroed modi n e eded 
rot, and then finuhed the iouincy to Nome. During tfak leuon he k>cnted die (mdoih 
IniDBchuk mine*, now known M the Duhley Group. He obtained the &nt pajr ever 
found in the Inmachuk. From thii pay.«treak one pan of gravel yielded $24.60. 

In the fall of 1 902 he took in die fint >team boiler and thawer to tfait region, and 
began pioneering for winter digpngi. He it a finn believer in the future of thit part 
of the country, and ii the owner of (orae of the mott valuable proper^ on the Inmadiuk 


CD. HASKINS tay> that microbei of the 
• gold mining fever got into hit lyttem 
twenty yean ago, but a routine ol work 
requiring eternal vigilance and application pre- 
vented any virulent manife*tationi of the dis- 
eue until 1902, when be found an oppoitunity 
to vini Nome. In Seattle he bou^t an interest 
in a mining claim on Gold Run. and during die 
waain of 1902 he worked faithfully <» No. 10 
CM Run. and cleaned up the munificent mm 
of $32.40. But thii did not check the de- 
vdopment of the gold fever. Hit eq>erience and 
obeervation told him there wu gold m this 
legioB; tbe quertion to lolve wat the method of 
extracting it He came to Nome again in the 
■ummer of 1903, and hi* experience tbii aeaKm 
convinced him coachuivcly that water wai the 
great deoderatum. When he returned to the 
(tales this year it was with a firm deteiminatim 
to come back to Nome in 1904 prqiared to 

construct a dibli that wodd supply water to (, ^ habkins 

all tbe mineial ground of this region. He ac- 
cordingly organized tbe Hasldns Ditch and Mining Co, (Ltd.), with a capital of $2,000,- 
000, and raised die moocy necessary to build a ditch eight miles long from Canyon Creek 
to Gold Run. This ditch will have a water supply of several thousand minert inchca, 
and wiD cover an area of 1 0,000 acres of mineral ground. 

Mr.Haskins is a native of New Hampshire, but qient his boyhood days m Vemoot 
He was bora October 9, 1 853. At the age of diirteen he was a telegraph operator in a 
country ofice id Vermont, and a year later fiOcd a position in the telegraph oAce of the 
d^ of Banger. Coochiding that he wanted to be a saikv he ihipped before the mart 
and sailed in a number of veasek engaged in the coast trade. Tiring of a sailor's Hfe he 
started to learn the watch making trade, but he never forgot his first love. As a small 
boy at school he excelled in physics, and possessing an ingenious mind it was natural Aw 
him to drift back to the vocation that he began to learn when eleven yean old. Bdote 
he was twenty he was foreman of die Western Union Telegraph factory in New 
YoA, and in his twenty-second year he was »q>erintendent of the factory which emi^oyed 
180 mm. He remained with this company until they were succeeded by the Western 
Electric Con^wny, April. 1679. This company was succeeded by the Bell Tdephone 

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Company, and Mr. Hukini was XMOCMled with the medumkal and tnuiufactunns de- 
partincnl of thia company until 1 889, when he wax taken into the law department of the 
company ai chief expert. During his long tcrvice with theK companiet he made eleroi 
trip* to EuTi^K to ettabliih electrical (actone* at St. Petenburg, Berlin, Pant, Antwerp 
and London. E)uring his aiiociation with electrical companies, cmnpriiing the greats 
part of hi> life, hundred* of electrical inventioni have been lubmitted to him, and Aen 
ii probably no man in the United State* w^ has a wider knowledge of ekctncal ifva- 
ratu* in practical u*e. 

At the age of seventeen, while working in the factory of Chas. Williama, Jr., in 
Bo*ton, he wa* assigned to the work of aisiiting George B. Stevens to devek>p the duplex 
system, and while foreman of the Western Union factory in New York he assisted in tht 
working tests of the quanqtlex, or the Edison fie Pre*cott di4>lex. So it will be aeen that 
M grew up with the bu*inei* of electrical engineering and inventioru I-le has for a long 
time desired to engage in the business of gold mining, and notwithstanding a long and 
successful career at telegraph operator, manufacturer of electrical af^iaratus, eJectiicil 
engineer and electrical expert, he left the well-trodden padi when opportunity came to 
blaze a new trail in the nortbera gold (idds. 


JT. SULUVAN is a miner of the 
* Nome country who hat valuable 
interest* on Daniel'* Creek. He 
is a native of Minnesota and wai en- 
gaged in minmg before coming to 
Alaska. He was superintendent of a 
quartz mine near Rotsland, British 
Columbia, and ha* had wide piactical 
experience both as a placer and quartz 

He wait to Dawson in 1 897, and 
came down the Yukon to Nome. I-li* 
most successful mining venture ha* been 
the result of locations on No's 2 and 3 
Daniel's Creek by himself and hit part- 
ner, Jacob Berger. This property has 
been successfully cqierated. 

Mr. Sullivan is a man who shrink* 
from publicity, and I am taking the 
liberty of writing this brief sketch with- 
out hit kumdedge or consent. His 
valuable interest* in the mines of Seward 
Peninsula entitle him to mention in this 
work. He i* an aggressive, practical 
young man of good buimet* methods 
and commendable character. He ha* 
many friend* in Nome who esteem him a* a companionable a*>ociate and 
generou* impulses. 


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JACOB BERGER u one of the 
ownera of miniiiB property hav- 
ing « great vahie on Daniel'i 

Cre«k at Bluff. Thit property wat 

mined during the lummer of 1904 by 

bydrauUc methods, and the yield was 

fully up to the expectation of everybody 

interested, b the ownersh^ of thii 

proper^ Mr. Bergei ii associated with 

J. T. SullivaD. 

Mi. Berger is a native of Ger- 
many and diiity-fouT yean of age. He 

left the old country when he was a 

•mall boy and has been battling with 

the world since an early age. When 

twelve yesLJS old he sold newq>apen in 

St. Paul and Philadelphia. Since the 

age of ei^teen he has been engaged in 

mining, his first mining venture being in 

Britiih Columbia. He went to Daw- 
son via Juneau in 1897, and came 

down the Yukon to Nome in 1899. 

He began mining in the Nome country 

on the beach. During this summer he 

and J. T. Sullivan located No's 2 and Jacob berqbr. 

3 Daniel's Creek in the Topkuk coun- 
try. The great value of the pr^>erty was not determined until 1902, but dnce then 

it has been successfully mined every season, and there still remains a fortune in the 


Mr. Berger is a generous, whole-souled man who has many friends in the Northland. 


JOHN A. DEXTER is one of the earliest pioneeri of Seward Peninsula. He 
first came to diii country in the steam whaler Grampus in 1883. In 1890 
he came to Alaska to work in the Oomalik siKer mines, and has been a residmt 
of Seward Peninsula ever since. He conducted a trading station on Golovin Bay at 
the place now known as Cheenik. For many yean diis station was known as Dexter's. 
As early as 1895 he prospected on Ophir Creek, and assisted George Johansen, a 
pro^Kctor and quartz miner, to saw sluice lumber for the purpose of mining property 
in this region. When Libby, Melsing, Blake and Mordaunt came to Golovin Bay in 
1897. he sent a native out on a prospecting trip and the Eskimo returned with a small 
bottle of gold dust At the time of the excitement resulting fnmi the strike on Anvil 
Creek, Mr. Dexter obtained some property in the Nome country, but he is now pinning 
bii faith to 960 acres of placer ground on the Kuik River, a tributary of Norton Sound, 

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which containi & vut qtiuitity of low-grmde gravel which may be pn^tably opcrmled 
by improved methodi. 

Mt. Dexter wu bora on Buton Heig^ti, Virginia. December 9, 1&52. He 
went to BottcH) after die nnTencler of Richmond, and in 1870 went to tea. For a 
period of twenty-one yean he lailed the MU. During an interval he wm cngaived 
in putting down toipedoet for Chili and Peru. He lerved ai paymaster cMc in Ac 
Shenandoah with C^tain Charlie Norton. 

Mr. Dexter hat had M»De thrilling e:q>crience( in the Northland, one of wfaidi 
came near costing him hii Hfe, and to leriowly tnjund him that be never will recover. 
In 1694, while traveling from St Michad to hit borne on Golovin Bay, be got caught 
in a blizzard while on the ice. This wa« the wor*t blizzard he ever taw in tfie country. 
It lasted near three wedn. The ice broke and he aitd four nativei wee afloat tot 
nine dayi. They dug a hole m the now and put a cover over it. This dug-om vra* 
their only protection from the furiou* ttorm. When die ice finally drifted back there 
wat a cha«m of several feet of water between it and the anchored ice. In hit anxiety 
to be released from imprisonment on the floating floe he attempted to jtin^ the ■•t*"" 
but miscalculating dw distance fell in dw water. He came so near accooqilishiiig tbe 
feat duLt he was able to gnap the anchored ice and pull himself out He wa« vret 
to dte waist, and widi die diamtMnetcr at forty degrees bdow zero w«s instantly cov- 
ered vrith a solid sheet of ice. His legs were blistered by the intense coU and be vrma 
saved from freezing only by a change of clothing. Before he arrived at home he got 
in an overflow and had another narrow escape from freezing. After this trying ordeal 
he went to bed. and when be awoke from the sleep following the extraordinary fatigue 
and nerve tension of his perilous trip, he was a victim of locomotor ataxia. The pani 
be suCered was intense. Using morphine to alleviate hit suffering, he consumed ai 
much as twenty grains of the drug daily. Finally he threw the oinate away, reouuking 
diat he might as well "die of locomotor ataxia a* be a dope fiend." Mr. Dexter still 
suflen from his misfortune, but is able to travel and attend to his business aAws. 

No man in the North country is better acquainted with the Eskimo, no mas 
knows more of die true life of die native of this country than Mr. Dexter. His wifo is 
an Eskimo woman. She has a character that commands the re^Mct of everybody and 
die hii^iest esteem of dwse who know her well. She is a member of an old hmily of 
her race, and the education she received from her mother would profit maigr of her 
white sisters. From Mr. Dexter 1 have learned much of the Eskimo ivSk lore; stories 
which dieir histoiians have handed down from generation to generattoa. 


HENRY J. DIETER is a well-known mine owner and operator of Seward Penin- 
sula whose connection with this industry in this part of Alaska dates from the 
fall of 1900, He went to Dawstm in 1898, where he was mgaged in mining for 
two yean. He came down the Yukon to Nome in 1 900. and his practical knowledge of 
the mining business, good judgment and foresight enabled him to acquire some valuable 
properties in the Nome country. 

Mr. Dieter was bora in St Paul. Minnesota, October 15. 1662. His fadier 
was the proprietor of the oldest shoe establishment in Minnesota, and the son acquired 
a dxHough knowledge of this branch of the mercantile business, widi which he wu 
associated until he was twenty-diree yean old. At the age of twenty-three be wot 

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wot and engaged in quartz mkung in Lower California and Arizona. He retided 
five yeatt at Mercur, Utah, where he learned the cyanide proceu, the method in vogue 
there for treating low-grade gold ores. Subtequenlly he went to the Northwot and 
ptoq>ectcd in Roitbuid, Britiih Columhia. He was in this region during a period of 
two yean, and told two good protpecti, which were Hibsequmtly devek4>ed into fine 
dividend propatiet. At a later date he wai connected with the construction of the 
Great Northern RailroaiL In the eaily ninetiet he returned to Utah, and at ifaii early flatc 
became interested in Alaska. A num showed him some nuggets that had conw out of 
die For^'Mile country. When he heard the new* of the IClondike strike in 1 897, he 
started immediately for the northern gold field. He got over the pass that season, but 
was compelled to make a mnter camp on Lake Bennett He returned to St Paul that 
winter and again started for Daws<Hi in February, arriving at his destination June 1 1 . 
To borrow hii own language, he "never made a Ing thing in Dawson, but met w^ 
(air iuccest." He came near striking it rich in a fractioD of 26 above Bonanza. He 
made a pepper box of hii location, but failed to find pay in any of the many holes that 
be sunk. After he sold the property a "lucky Swede" located the pay-streak and 
extracted gold dust to the vahie of $380,000. Mr. Dieter was in possession of a 
good claim on Dominion Creek, but could not get a title. Some of the Ca n adian 
official* also knew the value of the property. 

He had sent a man to Nome in 1899, and disgusted with his failure to obtain 
a title to properties which rightfully belonged to him, he resolved to follow him and 
apply hii efforts in a region where he had the |»otectioD of Uncle Sam'i laws. En route 
to Nome he stepped at Circle and Ran^iart, and was favorably impressed with this 
part of Alaska. Arriving in Nome late in the season of 1900, he learned that property 
had been staked for him on the Bhiestone in the Port Clarence coimtry. Prospecting 
this property, he obtained pans of grave! diat yielded as much as $313 the pan. He 
was highly elated widi his proq>ecti, and believed that at last he had struck the right 
kmd of pay-streak. But the pay was in pockets, and the result of operation was not 
commensurate with die alluring proq>ects. He mined successfully two seasons on a claim 
at the mouth of Alder Creek. He is the discoverer of a big ledge in this vicinity 
which appeared to possess the possibiHfy of a great mine. This ledge is ei^teen feet 
wide and composed of cakite and quarts kidneys. From twenty-five cents to fifty cents 
the pan have been taken from die gouge. 

Before leaving Dawson he was shown stream tin from the York regpw. and after 
arriving in the Nmne country he kept men in this part of the pqunsula pro^iecting 
for tin ledges. The result of this prospectiiig has been the location of a large number 
of tin claims on Cape Mountain. Mr. Dieter has great hith in the tin proq>ects in 
this particular locality, and believes diat the ledges v^ch have been discovered will 
go down and cany continuous values. There is a vein on his property nine feet 
wide and the average of assays made of this ore show a value of fourteen per cent tin. 

In the fall of 1903 John E. Burton, one of die most successful and best known 
mine promoters of the United States, wired Mr. Dieter, who was then in Seattle, to come 
to Milwaukee. He went, and the result of this trip was the organization of die United 
States-Alaskan Tin Mining Company, which has been successfully financed. The 
company owns twenty tin claims which have every indication of bong among the moiT 
valuable tin properties of Alaska. 

This company is erecting a ten-ttamp mill, 100 horse-power engine, WiUey con- 
centrating tablet, electric driDt, assay office, etc., on this property this spring, there 

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country and the conditioD* which prevail there will enable him to operate hit pTtq>eTtiei 
to the bett advantage. Ai a merchant in Council City he acquired the eateem and 
confidence of the community, and b recognized a* & good citizen and an honorabie man. 


RH. HUMBER hold> the petition of ti«>eriD- 

• tcodcDl of die mail route between Nome and 
UnolaUeet. Every winter tince 1900. ex- 
cepting the winter of l904-'05, he hat carried mail in 
Northwedem Alatka. In four winter teatont and 
through every phate of winter weadur he hat traveled 
with dog teamt a total diitance of near 1 7,000 miles. 
He hat had many experiences on die trail, several peril- 
out adventuret, but hat escaped unhanDcd and with- 
out even a leiioUt frostbite. December 1 5, 1 902, he 
fell throu^ the ice of Norton Sound. That morning 
when he left the road-bouse where he had stopped the 
previous night the thernKnoeter was 45° below zero. 
Both the road-house proprietor and the natives tried 
to dissuade him from going. The Eskimo taid "Ice 
atzeruL" But Uncle Sam't mail had to be dehvercd. 
and he started to cross Norton Sound. After travel- 
ing fifteen miles and accomplishing one-half of his day's hitmrpii 
journey, and while running ahead of hit team, he 

went through a hole in the ice. Ftntunately hit arm caught on hrm ice and he got out 
quickly, but not before he was water soaked from the waist down. The distance to 
Isaac's Point was fifteen miles, and he knew that he must accomplish this journey or 
freeze. His water soaked garments froze instantly. He ran the entire fifteen miles, 
and arrived at the road-house in a little more dian two hours after meeting with the 
accidenL The violeot exercise prevented freezing, but his feet became very numb. 
He carried an ax with him, and with the handle he beat his feet to keep up the cir- 
culatioa unti] they were badly bruised. But notwithttanding thit thrilling adventure, 
be was ready the next day to ttart back with the mail 

On another occaticm, yihta carrying the nukil between Cape York and Nome, he 
was adrift <» a floe b Bering Sea, but thit it an experience that many Arctic exploren 
have had. I-le hat encountered blizzards while traveling over the ice, and has been 
COmpeQed to hah and crawl into his deeping bag. Some of hit dogt have been frozen 
on the trail. While Mr. Humber has passed dirough all these wdeaU without receiv- 
ing any scan or thowing any evidence of phytical etfedi, the mental itrain of tuch 
experieocet cannot be imagined by a perton unfamiliar with the winter environment 
of Alaska. 

Mr. Humber was bom in Lincob County, Kantat, November 19, 1671. He 
ii of Southern ancestry and was educated at the Louisville Military Academy. Hit 
boyhood days were q>ent in Montana, and in 1867 he was appointed asuttanl pott- 
master under George W. Carlton of the Deer Lodge Postoffice. Subsequently he was 
atsociated with the British Columbia Smelting and Refining Company at Rostland. 
He was among the fint men to go over the trail to Dawson in 1 697. He prospected 

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in the KJondike counb?, in the Forty-Mile counby md in other putt of the Noitliwcat 
until the ^>nng of 1 900. He came <1owb the Yukon in a Boall boat i mmrt dU tdy afta 
the break up of the ice. On account of hi> po«b>fiice expenence he obuined a pcxibaa 
in the Nome PoKoftce. and had charge of the mmtey order depaitmeit, and evo; winta 
nnce ha* been a nib-moil contractor under Calktnt Ac Rom. 

Mr. Humber it a young man of itrong resolutions and indomitabte wilL Ai 
may be inferred from what he has accompliihed he ha* the [Jiyiique of an atfatete. 
With a Itrong tente of duty and an admirable courage he hai the •ocial qualities wfiicfa 
have made him many friend*, who know and esteem him as an honorable and a woitliy 


CLYDE L. MOflRIS it the leading ditch contractor of Seward Peniimila. 
He came to Nome in die firing of 1900. and engaged in mining oo the 
beach. He luhtequently conducted mining operatiou on Odtrame and Ccslcr 
Creda. but failing to find a rich pay-strcak he quit mining to engage 
in the trantfer and height buiinett in Nome. From a modest beginning with two 
bones and a wagon, he hat, by phick. pertereraoce and pcrtirtoice, attained to the 
position of one of ibe largest contractors in Northwettem Ala^a. This seasoD. 1905. 
he has a contract for the cmutruction of near 100 miles of ditches. To ac- 
complish dui great volume of work he will take to Nome on die first Beet of the Nome 
steamers 108 head of bone* and will empkiy diit season not less than 500 men. 

Since the beginnmg of ditch work in Seward Peninsuk he has been promkMntly 
identified with that country as a cuitractot. He constructed the Hot Air Mining Com- 
pany's ditch, a ditch for the Wild Cooae Mining Company from Center Creek to tbe 
pumping plant, dte Northland Mining Company's ditch from Baho Credc to Berg 
Creek on Snake River, a five-mile sedicm of FlanJ>eau-Hattings' Ditch, seven miks 
<rf ditch for the Midnight Sun Ditch Conqtany in the Solmnon region, and ei^t milet 
of ditch for the Solomon River Hydraulic Mining Co. The equipment necessary for 
him to do all dm work made him the owner of many team* and much apparattn (or 
ditch building. But the contracts he has assumed this year have compelled him to 
bcrease diii equipment so that he is now in a position to undertake aiqr kiitd of work in 
the line of ditch building. He has now the largest equipment fw ditch building in 
Northwestern Alaska, and will be the largest empkqrcr of men in tbe Nome country in 
1905. His contracts for ditch construction this year amount to $300,000, and inchide 
I few the Seward Ditch and Cedric Ditch. 

In the past he ha* been no lets prominently identified with the frci^ and transfer 
I of Northwestern Alaska, In 1901, on May 24, when die steamer Jeanie 
arrived at Nome and dropped her anchor at die edge of die ice two miles from the 
town, the transfer men of Nome were asked to take the contract of hauling the ftetght 
with teams over the ice from the vessel to Nome. At this time the ice wat not regarded 
as entirely safe, but Mr. Morris being satisfied of his ability to successfully acconqilidi 
the task without accident, agreed to deliver the steamer Jeanie's 1,000 tons of freight 
to the c«itignees in Nome at the price of Kghterage, which was five dolhurt die ton. 
He accompbdied this undertaking without a mishap, aldiough it was necessary to bridge 
several ciacb in the ice with timbers, and v^eo the ice parted from the shore a fnr 
days later die first fissure wat at a place where he had made a bridge. 

The wonderful devekipment of his business and the success he has attained at 

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Nome have b«eti due to the fact that he it ao industriout man and the pooettor of 
exceDent bunneu quabtiei. With cabn and unerring judgment be ha« been able to 
take advantage of eveiy point that hai come hit way, and die tuccest be bat achieved 
it illuttrative of what may be accompliahed by men who apply themaelvet to work widi 
a tingleneti of putpoM. 

Mr. Monit it a native of Pomeroy, Waihingtm. He wat bom September 2, 
1876. When he wai a tmall boy the family moved to Oregon and nibiequently west 
to California. Hit early education wat obtained in the pabKc tchook of San Frandico. 
In 1689 hit family moved to Port Towntend, Waihington, where hi* mother itill m- 
tides. Mr. Monit attended the Port Towntend tchook, woifced a year at the piinlen* 
trade, wat engaged b the dairy bwinett and took a commercial courte in the Acme 
BuiincH College. Tliete briefly told eventt cover a period of nine yean of hit Hfe. 
In 1898 he went to Vancouver Iiland, Bntith Cohmibia, aitd wat emplojred at ac- 
countant by the Mount Sicker and Britiih Columbia Devdopment CtHr^tany. Later 
he became local manager of the Lenora Quartz Mine, one of the company's propertiea, 
and held this poiitkHi until the spring of 1900. 

Mr. Morrit it a young man, and \^t he hat accomplithcd bat beai the result of 
his single-handed and unaided endeavors, f-le it wide-awake, progreative, induttriout. 
reliable and honorable. Hit work hat contributed in no tmall degree to the devdoi^ 
ment of the mineral resources of Seward Peninsula. 


J POTTER WHITTREN it a civil engi- 
* neer ^o hat done the surveying for 
some of the important ditch enterprises of 
Seward Peniiuula. He it a native of Botton. 
Massachusetts, and was bora August 3, 1872. 
He wat graduated from Harvard in the class 
of 1895 with the degree of B. S. During a 
period of two yeart he wat attittant engineer 
for the Wisconsin Central Raihoad. He went 
to Dawson in the spring of '99 and came to 
Nome in 1900. He it the consulting engineer 
of the Council City and Solomon River HmI- 
road Company, and wat atsociale engineer in 
the survey of the Topkuk Ditch and the Gold 
Run Ditch. He surveyed the ditch line of die 
Solomon River Ditch Coa^Mny, and m the min- 
ing mgineer for the Goode Quartz Company, 
whose locations are on Trilby Mountain in the 
Solomon River region. Mr. Whittren holds the 

appointment of Dqnity United States Mineral j. potter whittren. 


Mr. Whittren it brimful of energy, and postoscs the capacity to work ezpeditiau>|y. 
Among his clients are die leading operaton of Seward Peninsula. A man of excellent 
character and broad intelKgcnce, a thorou^ training has well qualified him for the 
work of hit profettion. 

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AN intererting rtory could be 
told of ■'Michigan fumer'i 
■on who, unaided, except by 
hit own indwliy and zeal to obtain 
an education, let out when he was 
a mall boy to get away from Uie 
dnidgeiy and environment of turn 
life. It would be a hittoiy of a dutiful 
•on t^ioM father believed that too 
much education wa* baleful initead 
of helpful and that the only road lo 
McceM lay along the way of work 
and drudging toil to wiuch he and 
hii ancestor) had been Hibjected. 
The boy'i burning dedre for an 
educatiou made him plead hit caic 
to effectively that the father'i con- 
tent wat obtained, upon the condi- 
tion that the boy thould do hit ihare 
of the farm work and the education 
thould be obtained without any ex- 
pente to the father. The high ichool 
which the child wanted to attend 
wu in the village three miW and a 

half from Ae farm, and the educa- ^ ^ thaphaobn. 

Jwn It could fumith wat tecured by 
the boy without violating the con- 
tract with hit father. After graduating from the hi^ tcbool d>e boy had die temeiiV 
to attend the examination for teachen which he tuccetifully patted. He auccecded 
in obtaining a country school, and after leachmg one year attended the Univenity of 
Michigan, paying for the tuition with the money he had earned. By teaching and mO- 
tng school tuppKet he earned the money with which he obtained a imivertity educttioD 
and fitted himtelf for the profeuion of teaching. This boy wat D. H. Traphagcn, nW 
principal of the Nome public ichooU. 

He wat bora near Fenlon, Michigan, October 14, 1676. The foregoing ii hot 
a glimpte of hit early life. He wai principal in the Owato pubHc tchoob in hit utire 
state in 1900 when he resigned to go to Nome. 

Arriving in Nome he undertook the work of mining on the beach. He bad ^"^ 
an amalgamator to be operated by a gatoline engine, but he toon discovered that ibe 
ihnce-box method wat the best way of mining. He made tome money ^>enting <><■ 
the beach, and later b the season went to Teller. In 1901 he wat interested in tK 
mines of the Kougarok District But diese ventures not being so successful at be 
anticipated, he returned lo Seattle m the fall of 1901 with die mientioa of lakiiS 
a post graduate course. In Seattle he organized the night school under Superintewlat 
Cooper, and taught mathematics m the hi^ school during die winter. In the tf>^ 
he resigned and returned to Nome, where he spent the summer season, retumiiig "* 

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Seattle in the fall of 1902. Duiing the winter of )902-'03 he was principal of the 
Inlerbay School, and wai re'«ngage(l to teach thit school the succeeding term when 
he tecured the prindpakhip of the Nome School. Tboroueh in hk work, of which 
he poitenea a compr^eniive knowledge, attentive to hit dutiet, and having tplendid 
executive ability, D. H. Trapbagen it a luccewful teacher. Education hat deveU 
oped talent and made him a man of marked ability. 


DURING the fall of 1697 and qning of 1S98, 
Frank W. Swanton. with othen, organized a 
company known at the Minnctota-Alatka De- 
vck^ment Co. of Minneapolit, Minn. Thit company 
built at Tacoma, Wath., two liveriteamen, rae called 
the Minneapolit, and the other the Nugget, (or the 
purpose of exploring Alaika and incidentally of tecur- 
ing tome of the gold of thit new Eldorado. He ar- 
rived m St. Michael about Augutt I, 1898, with the 
intottion of going iqi the Yukon to Dawaon, but re- 
porti received of the immenae richet of the Koyukuk. 
and iti tiibutariet, and of the great tuiphu population 
of DaWMw, induced him and hit company to change 
their plant, and they proceeded to atccnd the Koyukuk, 
getting along very nicely until Sept. 1 3, when at a 
point about four roila above Bergman, a town some 
600 milet up die Koyukuk, the tteamer landed on a 

bar and there it remained, ail effortt to get it oS p ^ swanton. 

proving futile. He pro^>ected all that winter, going 

up the Koyukuk at far at iti head, but found nothing that leenied like pay, and ^en 
the ice broke m the ^>ring, came down to Nulato without knowing exactly where to 
go. At that point the big strike at Nome was int heard of, and he contequently de- 
termined to go there, and arrived at Nome Auguit 15, 1899. He went to work 
on the beach with a rocker, located aome town lott and tmne mining daimt, at wat 
the fathimi of the day. but did not "ttrike it rich." He wat munictpal cledi of the 
firtt government ever formed in Nome, and, when the Nome Mining Dittrict vrat form- 
ed in compliance with federal tialute, he became dqiuty mining recorder and later 
poitmaitcr of Nome, vdiich potition be ttill holdt. 

He wat die lecond prctideol of the Anvil Maaonic Club, an organization known 
all over the United Statet; wat Arctic Chief of Camp Nome No. 9, of the Arctic 
Brotherhood, and it now Grand Vice-Arctic Chief of that organizatim, 

Mr. Swanton wat bom in Ck>nmell. Ireland, Dec 29, 1863, and educated in 
Dr. Knight't private tchool and Queen's College, Cork. He went to the United 
Statet m 1863. and wat emi^oyed by the Pilltbury, Washburn Flour Milb Co., of 
Minneapobt. At a later date be wat in butinett for himself in the steam tpecially 
Hne, representing a number of large manufacturert of steam suppHea. Mr. Swanton 
it a popular and highly etteemcd citizen of Nome, who hat taken an active part n 
all measures for the good of the community. 

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LL SAWYER ii one of ihe 
• beat knovm and moct hi^ily 
erteemed citizou of Nome. 
Dunns die put two yean he bu filled 
« pontion on die ichool board, being 
elected thereto by a large majority, and 
•dected by die board to perform the 
duliei of tecretary of that body. He 
» a Connecticut Yankee and the mni of 
Jeremiah Nathaniel Sawyer and Elmel- 
ioe Kelly. Hi» father'i ancatry ii 
f.ngliA and hit mother'* Iriih. He 
w»i bom Oaobtt 21. 1832, in Mya- 
tic Connecticut He it (be third mhi 
of a family of tevcn children, five btqri 
and two girk. Hb ancetlon were 
among ihe Pilgrim Father*. They 
were (eamen and hit htfaer was a c^i- 
tain and owner of veneb. Hi* elder 
brother wa* a beuloiant in the Lhited 
Sutei Navy during the Rebellion, and 
•ubtequent^ wa* Lhited Slalet Con*ul 
«t Trinidad, W. I. Jeremiah N., the 
•econd ton, wa* a tea captain and one 

of die ownen at Galvetton, Texat. of ^- ^ bawtbb. 

die Charlet MaDory Line of Steamer* 
between New York and Galvetton. He wa* agent of the coaqiany. 

In the period of Mr. Sawyer'* bo^iood there were not the opportmutiet for 
acquiring an education that exist today. Mr. Sawyer'* akna mater was a cross-road's 
coimtry school in Mystic, Connecticut At the age of sixteen he wai left an orphan 
and thrown up«i hit own resources. Following the hereditary instinct he went to tea 
at a sailor. In 1649 be shyiped before the mast and went around die Horn to San 
Francisco, California, and resided in thi* *tate a number of yean. He and Juha £. 
Price were married in California in 1657. The imie was a son and a daughter, 
both deceased. Mrs. Sawyer, wtto has been his inseparable companion for near 
half a century, it with hnn in Nome. 

In 1855 he and hit brother, Jeroniah, filled a vessel in San Francisco to go Id 
Bering Sea on an expedition to trade for fur and ivory. The vessel was crushed 
in the ice after having been loaded in lew than a month with a cargo obtained from ibe 
natives and valued at $60,000. The vea*d and cargo were lost. Mr. Sawyer 
engaged in mining in California, and vrent to Frazer River, British Columbia, during 
the excitement over that camp in 1858. In 1660 he ftJIowed the stampedcn to 
Caribou, carrying a pack on hit back from Fort Hope to Caribou, a distance of 
several hundred mile*. 

In 1670 he left the Pacific Coast and returned to Connecticut, engaging in maDa- 
facturing in Meriden. He organized the Meriden Curtab Fixture Company, **> 

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nanufactiDc a (bade fpriag wintiow roller wfakb he had patented. Thit company it 
now the largett manufactiiret in thii line in the worU. He nude a fortune out of 
thn esterpiite. and lott it through dte mental aberratioat of hb paitner who became 



of I 






tember. 1892, wid dtning the four ytm which were required for hi* recov«y he 
fumed in the Suie of WMhingtoo and applied himadf to the ihidy of geology. 

He came to Nome in the ^mng of 1900 u manager of a con^any. Hie com- 
pany went to piecei and left him •tranded. but being a man of re«ourcei and practica] 
ability he found profiuble enq>kiyment. He hat done a great deal of "muahing" io 
ihb country, having made five trips to the Arctic ilope over the ice. He aerved u 
d^uly reo>fder under United Sutet Conunintoner Tom Noyei of the Fairfaanii 
Dillrict, and it now connected with the United State* Comnutnoner'i office in the 
Nook DitlricL Mr. Wyokoop helped to organize die Alaika Acadenqr of Sdeocei. 
He ha* taken great intereri in the work <i thit initituliao. He wat married b 1 876 
to Ella E. Davii, of E^berg, PamtyWania. Two dau^teit, Edilfa M. and 
Hattie E., both of whom are married, are their only lurviving chilAen. 


THE men who own the ditchc* of Seward Peninank practically control 
the mine* of the country. Every man that hai a ditch enterpriae, projected, under 
way, or completed, in this country, ha> made die mott of hit cpportuniliea, and ii 
preparing to make hit fntune. Without water the minea cannot be operated, and willi- 
out dilche* water cannot be got to all the minet. 

The young man who it the subject of thit sketch came to Ncnne in the ipring of 
1900, and to quote hit own language, "landed on the beach with $7 and a tpmntA 
ankle." But he possessed the one prerequisite of succeti in a new country, industry. 
From bit p«nt of view idleness is a crime, an abhorred something to be thuiued. ll 
it as natural for him to work at it it to partake of food \^ien he is hungry. He hu 
that nervous, muscular temperament vrbich keeps the mind keyed to cmicert pitch ud 
is a constant ipur to physical endeavor, ll is by work and self-denial and exposure to tbc 
inclemencies of both Arctic summer and winter, by sincerity of purpose and honesty of 
methods, that he has been able to accomplish what he has done. 

A. C. Stewart it the vice-president and general manager of the Golden Dawn Min- 
ing Con^Mny, which owns tome of the most valuable mining property on Seward PcsiD' 
fula, and hat under construction an extensive ditch on the right limit of Snake River cov- 
ering a vast area of mineral ground. Mr. Stewart vras bom January 23, 1874, at King- 
•ton, Ontario. He it of Scotch parentage and spent his boyhood days in IGngston, Ontario, 
vdiere, when he was ten ytan old, he distributed the Kingston daily papen to counUr 
subscribers. At the age of sixteen yean he was a sailor on die lakes. When he vmi 
nineteen years old he went to North Michigan and became a prospector in the iron region. 
He worked in the woods as a lumberman. When twoity-thrce years old he wti n 
Montana proq>ecting and mining. While he was a sailor on the lakes he learned the ut 
of cooking and baking, and he frequently has followed hit avocation at a cook to obtain 
fundt with which to go prospecting. 

Attracted by the newt from Nome in 1 699. he wat one of die early arrivals in tht 
camp the ftJlowing spring. Hit first employment was cooking in a restaurant The wagn 
he received were $1.50 an hour. After earning some money, be put a pack mi ha 
back and started for the creeb. He secured some property this season, and staited <■> 
go outside for the winter. At Dutch Harbor he found empbyment as a cook in ik 
United Sutcs Marine Hoqiital. He filled this position until the hospiul ckised, tbice 

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['lnit.i«nl|ih by C. B. Dobbw. 



months and a half later, and received from the Govemment in addition to hii lalaiy, a 
high recommendation for lobncty, conduct and abili^. 

In the ipring of 1901, he returned to Nome with hit brother. J. W. Stewart They 
proapected during the lunimer tcaion, and having the promiie of a gnib-«take, made 
prqwraliou to remain in the country the ensuing winter. But the last boat sailed, and the 
pTomiied grub-stake had not arrived. Mr. Stewart's entire available aweti coniiited c^ 
forty-two dollan in dust and a tent on his Coopo' Gulch Claim. He lived in this tent 
during that winter. On February 1, 1902. he was sent to the Arctic slope. It was 
one of the severest and wont tiqH that he ever had in diis country. [>uTing this trip he 
was in a bad blizzard, and for forty-four hours his dog team of ei^l dogs was buried 
under the snow. He had a bng weary tramp in search of shelter, and when nearly ex- 
hausted and badly fiozm fortunately found a road-house. Elxperience* like these have 
come to many prospecton who were in the Nome country during the eaHy days, and diey 
are inddenti v^ch are branded on the memoiy of every man ^^lo has fou^t the bUizard 
on die trail 

He arrived in Candle City after the arduous and dangerous trip, and found that 
there was nothing there for him. He succeeded m borrowing thirty dollars, fifteei of 
which he spent for iity pounds of flour and the other fifteen dollars for a pair of ruhbcr 
boots. He got a )ob woddng for Baker & Long on Candle Creek at ten dollan the 
day, and after working tweoty'^une shifts be started in mid-iununer to return to Nome with 
a jMck hone across the pcsunsula. His guide on this li^ was a cotapau. He refas to 
this tri> as one of the pleasant aperioKM of hii hfe, as it gave him an opportunity to 
■ce and examine die country and acquire a better knowledge of it than he previously had. 

After he returned to Nome the balance of the season was occupied in doing assessment 
worit on die proper^ he had previously acquired. He also did some projecting on Snake 
River, and there and then resolved to concentrate his etforts and confine his w«k to this 
part of the peninsula. At dial time he owned claims on Cooper Gulch and Holyoke 
Creek. Between thn date and the ipring of 1903, he acquired water tights and se- 
cured surveys for the ditch which he now has partially consbructed. In 1903 he went 
back to Green Bay, Wisoonrin, and organized the Golden Dawn Mining Conqtany com- 
posed of representative men in that part of the state. A ditch, thirteen miles from Bangor 
Creek to Sunset Creek will be finished this year, 1905. Hydraulic elevators will be in- 
stalled on the property of the company, and the work of mining by the latest improved 
mediods will begin. 


WC. WILXINS is die manager of die Seward Peninsula Mining Company. This 
• company is installing a $90,000 dredger this season to <q>erate iu extenshre 
holdings on Nome River. The property was well prospected by Mr. Willdns 
in order to ascertam the values m the grounds before the large initial rfp^mr of building 
a dredger and tranqwrting it to Nome was incuned. The result of die proq>ecting 
fully warrants the heavy preliminary expense of the extensive mining operations proposed. 
Mr. Wilkins has had an bterestiDg and varied career in Alaska, bei^nning 
in the spring of 1897. He was an architect and builder in Philadelpha, Pa., and 
started for the Kkmdike in 1697 on a vacation, intending to remain only a few months. 
While m Dawson be acquired several valuable mining interests and among other properties 
49 bench. Bonanza Creek, which has since he relinquished it produced $1 ,000,000. He 

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■Uked thii claim b the ipiiaf of '96. He relumed to the (Uta m tbe foUowmc bi 
and went back to Dawaon in 1899. In 1900 he made a trip to the hcad-waien of 
ibe Kfqrulnik. He dcac tn d e d Ihk atreaiB in a rowboal, floating down Ibe Yukon to 
St Michael Thii trip catmi a period of Iwoity'two dayi. He had gnib-stefced 
a man in Dawion in 1699 to go to Nome, and through thii grub-vtake anangcBiait 
acquired tome property on Deitcr and Glacier Credn, ^^licb he itill hold*. 

Mr. Wilkin* per c eiTcd from the beginning of hit connection with tbe Nome coandy 
that capital wat required to accon4>liib undertakingi of any magnitude. The indhridnal 
miner mi^t find a rich pay-dreak and tucceed in taking out a krge quantity <^ gold 
dutt, but inttaucca of tliii kind were the exception rather than the rale. Kb ii»- 
veatigatiou of tbe mincnl dcpotiti of the peniniula tatithed him that tbe moat aucceatfnl 
opcrati(»it were to be conducted with tbe aid of modern mining machinery. After mp » ^ 
in a detuhoiy toft of way and with indifferent hkcch during the teatmit of l90l-*02-'03. 
he went to Phikde^hia and m die ^mng of 1904 organized tbe Seward Pcnmanla 
Mining Company in that o^. Tbia company purchated the boldingi of die None 
River and New York Hytkaubc Mining Company which owned 1.260 acret of mma^ 
ground <m Nome Una above tbe moutfa of Dexter CrecL During the tummer of 1 904 
Mr. '^A^lkini (vaipected (hit ground with a keyitone drill and having tatitfied htmaelf of die 
value* which it coatamed. by peniatence and hard work lucceeded in aecuring Ibe 
neccatary fundt to work upon diii property by wbat he comtdered tbe beat and moal 
kaaible method. He cxpecti to demoodrate the accuracy of hit judgment and tbe 
tucceii of tbe big ondertakiBg before the doae of navigation tbit year. 

Mr. Wilkint hat endured the harddiipt of the Alatkan protpector. He bat traveled 
over the uncertain traib of Seward Pcninaula in die eady dayt, and bat "muihed" 
through the Uindmg blizzard when tbe conqwat wat hit only guide. During tbe 
winter of l902-'03 be made a mcmMraUe trip from Nune to Inmachuk River. During 
thit Ir^ he encountered tbe l everc tt weadier ever experienced lince the ditcoveiy of gold 
in die Nome country. Several proipecton were frozen ttiff and Hark on the trail during 
thit winter, and Mr. ^X^lkim narrowly escaped ttte tame fate. Several dogt in lui 
team became exhauiled, and had to be cut out erf die hameia and left to periih in tbe 
nmcileat ilonn; and only by die exerciae of extraordinary will, that forced hit weniy 
Umbt to trudge <mward at a time when wearineia made death dearable. wat he 
saved from the rooitali^ litt of tbe unfortunatei who have succumbed to tbe blizzardi of 
Ibit country. Six^ dayt were contumed m the round-trip from Nome to Inmachuk River 
and Candle Gty, and while thit distance can be covered in a SOO-mile journey. Mr. 
WiUoni ettimatei that he traveled not Icm than 600 milet. One that hat not traveled 
over the wildemett in a bEnding tnow ttorm when the thermometer it away below zero 
can not realize tbe dttcuhy of holding a courae. A person that becmnet bewildend 
in a blizzard frequently traveb in a circle. The cold, cutting wind forces the tmvder 
to make many detoun m an effort to pursue his journey lo diat he may obtain the pro- 
tecting tbeller of the hiDs and rooantamt. These conditioni make a winter trip in die 
Arctic region longer and more arduous than it otherwiie would lie. 

Mr. ^^Ikim was tbe firtt man that -ever went from Haines Mtttion acroa to die 
Yukon with a pack train. Hit first trip in Alaska was made by this route. He toot 
ten horses with him, and before reaching hti destination wat compelled to kill several 
of the animals for food for himself and companions. He wat accompanied by three 
men and an Indian ^o had adopted Lieut Schwatka's name. The men who 

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W. C. H'I1,KINS. 

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have braved the dangen of an unknown trail in Alaska dcMrve tucceM. not mereb' 
ihe nicceM of a competmce, but the succeM of a fortune. 

W. C WHmt wat born at Mt. PleaMRt, Pa., and educated at tbe Ml Heaaant 
Clawic and Scientific lutitute. He was equq>ped for the profenion of civil engineeniig, 
•nd for a period of twelve yean wa* an architect and builder in the dty of Pluladek>hia, 
at one tinM handling contract* aggregating $1,000,000 annually. NotvndutandiDg 
hi* expa 
of edncal 
and cuhi 

to thaca 

IWD (rf 1 

die State 
1876 he 

ned die 
to La C 
to dw (a 

Fort Wi 

of 1899 
lofore u 
naed wi 
takinc on 
n die hii 

by nieani 

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iksl the (led came back covered with toow, but he wai not prqived kn die coubkai 
which turrounded him when he came to the furface at 5 o'clock to go to h» abm. 
The ni^t wat dadc at Egypt, and the wind wai blowing w^ luch foTt:e that be 
tound it difficult to itaDd. The air waa filled with flying now, and be debilcd 
whether be ibould go back into the mioe and reiume woHc, or tty to go to tbc alb. 
In the mine be knew there wu lafetjr, and ahhou^ the calnn wa* onir « tboit diriuct 
away, and be knew the direction perfectly weU. he might min it and periih in i^ 
furious (tonn. The thou^t diat hii cabin mates, who were two men that were wotti^ 
aaodier claim, mi|^t attempt to hunt for him and loie their lives, inqidled him to p 
forward. When he had covered half die distance he obtsved a comer stake viii 
he passed daily, and saw dut he was a few points off his course. The wind wu 
blowing at a right angle to hit course, and in endeavoring to make allowance for Ae 
force of the gale he had worked too far up mto the wind. Taking his bearing agia. 
be went on. and reached the ^mt where the cabin ou^t to be. but found ik> cabin. Ht 
called at die top of bis voice, but ihere wat too much noise made by the dements for Ui 
convanions to hear him. Bewildered, he stood still for a few miuntes. but the pcK- 
trating cold warned him that be could not stand still and expect to be aGve when daybgb 
retumed. He went on, and a short distance ahead found another landmark tfaat enabled 
him to retrace his itept and find the cabin door. Next day when the storm had abated Ik 
found the spot where he had stopped and stood and called for hdp. and it was on ttp 
of the cabin. This cabin wat a tort of a dug-out in the hill-tide, only the face of t 
being vitible in the winter time. 

Tbit experience caused him to make provision for another such contingency. He 
constructed a windmill wteh a tick-tack, and when the wind blew bard it made i 
noite that could be heard a coi^le of miles away. One bad ni^t during this wads. 
v4tcn the wind wu howling and suarhng from the north, whqiping the snow tron i 
mountains to tundra, from tundra to the tea, there wat a knock at die doM of the aim- \ 
Hastily getting out of hit bunk and opening the door, a man, nearly exhausted and htl 
frozen, stumbled inside. He had beoi lost, and wat about to give 19 in despair wlxn k I 
heard die noite of the windmill He look a course in the direction of the sound and foml 
the cabin. The windmill taved his life. ' 

In 1901 Mr. Chilberg wat foreman for die Pioneer Mining CoofttJiy on MooobK 
CreeL In 1902-'03 he was connected with the Nome El^loratioD Company. In IS79 k ' 
married Mist Una Woodward. Hiey have two dau^tos, one of whom is the wife 01 
Frank Victor, manager of the Moore Jewehy Company lA Seattle. Mr. ChilbcTg v * 
good citizen, \^l0se honesty, genial nature and courtesy are best known to those vAc bw 
him indmately. 1 


CAPTAIN E. M. CEDERBERGH hat been identified with Northwestan Alub 
ever since the great ruth in the spring o( 1900. The hvorable rqMitt >mt 
reached the itates from this region in die fall of 1899 caused Captain CedertMi" 
to go to Alatka. In addition to these encouraging reports, he was induced by Etita* 
capitalittt to take charge and manage some bvettmenlt in diis part of die coudIit> » 
^ch they thought favorably. He acquired the property of die Arctic Trailing & 
Mining Co. for the people he rqwetented, and lubtequently reorganized thit conpv?' 
naming it the New York Metal and Reduction Co. The capital itock vrat subtcAea 

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1^ dtizeu of New York. The holdings of thii conqwny are on Cikcier, Oregon and 
Buiter Creeki and on Cripple River. All of thit property it lituated in a desirable 
part (rf die country, and on streams where profitable mining operations have been, and 
are, conducted. In 1902 Captain Cederbergh was soBcited by friends in Chicago to 
obtain some property in the Nome country for thnn. A* a riesuh of the overtures of 
these friends, be made purchases of mining claims on Dick and Reindeer Creeks, in 
what was then known as the Good Hope Mining DistricL In January, 1904, he 
was asked to go to Chicago and assist in the organization of the Good Hope Bay 
Mining Co., and was elected president of this corporatioi. Adequate funds wck 
•ub«crU>ed for dte preliminary work of iwoq>ecting, and Captain Cedetberg^ came to 
Nome in die summer of 1904 with a large outfit and equqHnent to begin work (» the 
Dick Creek mining claims. He was seriously handicapped in his endeavon this season 
by a severe illness, and suffered an (q>eration for appmdicitis. which brought him near 
to the door of dcadi. As soon as he was convalescent be tent to the base of his proposed 
work twenty tons of svqiplia, steam thawers and several men to conduct the work of 
prospecting during the foUowing winter. 

During the winter of 1904 and 1905 Captain Cederbergji was appointed to the 
podtion of Vice-Consul of Swedra and Norway for the State of Oregon. His office 
is in Pordand. This position came to his as a tcstimmial of his worth as a citizen and 
his high T*'"'^"^ in the community, and as a result of the strong siqiport and endorsement 
that he recoved from the business men of Portland, Seattle and New York who had 
known him for many years. 

E. M. Cedcrber^ was bom in Stavangar, Norway, November 11, 1853. Hit 
early education was received in the schools of his native iand. When twelve years okl 
he wat sent to Germany and received three years' schooling in that country. In 1870 
the ^irit of the old Norse Vikingi awoke within him, and he went to tea, shipping 
at a tailor before the mast He folk>wed the sea for a period of twelve years. In seven 
3rears he had attained to the position of captain, and during the last five yean of his 
life on the tea he was master of the vessels in which he sailed. 

The history of his hmily n a part of the aiuiaU of Norway. Hit grandfather 
was a member of the Norwegian Parliament His father was a manufacturer, and the 
tub)cct of diit sketch received his early butinest training in a mercantile house and was 
associated with the mercantile business at the time of the death of his father, just prior 
to die time when he became a sailor. He immigrated to America in 1883, and after 
a brief stay in Chicago went to Portland, where he has resided ever since. Dining his 
residence in Pmtland he has engaged m die meicantile and real estate business, and at one 
time was employed in the tax departmoit of the sheriff's <^ice. 

April 25, 1880, Captain Cedeibergh and Mitt Marie Nyman were married in 
Stavangar, Norway. Mn. Cederbergh has accompanied her husband on all of hit 
ocean voyages. Site hat ihared with him hit esperiencet in the Nrnthland and has been 
hdpful to him in aQ his work, ^e it a woman of culture, rare mtdligence 
and genial quafities. Captain Cedeibergh it a good citizen; he it a man of uncompro; 
mising integrity, loyal to his friends and just to everybody. He is brim full of energy 
and carries widi him the sunshme of a happy nature, which brings light and hope into 
the Eves of all who have the good fortune to kitow him. It was in recognition of his 
estimable traits of character that he received the distinguished honor from his native 
country of the aiq>ointment to a position in its consular service. 

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JOHN RUSTGARD n a lawyer 
Mid mioer of Seward PoiinsuU 

who hai the dittiiKtioii of having 
Ktved one lenn ai mayor of the City of 
Nome. He ii a Norwegian by birth 
Mtd an Anteticcn by choice. la hk 
youth he worked in law milk, lumber 
yardi and ai a carpenter, and witli bb 
own eamingt paid hii way through 
high (chool and college. He wat grad- 
uated from the law (cbool of the Uni- 
veruty of MinaeMita is 1690. For 
two yean prkir to hit grmdtution and 
•dtoiuion to the bar Ike wat a teacher 
in one of the hi^ ichooli of Mineapo- 
St, Minneaota. 

In 1699 be went weit, and cane 
to Nome in the early Himmer of 1900. 
Since hit rendence in Nome he haa 
been stampeding, [voipectingi miwjng 
and practicing law and ^)eculating in 
mine* and meichandiie. At the Nome 
municipal election in April, 1902, he 
wu elected to die common council by 

the largert vole cart for any of the ■'°«^ RUBTaARD. 

candidatet, and was elected by that 
body at pretideni and ex-officio mayor. 

Mr. Rmtgard it a man of unquestioned ability. He bat the faculty of force- 
ful cxprcttion both at a writer and at a speaker. He betievea diat "booetty is the 
best policy." and that one who coniistoitly abides by principle can well afiord to 
calmly await the rcuilL Being an aggressive man he hai made tome oiemies but be 
has a host of friends, and he says that he "has reason to be proud of all them." 


THEf^ are few men in this part of the northern country who have as many fnendi 
and acquaintances at M. J. Sullivan. He it a miner from Dawson who bat 
been identified with Northwestern Alaska since the spring of 1900, and is now 
a prominent mine operator of the Cold Run and Solomon River regioiu of Seward 
Peninsula. Good natured, even tempered and always genial, with a heart in proportioa 
to fail Urge physique, he it the possessor of the kind (rf character that takes an optimirtic 
view of life, and draws to him many friends. 

He was bom on a farm in Iowa, February 9, 1 667. and received hit educalioD 
in the public schoolt of his native state. From the time he was nineteen years c^ and 
for a period of ten yean, he wat connected with the train service of raiboadt in the United 

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J[. J, Sri.I-IVAK. 

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State* uk) Mexico. He began hi* railroad career on the Union Pacific and concluded 
this line of work in Mexico. 

In 1697 hit wa* one of the fiitt outfiu to go over White PaM. HTh trip acnw 
the kkcs and down the Yukon wat a menoTable experiuice. While he wai b Daw- 
foo he mined on HubIut Creek, and he came down the river to Nome in the firing 
<A 1900. This camp has been the (eat of hii raining operationi ever since that date 
Mr. SuSivan it connected widi several important mining entcTpriiet, and is the owiMf 
of some vahiaUe and promising propertiet. 


AH. MOORE has been a rendent of Nome once the spring <rf 1 900. and hu 
• been oonspicuou^ identified with the freighting, transfer and contracting butiaat 
of Seward Peninsula. He was the owner of the Gold Beach Transfer Com- 
pany, doing a general freighting and transfer business, and conducting a line of stages 
between Nome and Council City in the winter seasms. He hat also built a number 
of ditches in this country, among them the Cripple River Hydraulic Mining Company'^ 
Ditch, the Corson Ditch, and the Golden Dawn Ditch. During the past winter be 
oiganized die Gokl Beach Development Company, of which S. C Anderson is pieadeaV, 
Robert Hall, vice-president; Frank Omeara. treasurer; W. L. Barclay, secretary, and A. 
H. Moore iiq)erintendenl. This is a St. Paul, Minn., corporation, having for its object 
the butinett of freighting, contracting and minmg. The company owns S30 aero 
of mineral land on Iron Creek, and has planned to construct a ten-^nile ditch this teatoB 
to convey water for mining this property. 

A. H. Moore it a native of Brooklyn, Me. He wat bom September 20. 1667, 
and wat educated in the pi^lic schools of his native state. He belongs to a hmilr 
of tailort, hit fadier having been master of vcwek. One of hit brothen wat capuu, 
during several seasons, (rf one <^ the tteamen of the Nome fleet. When twenty yean 
of age the subject of thit sketch shipped at a sailor before die mast In 1 688 he left 
home and traveled by way of Cape Horn to the Western Coast of America. He k>cated 
in Port Towntend. and establiihed a coimtry itore in the Olympic Mountaint. He 
bougjit a pack train and engaged m diis form of transportation business between P<»t 
Townsend and his store and the country thereabouts. 

In 1697 he went up the Yuk<» and wat employed as a mate on one of the nver 
steamers. In those days the river boats burned wood which was obtained from wood 
choppen along the banks of the stream. A myriad of mosquitoes infested this couody, 
making the work of loading fuel into the vessel both burdensome and unpleasant, sod 
how the wood choiq)en managed to cut this wood, beset at they were by these pestiferoui 
insects, is something that can be more pleasantly imagined than experioKed. Mr. Moore 
spent a winter on Dall River, a tributary of the Yukon, and during the winter of '96-™ 
he ascended the Koyukuk to die head-waters. He came down the river m the 9ring ^ 
'99. This wat a 1 ,600-mile trip. 

February 2. 1893, A. H. Moore married EHie D. Hunter, of Port TowmenA 
rhey have diree children, Willie, aged ten; Mariui, eig^t; and Lucy, an infant. «"■ 
Moore is an oiergetic man and a tirelcu worker. He postettet more than a modKuni « 
Yankee wit, and has the faculty of aptly illustrating a point in hit conversation w^ ■ 
droU story. Mr. Moore is noted for his courtesy and disposition to accommodate pco|"^ 
He has made many friends in Seward Peninsula. Thit fact wat best attested id «•« 

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.. H. MOORE. 

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■piing of 1904 when he wu lelccted ai a c«ii(]idale (or tchool tnutee of Nome. He did 
not f«voT the idea of being mixed up in politic*, but the nomination coming to him 
unsought he felt that it wai hit duty to permit his name to go before the people, and widioiit 
effort upon hit part he wa* elected by the largeit majority of any of the candidates for this 
office. A citizen of Council City, who visited Nome a few day> before the municipal 
election, made thit remark: "If Mr. Moore's election was dependent entirely iqwn the 
vole of Council City, he would be elected unanimously." The many acts of kindness 
Witch he had shown the residents of Council City while conducting the stage line from 
r>Iome to Cotmdl had inspired the sentiment just evpretted. 


MATT. SCHULER is one of the 
successful minen of the Nome 
country. He it a pioneer Alas- 
kan, having spent ten years in the 
northern country. He was bom in Sis- 
kiyou County, California, November 
19, 1870. He was educated in die 
public schools of California and in 
Atkinson's Business College m Sacra- 
mento. After working at farming a 
AoTt time he went to Alaska m 1890 
via Chilkoot Past and down the Yu- 
kon. He camped and ate dinner on 
the banks of the Yukon where Daw- 
son now stands, before the discovery of 
gold in the Klondike country. Hn ob- 
jective pmnt in Alaska was Circle City. 
Mr. Schuler engaged in the business of 
teaming in Circle, and was the owner 
of the Gist wagon on the Yukon. After 
die strike at Dawson he nutde big 
money out of the teaming and freight- 
ing business. In those days the price 
received for a day's w<»rk with a team 

wat $100. He went from Circle to matt, schuler. 

Dawson in June and remained there 
until the H>riDg of 1900, when he came to Nome. 

He it aisociated in mining enterprtset with W. J. BlacL Owning an interest in 
No. 7 Dexter Creek, he opened that claim. He and Mr. Black sunk two shafts on what 
n known as Summit Bench between Dexter Creek and ^>eciroen Gulch. The first shaft 
was 1 06 feet deep and did not strike the pay-streak. At a depth of eighty-six feet splendid 
pay wat found in the second shaft Mr. Schuler is an owner in two 1 60-acre tracts on 
Arctic Creek. This property has from four feet to seven feet of pay gravel which yields 
a proGi operated by sluice-boxes and the shoveling-in method. 

Mr. Schuler is an industrious, a highly etteemed and an honorable man, who has 
assisted to sink his share of protpect hole* in the country. It it the men of this character 

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v^ find the psy-ttreaki. The tucccMful protpector muit Bttain to tucco* by the hiix 
method by wrhkh tuccets it achieved in any other line of btuineM. Thia method may be 
•ummed up in one Litle word which poHewet a great deal of Mgnifionce. work. 


V|. BLACK, k one of the aucceu- 
* ful mincn of thia counby. t~le 
ii a native of Maaaachuietti. 
and went to Alaska from San Franciaco 
in 1895. He ha* been b the Forty- 
Mile countiy and in Circle, and hai 
mined m both of theae regioni. He 
caine to Nome over the ice in the 
winter of I899'1900, and tince hii 
■nival hu been actively engaged in 
mining, moat of hii work having been 
done on £}exter Creek and Arctic 
Creek Mr. Black haa lunk a lot of 
bole* to bedrock and hat done a lot of 
vrork hunting for pay-itreab in Se- 
ward Pentniula. He hat fairly earned 
all the MKcett he hat achieved. 

He it a public-4>irited citizen, 
■elf-reliant, induttriout and honorable; 
a man who attendi to hit own butinett, 
and never marufettt a ditpodtion to 
meddle with the atfain of hit neighbor*. 
Hit experience at a miner in Alaika hat 

fumiihed him with a knowledge of — 

conditioni in the Northland, which it a W. J. BLACK, 

valuable attet to every man that foUowt 
diii vocation. 


A J. LOWE WW one of the fittt men to arrive in Nome in the ipriog of '*"■ 
• He followed the ice down the Yukon, aniving in Nome in June. Hii ■'f 
mining (^>erationt were on the beach which wat ditcovered toon a^ '''' 
aiTtva). He wat appointed q>ecial Deputy Manhal by United Sutet CoouniMOBcr 
Rawton, and took an active part in the Content Government, being a councihuo m 
Nome'i firtt council, and when the Mera) oAccn in July. 1900. arrived, he ww 'P' 
pointed to a deputythip in die manhal't oAce under Mr. Vawter. He wu loPj 
pointed at deputy manhal by Mr. Richardt who tuccecded Mr. Vawter, and M' 
the poNlion of iailer during the latler't incumbency. 

Mr. Lowe it a native of New York and it forty-three yewt old. In hit r"""*" 
dayi he waa agent of die Adamt Expreti Company in Botton. He wait to Da**" 
over the White Patt in '97. and never hat been out of the country tince. Hit ont 
winter wat ^lent at Dawton and Forty-Mile. He had many intereitiog eipeno''*' 

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on the Yulcon, and hu tem Nome in nearly eveiy phate of itt exutence and growth. 
< When he amved in Nome, June 27. 1900, the camp cooikted of onljr a few 
toib. Later when the beach digging! were diicovered he paid twenty dollui for a 
rocker made out of toap boxet and itarch boxei. At that time there were not 
more than half a dozen rocken in the camp. Some that were in uk were whipeawed 
out of drift'Wood, and put together with naib drawn out of boxet. Mr. Lowe't 
firtt day'i work on the beach with hit rocker netted him $140. He tayt he hat teen 
^>ott on bedrock in the beach literally covered with gold. 

At a member iA the Content Government Council Mr. Lowe wu on the ttreet 
committee, and in the qiring of 1900 the tanitaty work and the woilt of draining the 
ttreett, for which an appropriation of $13,000 Wat made by the Chamber of Com- 
merce, wat under hit tupervition. Mr. Lowe hat made an eficient federal officer. 
He it a brave man vih.o never ihrunk from difficult or dangerout work. Ai an officer 
under Committicxier Rawion in the early and trying dayt of Nome he did hit ahare 
in preierving peace, maintaining order and enforcing the law. 


WILLIAM A. VINAL it the Nome repretenU- 
tive of the Ahtka-Botton Conttruction and 
Mining Company, a Maitacbutetts corporation 
<q>eratbie in Sewrard Peniniula. Lait teaton, 1904, 
Mr. Vina] acquired valuaUe and extentive interests 
for thit conq>aoy in the Solomon River region. Thcte 
bleiettt comprise a tgmvp of claimi on Solomon River 
at the mouth of Penny, and the Madock & Beagle 
pn^ierty, which includei a valuable wraler right and 
tvro milet of ditch already constructed. 

Mr. Vinal wat bom in Orono, Maine, March 14, 
I860, and wat educated in the Univernty of Maine, 
and followed the profetnon of turveyor and engineer 
for nine yeart. During a period of eleven yean of 
hit life he wai engaged in the lumber buiineu in hia 
native lUte. He came to Nome in 1 900 and engaged 
in mining on Hungry Creek. He wat tuccewful in 

ifait venture, and tubiequently mmed on ICaiton Creek __ viNAl. 

in the Solomon country. He hat abo tolerated on 

Anvil Creek. During the teaton of 1904 he cOH>perated with Mr. Olebaum in opening 
and devdoping No. 9 Solomon, which proved to be a very valuable property. Mr. 
Vina! hat tpest two winteti m Nome and all the summert lince 1 900. 

The property acquired latt teaton for hit company comptiiet thirty-four claimt 
fltuated tonth of the mouth of Penny River and extending a dutancc up Sbovel Credc. 
Thit property indudet the Halla Bar. 

Mr. Vinal it a member of an old and prominent family of Mattachutettt who 
trace their hneage back to EngBth and Scotch ancettort. He it married. Mn. 
Vinal wat formerly Mitt Hattie Sutherland, a reladve of Mitt Sutherland, one of 
the efficient teachert in the Nome pubhc tchool. Mr. Vinal it an enterpnting and 

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mduitrioiu mui. Without any bliuc of tnunpeti be W nuwle money out of the nnita 
of the Nome countiy ever ihice hit fint muod'i cperaticHii, and the property viiudi be 
bat recently acquired for bit company it unquettionably vahiahte, and under hydrauKc 
operatiott will undoubtedly yield a large quantity of gold. 



. young man of 



San Fiancitco. He it attociated with the 
early bittory of Northweftem Alatka, and bat 
been identified with mining intereitt of the Council 
Dittrict nnce 1 897. He ii the ton of a pioneer buti- 
IKH man of San Francitco, and wat bom in that city 
June 6. 1870. He attended the San Francitco 
public tcboob and tubtequently Brewer's Academy, 
San Mateo. Mr. Buoker't grandfather wat Crom- 
wdi Bunker, (me of the firtt whalen to tail in 
Alatkan waten. The dale of bit whaling cruitet wat 
near teventy year* ago. The family at that time 
reiided in Nantucket R. F. Bunker, father of the 
•ubject of thii tketch, came to San Francitco in the 
early dayt of the Wettem metropolit, and mgaged in 
the butcher butineu. In 1897 when Captain Libby 
wot outfitting to go to Alatka George D. Bunker 
grubstaked Louit F. Melting to accompany bim. 
rjp>«in Libl^ and Louit Melting are both brothert-in' 
law of Mr. Bunker. The other mcmben of tbit ex- 
pedition were Hany L. Blake and A. P. Mordaunt. They were the original da- 
coveren of gold in the Fith River countiy, and were protpecting in thii region <t 
the time the ttrike wai made on Anvil Creek. 

Mr. Bunker has been interested in mining in the Council Dittrict ever tince tbe 
hiitorical tnp of bit brother»-in-law. At one time he owned 106 mining daimi it 
Sevrard Peniniula, but realizing the unwitdom of tuch extentive boldingi in the new 
country, be concentrated bit interettt on Opbir Creek. During the past few yean Ik 
bat ditpoted of hii mterati in ten daimi on tbit ttream. He it now operating Na 3, 
above Ditcovery. 

He wat one of the firtt arrivalt in the Nome countiy in the q)riiig of 1899, 
being a paitenger on the tteamthip Garonne. Mn. Bunker accompanied him on diii 
trip, and the wat one of the first white women in Council City. Mr. Bunker hat had t 
varied and interesting experience in the Northland. He hat been with the countty 
(hce the eariicat days. In 1899 be set up and operated the fint gaM^ine engiiK <■) 
Ophir Creek, which wat probably the fint engine of thit character brou^t into the 

Mr, Bunker wat married December 18, 1890. Mrs. Bunker wat formav 
Mist Dora Melting. The itiue of thit union it one girl, AUarretta, twelve yean oU- 
Mr. Bunker it an energetic butinesi man, genial companion, and a loyal friend. 

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ONE of the mott remarluble Urikn in tbe Nome Dutrict in 1904 wu macle on Little 
Creek. Following in the wake of the Midu tcand*! and when m coondenUe 
ezodut of minen to tbe Tanua Dntnct wu occurring, it meant much to the 
reputation of Aluka and the proq>erity of Nome at a mining camp. Tfaii ditcoveir 
was the reward and louk of patient effort and tkillful proq>ecting on the part of Mr. 


• f 






«t 1 





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eiprai unbounded Uth in the future of Seward Petumuk u a gold-beuing country. 
In MK of diem he uunei the tenitoiy inchided between C»pe N«ne and Point 
Rodnejr, "The Buin of Gold," and he bebeve* die adjcHning foothiUi will mrpriie the 

Mr. Brown's eforti to lecure Uw and order in a mining camp are weD illuMrtled 
by an incident which abo exempUfiei the tptrit of peneverance that eveiy lucceHful 
miner muit ponen. In the winter of 1900 he wai robbed of nearly all he owned. 



be ha 


he wa 





«nd tbe ^k>U when it wu moil plentifully found, convinced him ttutt an ancient ckuod 
or depo«il of concentrated placen exiited in Gold HilL So vrben Nathan Kreage, fail 
partner on tlie trail to Dawion. came to hii canqi, Mr. Petenoo bduced hsn to locate i 
bench claim on the right limit of Kg Skookum where he thought the old cbaniwl mtgbi 
be diicovered. Previous proipecting by Mr. Petenon on Gold HiH coDvinced him tbil 
the pay wa* deep. On the claim located by Mr. Kiesge, m vduch Mr. Petenon wai to 
have a half interest, the 6m strt^ of the pick removed die mots-covering of a gravd 
depoait and turned over a ttme that had a yellow glitter on iti bottom tide. Tbe ydlvw 
glitter wai a $ 1 0.40 nugget Taking a pan of tbe gravel to water he wathed it and k- 
cured $8.00. With rocken made of tomato boxei, he and hit partner in ogjit dap 
wo^g five houn a day, and carrying the gravd to the water, cleaned m> $6,373. 
Two dayt after they made the strike there were a thousand people on Gold HiD loot- 
ing claims. 

This discovery was made late in the season and during the winter he and hii put- 
ner sokl the Skookum daim for $40,000 and Mr. Petenon lAA his Bonanza dua fof 
$10,000. Mr. Petenon went to work for the company diat purchased hit property, v 
manager at a salary of $5,000 a year. In the qiring of 1 699 he cleai>ed 19 all (rf faa 
miniag interatt and bou^t the river iteamen Bonanza King and EJdorado, paying for 
them $30,000. But he found the transportation business different from mining. Ht 
came into active conq>etition with the Canadian Development Conqwoy, and b the bU 
of 1900 he landed in Seattle broke. 

In the ^ring of 1901 he tailed on tbe Centennial for Nome and arrived b tbii 
canq) in wone financial condition than he was m when he arrived in Dawioo. Ht 
didn't have a cent. But his wife vrho had remained in Dawson the previous wbta 
reached Nome a few days after his arrival, and she had $600, which die had managed lo 
save out of the wreck of his Klondike accumutatimit. Mr. Peterxw went to Teller shI 
prospected m the Agiapuk region, but meeting with no tuccett he returned to Nchik. 
and in the middle of September bought in on bedrock from A. M. Britt on No. 2 Hoi- 
yoke. He and Mr. Britt operated this property for two seasons and took out over $37,- 
000. In 1904 diey told the claim for $3,000. Mr. Peterson did a great deal of wnla 
projecting during his residence m the Nome countiy, and one winter took $4,000 out 
of the Portland Bench on Oregon Creek, but tbe expense was $4,500. In 1904 he ob- 
tained a lease of eighty acres on the left limit of Snake River three miles from Nome, uk^ 
constructed a ditch diree miles long from 5 below on Anvil CnA to this propet^- Ht 
operated die ground late in die season and extracted $4,000. He bmided the ditch ud 
lease to W. C. Wilkint. who purchased diis property for $10,000 b die q>ring of 1903. 

In die middle of November, 1904, JiAia Johnson who had a lease from the Pio- 
neer Mming Company on a piece of tundra ground known at the Portland Bench, mu 
the famous Little Creek strike, requested him to go m partnership with him and iMl 
him b making the effort to find the pay-atreak. Securing the co-operation of Carl Aixia- 
son at another partner, the three inben buih a cabin, and uting Mr. Petcnon't boiler tM 
thawer began the dow and laboriout work of sinking boles in the frozen ground. Tkf! 
sunk ux holes to bedrock. The depth of these shafts vras from diirty-Iwo feet to ^■ 
three feet. They drifted on bedrock a toUl distance of 160 feet, and finally on Waii)- 
ington's birthday they struck the pay. It proved to be the richest gravel deposit ever f<i>iBO 
in any of die northern gold fields, possibly the richest ever found in the world. A f" 
of gravel taken from bedrock yielded $1,200, and Mr. Petenon tayi diat a pan cmh 
have been picked diat would have yielded $^,000, pomSbly $5,000. The tenns of ibc . 

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rilph by James A tlii.-lii 


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out • I 



that hai 



all the 
of proi 
out of 

die cari 
trade li 

year, ai 
wai no! 
ui the I 


ing trqi 

to die 
claim* 1 
to the 
they joj 
to retu 

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Rnrcr, and they did not Icftve tb« Arctic regioD until ihdi rappEcs were pretty new 
"pehik." bdienng Uint a dmy's iowniejr would take tfacm to tbeir cache. When tfacy 
atuted on tbe return trip one of tbe wont biizzud* of tbii country iwcpt over the 
mowy wutca of tbe tracklcM re^on. The ittt nig^t out thqr could not make a fire. 
and cold and hungry, they cnwled into their tleetnng bag* to cKape freezing. Tbe - 
next day wai wone, but they travded, and at nigbt found a landmark by which ther 
knew dxT were on Good Hope River, fiftea milei above i<> mouth. They had iour- 
nqred over a part of a circuit, and were farther away bom the cache dian when tfacy 
started. Taking a new coune, duy itarted next day. Thete wat no -*"'—■-"'■ of 
the blizzard. Tor two days they lived on unialtcd bean*. On the fifth day, almoat 
fauniJied and nearly odiaurted, they arrived at their cache, and found it empty. A 
pariah (rf the trail had rdibed it, takmg every ounce of food. The next daj the wtmsj 
and diKouraged proqxcton met nme Eddmo, wl» supplied them with fiih. 

Mr. Johnaon and hii partner were reported loat, and vAtea th^ arrived m Nome 
Mr. Lindeberg had outfitted a March party. The iled wat packed, and dw paity 
wat ready to ilatt Mr. JohoMn wu ill for a week, and cmtchided that he never 
would itart on another trip of diii kmd. But a vreck after hit recorei y he wat oo ifae 
trail again, boimd tor Ate tame region. He made three trfw to the Inmacfaok tbie 
winter, taking m 1,700 pound* of tupi^ie* on the la*t trip. Mo*t of tbe fdlowing 
■ummer be wa* in diit region. While proipecting on the Kugruk River and Chicago 
Creek he found float coal that came from the great coal vein on Chicago Cre^ which 
wa* mbaequeotly dJacorercd and located. Rctummg to Nome late in the *ea*on, be 
learned of tbe Candle Creek alrike. Tlii* diicoTeiy of gold wat made when be w«a 
pta^>ecting «ily five milet away. He returned to Candle Creek, and m the foOowmg 
winter went to Nome to obtain metchandite for Magnu* Kiebberg, nAicb wa* hauled to 
Candle Creek over the mow. 

Mr. JohsMti lived at Candle Ct^ untfl Augwt, 1902. when he arranged for a 
trip to Kobuk River. Crowing E*GboltK Bay to get a boat, he encountcted a >evere 
norm and wa* blown out to tea. He and a companion were out twenty-four hourt. 
The ma*t of their boat wa* broken and twept away by the ttorm, but the wmd 
tubtiding, tfaey tuccced e d in pulling to die dwre and landed, wet and weary, at tbe 
mouth of Alder Creek. Mr. Johnioo't trg> to the Kobuk wa* made by boat He 
buih a cabb 400 mile* above the mouth of tbe Kobuk. In November he bean] 
of tbe ttrike on fiKimgrufc, ■ tributary of tbe Kobuk, tix^ milet below hi* camp, and imme- 
diately went to the new diggingt- Overtaken by iUnett, be wa* compcUed to return 
to Nome in April Thii tr^ of 500 milet wai made in nine days, and leven^ milea 
of the journey wai traveled on mew ihoei without rerting. After undergoing an opera- 
tion for i^ipendiciti*, be went to California. 

Returning in the ipring oi 1904, he worked for the Pioneer Mining Company, 
and in the fall tecured from the company a leaie on the Poidand Bench, near Little 
Creek. Taking Nel* Petenon and Carl Anderson a* partner*, the work of linking 
holes to bedrock on thit claim wa* begun. Six ihafts were sunk, varying in depth from 
thir^-two feet to fifty-ltiree feet, and 160 feet of drifting wai done before pay was 
found. Fdtmaiy 22 the eameit wwkert itruck an ancient beach, and the tandi 
fairly glistened with gold. In nzty dayi a dump wa* taken out, with only five men 
working in the diift, from which $4 1 3,000 wat cleaned up. The laymen received lixty 

Mr. Johnton'i induttiy and peneverance, hi* faidifulnet* to every trutt a*(umed 

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1^ kim, hi* eduod bonc*^. make a cbaiacter to be admired, and a man daciving t 
■mile of i 


CARL ANDERSON, one of ttie fortunate minen of the Nome gold fiekb. was 
bom on a farm near Kahnar, Sweden. When Mzteen yean old he w«ot to 
Stockholm, and leanied the trade of painting and papa hanging. In IA9I be 
imniigrated to the United Statet. and lived in Chicago untH 1898. In the latto* part 
of tbii period be learned die trade of a tailor's cutter. 

h Fd»uaiy, 1 898. be ttarted for the Kloodike. Arrimg in Ballard, Waihing- 
ton, be began the coutniction of a iteam ichooner, into which be put all of bit nxmey. 
Hit aitocialet in Qiicago failing to supply prmniied fundi for the completion of As 
voiel, be wai compdled to abandon the woifc, and itart for the Nntiiland without 
fundt. He tailed on the Argo to St Micbad, and the vettd continued the iouraey 
up the Yukon to Rampart Mr. Anderton tpat two winten in Ran^ut Tbe firA 
winter he prospected and mined on Little Minot^ In the lummer of 1 699 he worked 
in the woodt cutting logi for Fort G2>bon. Tfaii work (omithed him a "grub-ttake" 
for the following winter. During the winter he mined on Little Mioook, Jr., and he 
and hit partner found the belt pay ever diacovered on dut ttream. 

In the spring of 1 900 be came to Nome. He wa« empkqred by the Pioneer Mining 
Company, and in die foUowing winter be and John J<Jmaon went to the Kougarok 
Dirtikt Mr. Andcraon remained on die Kougarok piotpecting, while Mr. Johnson 
went to the Arctic slope. Returning to Nome in Fdwuary, be and his partner nearly 
perished. Tbqr were two weeks on the trail, and one night were compeUed to sleep 
in a tnowdrifL The heat of dieir bodies mdted snow, and next morning whoi they 
started on their journey their clothes were wet Ai soon at they encountered tbe open 
air dteir clothei froze. Wboi they finally arrived at SBscovich'i roatUtoute Mr. Scpt^, 
his partner, was badly frozen. The roacUtouse wU filled widi people seeing shelter 
from the severely cold weather <A this winter. 

In the lining of 1901 Mr. Anderson went to the GcM Run country to |»o^>ect 
* claim on Skookum CredL Not finding pay. he mU hit outfit "on beAock." and 
returned to Nome. The bedrock payment be never got. 

September 15, 1901, be and John Johmon ttarted for Candle Creek. They 
spent the following winter in uniucceasful proq>ecting on Candle. Chicago and Willow 
Creelu. They Kved in a tent, nrfiich is a cold and cheerieai winter home in this coun- 
try. In the foQowing summer be worked for Mr. Sundquist, and bad charge of a shift 
on No. 18 Candle. In the latter part <rf the seatoo he, John Johoton and John Roberg 
went to the tCobuk region. Mr, Andenon was near the Sbungnak when die strike 
was made on diat stream. He mined on tbe Sbungnak in 1903. and near the dose of 
the season returned to Candle. His attempt to return to tbe Sbungnak diggings that 
fsU wat frustrated by tbe misfortune that befell die steamer Riley, wfaicfa got caught by 
tbe ice at the delta near die mouth of the Kobuk. He, with the other passengers, 
UtA a part of dieir lUppBo to the ^ timber and built cabins, where they ipent the winter. 
Before the close of the year Mr. Anderson took a trip to the Shungnak and did tome 
■ts es tment work. In the tummer of 1904 he worked on Dall Credc He and hit atso- 
datcs, including E. O. LindUom'i representativei, extracted $2,000 in dust from 
Dall Creek. 

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In dte fall of 1904 Mr. Andenon leturaed lo Nome, uk) came near goia% to 
the state*. He finally decided to remain, and accepted John J^uuon't trfer to go in 
partnenhip with him on a lease of the Portland Bench, a claim near the great Itrifce 
on Little Creek. Taking Neli Peteraoo at another partner, theae direc men began the 
work of unking hole* on thii claim in November. In die latter part of February tliey 
had tunk tix ihaftt in frozen ground to bedrock and had drifted 160 feet. Pay hnd 
not beoi found, and they were ditcotiraged. They had enou^ coal to nnk another 
(haft, which wa* to be their final effort. They had ntade preparations to abaodoo the 
shaft in which they were working, and had used the diawer for the last time in the 
drifL Mr. Andenon wai working under ground. He soit up a pan of gravel t&fcen 
from the end ^ the drift Thit pan contained more than two dolUn in gold. A seoHid pan 
contained ei^t dollar*. Investigation revealed the edge of an old beach deposit in which the 
sand* glittened with gold. In sixty days, with only five men working in the drift, a 
dump wa* taken out which, ^en cleaned up. yielded $413,000. It was the ricbot 
gold placer ever discovered. 

Mr. Anderson it a man of quiet demeanor, honorable in hi* busine** reUtioas, and 
highly esteemed by the friends who know hi* mwal worth. 


PH. WATT wa* bom in Chillicothe. Ohio. 
• in 1876, and wa* graduated from Miami 
University with die degree of B. A. in 1 897. 
He went lo Seattle diat fall, and wa* a member of 
the expedition that went to fCotzebue Sound in 1 898. 
He passed the winter of l898-'99 in a cabin on 
Kobuk River, and came to None the following 4>ring, 
arriving July 25. Until 1902 he was oigaged most 
of the time in the businesc of mining. He reUnqutihed 
this kind of work to accq>t a clerkship in the Bank 
of Cape Nome, and subsequently wai appointed as- 
sistant pmtmaster of Nome, a position which he still 

Mr. Watt is a charter member of Camp Nome No. 
9, Arctic Brothedwod, and in October, 1904. was 
elected to the ofice of Arctic Chief. He hat been 
prominently identified with the work of the Brother- 
hood nnce the organization of the Camp, serving one p jj watt 
term a* Keeper of Nu^fgets, five terms as Recorder 

and one term as Vice-Arctic Chief. He was a delegate from the Nome, Council and 
St Michad Canqn to the Third Annual Grand Canqimeeting at Skagway August, 
1903. Mr. Watt it intcretted in a number of claims in Cape Nome Mining Dis- 
trict, and it the local agent of the Cripple River Hydraulic Mining Company, of New 
Yorit. Although a >-oung man, he is an oM "tour dough." Faithful in the ditcharge 
of any duty, diligent in his wrork, courteous and affable. Mr. Watt ii an esteemed 
citizen of Nome. 

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AT THE Nome municipal elec- 
boD in April. 1904. H. P. 
King received die hi^eit num- 
ber of vote* cut for any of the candi- 
datei for die office of councilman, and 
when the new coimcil organized Mr. 
King WM unanimoutly elected mayor of 
Nome. He ditcharged the dutie* of 
hii oAce with ability and to the credit 
of the elector* of Nome. Mr. King 
wa* not a itranger to poKbc* when he 
wa* elected to the Nome council, a* 
be had lerved two term* m the kgif 
lalure of Nebraska, filled the office 
of county comnu*ti(»ier. wa* pre*ident 
of the council in Friend. Nebruka, 
for leveral year*, and wa* pre*idenl of 
the (cbool board of hi* dbtrict for a 
period of nine yean. 

Mr. King wa* bom in Brook- 
lyn. New York, May 26. 1847. Hi* 
father wa* in the mercantile butineu. 
He moved to Warreniburg. New 
York, and engaged in bu*ine*> at diat 

place untU die *ub)ect of dtb tketdi =■ P- Kn***- 

wai eleven year* old, when the family 

went west and located on a farm near Monroe G>unly, Wiiconiin. Thii change of resi- 
dence aitd vocation wat made on account of the failing health of the father. Here H. P. 
King lived until he was nineteen. As the country was new and without educa- 
tiooal advantage*, the young man did not have the oportunity to go to school. Up to 
die time of leaving Warrensburg he attended the public school of that place, and after 
hi* father's death he returned to Warrensburg and attended the Warreniburg Academy 
for one year. Returning from school he continued to reside in Wisconsin until 1870, 
when be went to Nebraska, locating in Seward County where he followed fanning, sub- 
sequently settling in Friend, Saline County, and engaging in the mercantile business. He 
ha* r ep r esen ted bodi of these counties in the state legislature. 

During hb Gr*t term, the legislature elected a United State* Senator. The con- 
testant* were A. S. Paddock and Charles H. Van Wyck. Mr. King supported Paddock, 
who wa* defeated by one vote. Six years later Mr. King was nominated by the Repub- 
lican party as a candidate for the legislature from SaUne County. After the convention 
had Bt^umcd the chairman of the county central committee demanded that all legislative 
nominee* pledge themselves to support Senator Van Wyck for re-election. Mr. King 
was the only nominee who refused to make the pledge. He said he would agree to sup- 
port the caucus nominee, but this wa* not satisfactory, and the party machinery and the 
Republican pre** of the county, with the exception of one newspaper, opposed his elec- 
boa. When the ballols were counted it was found that Mr. King was the only Repub- 

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fican elected to the legitlature tmm Saline County. The old political battle between 
Paddock and Van Wyck wa* renewed in the legitlature, and thit time Paddock won 
by a maiorily of one vote. 

Mr. King came to Nome in 1699, and returned to the *tate> in the (aQ of 1900. 
He came back to Nome in the tpring of 1901, and hat reaided in tlm part of Alaiki 
ever since. In 1901 he went to KewaliL Candle Creek had jutt been diicovered, and 
Mr. King Mcured two lays from Blankenthip on property that appeared to be very prom- 
tiing. One of these lays he traded for a grocery store on the Sandipit in Nome, and 
dte other cost him tome money trying to locate the pay-«treak. Returning to Nome hom 
this unsucceMful mining venture he conducted a grocery butinesi on dte Saodtpit nml 
after he was elected to the common council, «4ten be moved his place of business to Fntt 

January I. IS72, Mr. King and Mitt Jennie Cunnin^iam were married in Ne- 
bratka. Four children were bom to them, two of whom, a son and daughter survire. 
H. Porter King, his son, a bii^t yotmg man of 26 yeart, came to Nome in 1903, 
bringing his wife, and is associated with hit father in business. The daughter, Maude, 
is the wife of Herbert Mclntyre of Omaha, Nebratka. Her mother retides with her. 

Unpretentious and honest, po»essmg dignity and energy, Mr. King has woo iIk 
req>ect, esteem and confidence (rf his fellow citizens of Noom, as indicated by the large 
vote he received for councibnan and hit unanimout election to the office of mayor. 


JS. COPLY it prominently identi- 
* Bed with the mercantile mtercsis 
of Nome. At the muiucq>al elec- 
tion in April. 1904, he wai selected 
by the people to fill a position in the 
Nome Council, a trust which he dis- 
charged with loch integrity and ability 
that he was elected at mayor of Nome 
in 1905. Mr. Coply was bom May 
3, 1663. in Wett Salem, Ohio. He 
it of Engbth ancettry, and a descend- 
ant of John Singleton Coply. at one 
time Chief Baron of die Exchequer 
and Lord Chancellor of Great Brit' 
am. Mr. Coply 'i father was a mer- 
chant «^ went to Southern Michigan 
during tbe boyhood flays of the tab- 
jecl of this tketch. In 1677 he re- 
moved to Eattem Waihington. 

John S. Coply wai educated in 
the public tchoob of 'Washington, and 
the Portland Butinest College, and was 
graduated from the latter institution. Hit 
work hat been in the mercantile and 
■hipping lines. In 1692 he went to j g COPLT. 

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Sui Fnmcitco where he engaged in the thippbg biuineM. He came to Aluka in Sep- 
tember, 1899, and ha> made Nmne hii headquarten ever lince. He has seen Nome in 
nearly all of its phases of growth and developmeot. 

April 8, 1900, he and Miss Minnie H. Hanington of Oregon City, were mar- 
ried They have one child a daughter, Lois H., four years of age. Mr. Giply poc 
scMes all the quaUfications of a successful business man. He has many friends in the 
Nome country by whoin he is highly esteemed. 



I die early spring of 1904. wdien 

the orchards were Uossomiog in 

the states, and the farmers were 
begiimiiig ibeir spring work, a munici- 
pal elecliMi was held in Nome. It 
was the annual election of city o£cen, 
wbkh occurs on the first Tuesday m 
April. Snne difficulty was experienc- 
ed in inducing representative citizens 
to become candidates, as there is no 
salary in any of the elective municqxJ 
oAces, except that of municipal magis' 
trale, but there n a great deal of tbank- 
le» wo^ to be done. At a mats meet- 
ing in the Seventh Ward, Mr. E. G. 
Will was unanimously nominated as 
a candidate for the counciL The 
nomination was unsolicited, but com- 
ing to him in this way Mr. Will felt 
dial it was his duty to accqit the nomi- 
oation. In the campaign he made a 
number of public speeches which show- 
ad die people that he had oratorical 
abihty and was a student of political 

•oonomy, entotaining advanced ideas ^ q will. 

on the sidtject of sodaBtm and bdieving 
in a government "of the people, for the 
people and by the people." He was elected by a splendid majority. 

The fact came to light durmg this campaign that Mr. AX^ always had taken a 
deep interest, if not active part, in politics, being led thereto by industrial tendencies, and 
die firmly rooted idea which he has often expressed that "the wealth producers should 
cease to be the slaves of the wealth absoiben." When a resident of South Dakota in 
IS90 he hek>ed to organize the Independent Party, which was afterward merged into 
the Populist Party, and in 1896 he took the stun4> in behalf of Wm. J. Biyan. 

Mr. WiD was bom in Iowa May 24. 1661. HU parents were Jama WiU and 
Margaret Gray WiD, of Dundee, Scotland. When he was twenty-one he owi>ed a slock 
ranch in Jerauld County, South Dakota, and this was his home for thirteen years. In 
1895 he moved to Le Mars, Iowa, wfane he resided until 1896, when he went to Daw- 

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ton and cngas^ >■> niniiig. He came to Nome in 1 900, mad met then hat been miBing 
and conducting a transfer and freighting bunncM. 

E. C WiD and Miw Lizzie M. Prcacott were married in Preston. Minn., Dec 
24. 1864. They have five children, two mmm and three dangjiten, all bwn in South 
Dakota. Their names are Cameron Gray, JuUa Emd, Lizzie Marie, Edward CUtImxi 
and Bcane Rowena. The family recently removed from Le Mai> to a new borne buiit 
for them on Univenity Hetght!. Seattle. 

Mr. 'Wil it an aggreiiive and induttiioiii bunnew man, vdw beKevei in the linet 
where Bobbie Burnt tayi: 

"Ttj win Dain« Fortune'* (mlla 

Aaaiduoualy wait upon tier. 

And KHther gtar hy avery wlla 

That'a JuatlDad by honor. 

Not to hide It In a hodne 

Nor tor a train attendant. 

But for the «lorlouB privilege 

or belns Independent/' 

He it a ttudent and a thinker who hai the courage of hit convictiont. He does not 
hetiute to expreii hit idea* on ethical tubiecti, and he mtially esqircttet himtelf wcIL The 
man who interpreU the truth at he leei it it renilering hit bett tervice to hit fellow men. 


SH. STEVENS, editor and 
• publiiheT of the Nome 
Gold Digger, it me of the 
most widely known dtizeni o( Se- 
ward Penintula, having held the 
position of councilman of Nome ever 
tince (he organization of the town. 
He waa bom in Humboldt. Kantaa, 
June 1 , 1 873. but hb boyhood dayt 
vrat spent in Chicago, where he re- 
ceived a pubUc school education. 
Hit father wat one of the oldest 
members of the Chicago Board of 
Trade, and at the bme <^ his death 
was flax inspector for that institution. 
Mr. Stevens began his newspaper ca- 
reer on the Chicago News, and dur- 
ing the World's Fair was reporter for 
the Graphic. At the close of the 
fair, he accepted a position with the 
Field Columbian Musetun in the Art 
Building of the World's Fair, which 
was set aside for it. 

He first came to Alaska in 1897. 
arriving in Skagway. In 1898 he g „ stevknb. 

started over the trail to Dawt<m, 
but stayed only a short time in the 

Klondike country, at hit dettination was Eagle. He tpeni two yean mining in Eagle. 
He organized a longshoreman 't union in E^gle, on account of an attempt to cut wages. 

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and thk wu protMibly the finl organizatioD (or the protection of labor in Aluka. He 
arrived in Nome in the (all of I S99, but returned to the tUtci that wuiler, and in the 
spring of 1900 he went back to Elaglc From Eagle he came down the 
Yukon to Nome, ratending to return to the ttatet. Arriving in Nome he ttarted out 
with a pack on hii back to find a job. and nicceeded in lecuring work at a miner on 
Haibngs Creek. In September of that tcaaon he returned to Nome and obtained ent- 
pk>ynMnt on the Gold Digger. Tlw editor of diii ptpa, Mr. Coe, wa< in ill-health 
and in the hoqiilal. Hk fint work on the GoWl Digger wa> in both capacities of editor 
and printer. He worked at the catc without copy. Mr. Coe'i health compelled him 
to return to the itatei that fall, and Mr. Steven* remained with the paper with which 
he hai been conneced ever tince. He ii now the owner of thit journal 

At the bme of the incorporation of the city of Nome he wai elected to the council, 
and vrat afqwinted to the potition of chairman of the kw and ordinance committee. 
and wai alio a member of the finance committee. Lively interest has been taken in 
every lubaequent municipal election on account of the attempt by Mr. Stevens' op* 
ponents to defeat him, but he has always been niccewful, and it the only one of the 
councibnen who has been re-elected at evoy succeeding electKHi. 

He and Mitt Abna Day were married October 22, 1903. Mr. Stevent it an 
aggretuve man, and on account of the poli^ of hit paper commands the general tup- 
port of the laboring clattet of die community. 


I I NEN it a wdl-biown and 
highly etteemed citizen of 
Nome. He wai elected to the common 
council at the municipal election in 
1903, receiving next to the hi^ett vote 
catt for any candidate. In 1902 he 
filled a short term at chief of police 
for the city, and subtequently, as 
councihnan, was appointed chairman 
of the police committee. 

J<^ Brannen wat bom in Pennsyl- 
vania in 1852. He is of Celtic ances- 
try aitd the ton of a farmer. Hit 
education was obtained in the pubhc 
schools and in a butinett college. Four- 
teen ycart of hit Bf e he tpent in British 
Columbia as a coal miner. He went 
west with hb mother when he was lix 
years old. and followed the butinett of 
farming and mining until 1889, when 
he wat a^winled to a potttion on the 
police force of Seattle. He was sub- 
•equently prmnoted to lieutenant and 
finally to captain of police, and wat 
beaten (or the potilion of diief of police 

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of Seattle by oaly one vote. He cune to Nome in 1900, and by a combio&bcm ot 
drcumitAncci wu forced into the liquor buunett. Ht it largely intereatcd in ■"■"■"g i" 
the Nome country. Mr. Brumcn wm nuuried thirty ycart ago to Sarah McCool. of 
Biitith Columbia. Tbey have a family of seven childlreo. 


THE itoiy of the life of David Gil- 
chritt would make a book of in- . 
tererting frontier eiperienoei. re- 
pletr with tale* of adventure, privationt 
and hardihipi. He it a native of Can- 
ada, but the ion of an American cit- 
izen, and wat bom in County Grey, 
January 7, 1870. When thirteen yean 
old he worked in a bgging caiiq>> and 
tocJc hii place among men ra a thirQr- 
five-mile drive of k)gt on the river. 
He went to Winnipeg, and hauled 
wood with cattle: wa* there during the 
•tirring dayi of the Real RdieUicMi. He 
drove itage, and finally went west with 
a car^d of horses, Vancouver being 
the dcstiuBtioa. In this part of the 
country he worked in logging camps, 
cut shingle bolts and farmed. 

In the q>ring <^ 1 692 he started from 
Seattle to Alaska, and arrived in Juneau 
July 3. Since that date he has been 
an Alaskan. He worked at teaming 
for the Nowcll Gold Mining Company, 

and then bou^t a team and began a davio oilchrist. 

freighting buitncss. May 7, 1896, he 

left Juneau with diree white men and seven Indiaru for Lake TaHcena, 373 miles distant 
over (he Dahon TraiL The object of this trip was to buik) rafts and prepare for 
the shifMnent of a herd of cattle to St. Michael. Returning from this tr^< be waa IcA 
by (he Indian guides without food far out on the trail There was war between the 
Juneau and Stickeen Indians, and the natives who were with him said they thought 
ihey heard their enemies one ni^t, so they quietly decan4>ed without awakening the 
white men. But Mr. Gilchrist got back (o Juneau all right, and assisted in driving 
durty-tevcn head of cattle (o Lake Tarkena. The expedition continued its journey fnxn 
Lake Ta^ena on rafts. The rafts were wrecked b the rapids of Tarkena River, and the 
party knt all (heir perscmal effects, but continued with the stock overland to Fmt 
Sdkirk. Agam rafts were constructed, the cattle were killed and the meat was pat 
aboard, and die eipedition started down the Yukrai. They arrived at Dawson Nor. 7, 
iust at the beginning of the freeze-up, having been floating eight days through ice. 
Dawson was then a new camp, and a ready ntarket was found for the meat, wfaidi 
wat told at fifty cents a pound. He mbed a little in Dawson that winter, and e^y 

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(be next g«ing made the tr^ overluid to Dyea without tent or ttove. In Dye* he 
uranged to pilot « party of pT04>ecton into the Klondike country. The hud^ips 
endured on ihii trip are memorable, and the experience! of other tiipa prove tfakl man 
can itand a lot of nifeiing 6om lack of food and weartnen and pull throni^ all rig^t. 
Mr. Gikhrttt came to Nome in the spring of 1900, and landed on the beach 
with only $2.50, the sum total of hii worldly goodi. He went to wo^ bou^l a 
team ai looa at he had eoongh money, engaged in the frei^ting binineu. which pn>»- 
pered, and in the q>ring of 1 904 he wa* dected to the office of city councilman. Feb- 
ruary 22, 1902, he married Mia* Nettie Widnest. They have one child, a daughter. 
Mr. Gilchrirt ii a huatler, the kind of a man that could land in any community 
without a cent, and immediately find meant of a livelihood. 


WHEN die membm of the Common Council of 
Nmne. (elected at the electioa in April, 1 904. 
took their teatt, their fint official act wai to 
tmanimouily elect Anthony McGettigan dty deA, a 
pontiofl which he fiUt utisfactorily to dte council and 
acceptably to the community. Mr. McGettigan ii a 
native of County Donegal, Ireland, and wat bom in 
dte month of Ckcerober. 1865. He weot to Amer- 
k* m 1889, and lived in Norrittown and PhilKpi- 
burg. Pa., until 1893, engaging in the bottling businen 
widi the well known firm of J. & W. Shieldi. hi* 
undet. After brief residence in Philadelphia and Qii- 
cago he went to Cahfomia in the latter part of 1694 
on a vitit to hit uncle. Col. E. McGettigan. From 
Cahfomia he went to Butte. Montana, and worked in 
the Anaconda Mine, subeequently conducting a real 
estate buiinets in Butte. 

In April. 1897, Mr. McGettigan (tarted for the ^nthont mcOettioan. 

Klondike gold neku, and hat lived m the Yukon 

Territory and Alaska ever since then. He and his partrter packed 1 ,500 pounds of sup- 
plies over Chilkoot Past, and joining a party of lix men, helped to whipsaw the lumber and 
make a scow, upon which the entire par^ journeyed from Lake Undeman to Daw«on. 
They arrived in Dawton June 19. and as wages were $1.50 an hour, Mr. McGettigan im- 
mediately went to work. He spent two winters in Dawson, prospected on the head-waten 
of Seventy-Mile River, and also made a trip to Forty-Mile River, Circle and Eagle. After 
the return from this trip, in the fall of '98. he wat ttrickeo with typhoid fever, and came 
near to mushing over the great divide. This illness resulted from the hardships and ez- 
poiure of the trip. He has seen many of the li^tt and shades of life in dw early dayi of 
the Klondike camp. In the winter of '97 when gold wat more plentiful than food, he paid 
Wtty-two dollars (or a sa^ of flour, and packed it on his back fourteen miles to camp. 
In the fall of '99 he joined the tlanq>ede to Nome, arriving at the new mining camp 
Sept. 21. In the q>Ting of 1900 be opened up an Anvil claim for one of the companies, 
and later in the season carried a pack on hit back to the Kougarok country. His uncle 
came to Nome from San Francisco this season, and joined him in the search for gold. After 

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retuining from the Kouguok, pack bonet were lecured to take in lupf^iei to penntt of 
proq>«cting the grouiid Mr. McGettigu had itaked. and comiderable woik waa cloDC itw 
year and the following seaioii on Iron Cre^ a tiibutaiy of the Kmzgamepa. In 1902 
a large force of men wai empk^ed for two monthi to apta up the Iron Creek propatr, but 
dw pay did not jiutify a continuation of operatioiu. A claim on Twin Mountain, a biba- 
laiy of Snake River, yielded better result), and during the tcaaon of 1 903 he and bit uncle 
worked the claim by hydraulic methodi, reaEzing a latiifactOTy profit. Daring the put 
two winlera he ttudied pharmacy under Arthur Dibert, the druggjit Mr. McGettigan'i 
popularity it indicated by the retpooiible municipal potition which he fiUt. He it a quiet 
man, of ttudiout habitt, honett methodi, and ia loyal to piincqiie and frienda. 


FS. LANG it a Nome hard- 
• ware merchant In the 
language of the Weit, "he 
it a huitler." poMetting both ca- 
pacity ud wilkngnot to do the 
work of two men. He wai bom in 
Auitiia. October 4. 1855, and 
went to America when only Air- 
leen years old. He it the second 
M» of a family of twelve children. 
On hit arrival in thit country he 
started to learn the tin smith's trade 
in Mannetowock, Wisconsin. His 
•alary at the beginning was two 
■dollan a week, but by hit aptitude 
and industry it was only a short 
time until be was earning journey- 
man's wages, two dollars the day. 

He went to Chicago in 1870, 
arriving in that city one month before 
die devastating fat. After the fire 
die rebuilding of the city created 
a strong demand for the kind of 
labor he was able to fumi^, and 

being an excellent and a rapid wodc- „ _ ^ , „_ 

man he made money rast. He 
left Chicago in 1676. going to the 

Lake Superior country, and thence to the Black Hills, arriving m Deadwood May 10. 
1877. Hit experiences in the West were many and varied. He built the Brst road from 
Grayville to SpearBsh, and did many other kinds of work by which honest money could 
be earned. From the Black Hills he drifted back to Iowa, and from Iowa he went to 
Nebraska, where he learned the farmer's art of husking com. In the spring of 1660 be 
wai back again in Montana. After an industrious career of several years and the sav- 
ing of bis earnings he engaged in the hardware business in Helena, and in 1893 had e»- 



tabltthed a large and profitable buiinett. Tlie temptation to make money quickly in 
mining enterpmet resulted in the wrious impairmeit of hb fortunet, and in the ^>tiag of 
1900 he left hi> bunneN in Montana and came to Nome, bringing with him the tooli of 
hii trade and the nurteiiak for the etiabliihment of a tin shop in the new mining camp. 
He i> one of Nome'* luccenful buimen men, but in Nome ai in Helena he wa« tenq>ted 
to engage in mining Ventura. The unexplained and unexpUinable aomething diat we 
call luck which puntia lome men like a blood^iound in certain line* of work attended 
hii Nome mining expericDcci, and be got n^>ped again; but not lo utiously thk time u 
on die previoui occation. Mr. Lang think* that be ha* acquired wiidom by experience 
and diat m die future "the ihoemaker will itick to hi* laiL" 

Mr. Lang has an active brain ai well a* an active body. He hai an inventive mind, 
and leveral of hi* invention* are very uieful commoditie*. poMcuing a commercial value. 
Tlie Nome country it trcelcM. A itunted growth of willow* ii the only available fuel for 
the proq>ectoT and miner of the interior. Mr. Lang hai invested a itove to bum ttii* kind 
of fuel, and it* popularity ii attested by the tremendou demand for it He has a sharp 
eye for busineu, and during hi* career in Nome ha* bought diirteen different rtock* of 
goods, moil of them from store* going out of btuines*. He ha* ctlablithed a branch *tore 
in Faiibank*. the new town in die promising mining region of die Tanana. Mr. Lang' 
i* die owner of the Federal Jail property b Nome. 

It ha* been a king time since Mr. Lang left his native land, so king dial be shows 
no trace of foreign birth or mannerism, but he has never forgotten "die old foBiM at home." 
Every years since be wa* fifteen year* old he ha* *ent them money, and this is a testimony 
of hk filial devotion. June 4, 1684, Mr. Lang was married in Montana to Mis* Jidia 
Carter. Mrs. Lang still resides in Hcteoa. 


THIS gentleman is one of the aggresHve. energetic 
young busine** men of Nome. He is manager 
of the Nome Trading Company, a mercantile 
corporation that has been doing business in Nome 
since 1900. He wa* bom E>ecember 27, IS75. at 
Port Discovery, Wa*hington, and received his edu- 
cation in the puUic schools of the State of Wadiing- 
ton. His hther, J. M. E. Atkinson, conduct* an 
extensive inwrance business in Seattle, and the son's 
businen training was obtained in hi* father'* office. 

M. E. AtkiiMon fir*t came to Nome in 190), 
but did not assume the management of the business 
until die fall <^ 1903. In die early spring of 1903, 
before the snow disappeared, he made a trip vnth a 
dog team to the Tanaiu Region which i* 850 mile* i 
from Nome. Returning that tununer by steamer he, 
at the dose of navigation, took charge of the com- I 

pany'* busines* in N<Mne and ha* been ever since the h. R atkinson. 

manager. The Nome Trading Company is one of 

leading mercantile institutions of this country, and has acquired an excellent reputation 
for the bi^ class of goods it supplies to the people of Seward Peninsula. 

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Mr. AtkinfOD hw an attentive acquuntancc on the pcouuuk, and be u 
hqiily MteenMd u he ii wdl known. He wu muried October 21. 1696. Hit i 
vn» tonaaly Mim Mniy M. GulBim], of PortUnd. Oreeon. 


LW. SUTER. the jewder, n 
• one of the praminent and lep- 
utable bunncM men of Nwne. 
He came to thn countiy in the ^>ring 
of 1 900, and began biuinen m a mod' 
«t war. "d notwidwtanding die hct 
dkBt he hai been compelled to move 
hii store four timet (and Poor Rich- 
aid taid: "Three movet are at bad at a 
fire,") hit buiineM hai thrived and he 
hat protpcfed. He owni and conduct* 
the leading jewelry ttore of Nome, and 
pcobably carriei the largctt and beat 
•elected itock of jeweby of any mer- 
chant in Aluka. Hit waret comprite 
werythiDg to be found in a well 
cqu^jped. Ant clatt ieweby eatablith- 
ment, including silverware, cut glatt 
ware, diamonds, nugget jewelry, 
watchet and Alaska louvenin. The 
fizluret in Mr. Suter'i store arc modem 
and up to date. During the past sum- 
mer three men have been b constant 
employment in the manufacturing and 

repair department. The chechako «- ^ w. suter. 

prettet lurprite at finding such an ettab- 
lithmcnt in this isolated community. 

Mr. Suter was bwn in Rouse's Point, New York, Dec. 23, 1 869, but the family 
moved to Swanton, Vt.. when he was an infant. His trade came to him by inhentaiicC' 
at he is the son of a jeweler. Tbe early part of hit life was spent in Swanton, where Ix 
was educated and began Hfe m mercantile punuitt, being placed in charge of a store wba 
he was leventeen years old. He went to Seattle in 1891 and was enq>loyed by ibe 
McDougall & Southwick Company, and at a later period was on the road as a traveliig 
talesman in jewelry fines. He came to Nome in 1900. and by die use of good buiiiK*) 
methods has builded wisely and well. 

Mr. Suter is a member of the Masons, the Arcdc Brotherhood and the Elagln- He 
wu president of the Anvil Masonic Club one year. This it a strong organization ci 
Matont in Nome which has received a dispensation to organize a lodge. ThS« lodge 
v/ill be the most northerly and westerly Maaonic lodge in Nordi America. Since he re- 
sided in Nome Mr. Suter has taken one journey to the states, in 1903, when he went 
home for the first time in thirteen years. It was during this trip he arranged for csiryin? 
die large stock which gives his store the eminence among jewelry stores of Alaska. Be- 

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mkln being a careful uid prudent bufinrM nun, who if^ireciates the value of honetty and 
•quare deaUng in the management of a buiineH, he ii locially a genial nuu who ice* the 
bright side of life. He it married, and ha* a cozy home in the (tore building. 


FE. DAGGETT it a pioneer hotel roan of 
• Nome, and although hii hotel hat been twice 
destroyed by £re he hat thrice built it, and 
with pluck and pertittence that detervet a better fate it 
still engaged in the buainett. He conducts the leading 
hotel of Nome, which in funuthing and equpment it 
equal to many 6ist chut hoteb in far more pretcntiout 

He was bom in Hammmd, Wisconsin, August 
23, 1864. He left home when he was fourteen yean 
old and worked hit way wctL At Spokane, Wath- 
ington, he was employed for two years at the Windsor 
HoteL He was subsequently connected with hotels 
in Portland, San Francisco and Northern CaEfomia. 
He wat employed in the Southern Pacific G>mmistary 
Department for four years, and was also connected 
with the commissary department of the Califomia 
Navigation and Improvement Canpany. In I89S. 

he went to St. Michael. Alaska, with the Alaska Ex- ^ ^ DAaoETT. 

[JoratioD Company. Captain H3>bard, manager. He 

resided in St Michael until the firing of 1900, filhng the position of post steward 
betides having charge of the commissary department for the company. Going lo Nmne 
in 1899. he saw an opening for a hoteL He purchased a lot and went "outside" 
to obtain the necessary money for the construction of the building. He and A J. 
Johnson buik the first hotel m Nome. They chartered a vessel to take to Nome ttie 
material and cqu^nacnt (or die hotel, the cost of which was $35,000. Arriving in 
Nome they discovered that the lot upon which the building was to be erected had 
been jumped and sold numy times. Rather than seek to Recover it by litigation 
another lot wat purchased, which is the site where die hotel now itandt. 

Johnson sold his interest to J. B. Harris, and the size of the house was increased 
during the following winter so that it had sixty furnished rooms. At 1 :30 P. M. May 
25. the day the hut carpet was laid, a fire broke out, and by 3 o'clock the hotel prop- 
erty was entirely destroyed, entailing a loss of $40,000. Widi a capital of $8,000 
they started to rebuild, and two weeks later the new building was open for the recqitimi 
of guests. The bar receipts on the t^Mning night wen $2,000. The new house 
cost $40,000 and was plastered wth a $16,000 mortgage, drawing a monthly inter- 
est of two percent During this summer season a hall costing $10,000, making a total 
investment of $50,000, was added to the building. 

July 5. 1904, all the indebtedness had been paid except $2,000. At 5 o'clock 
in the morning of this day another fire destroyed the Golden Gate Hotel, and what 
wat worse than the destruction of the property, destroyed three lives. This (ire left 
Mr. Daggett with but $70 in cash and without a change of clothing. Discouraged 

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but not downed, he pluuied to build acain, and by tbe umUbu of the public-ipnla] 
cibzcni of Nome he hat erected a third building which with its furnishmgi hat cnt 
$43,000. If he doei not have another viulation from the Bre heml, and if Nam 
proq>en at it thould, and at everyone who it familiar with the retource* fA the caop 
bebevet it will, Mr. Daggett will relieve himt^ of the burden of this dtht and wn 
out in an uneven Bght againit the wont hick that hat befallen anybody in the Ntme 


JC. GAFFNEY it a meiehant 
* of Nome, and a leading dealer 
in high grade clothing and 
gcntlemen't fumiihingi. He wat 
bom at Stonn Lake, Iowa, in June, 
1 875. Twenty yean of hit life were 
qient in North Dakota. He wat edu- 
cated, in the public icboob and in 
the University of North Dakota. 
He it the ton of T. W. Gatfney, a 
well-known lawyer of Seattle. 

Hit 6rtt buimett experience 
wat in the drug hue which be learn- 
ed and foUowed for foiur yeart and 
a half. Subeequently he became 
attociated with the general mer- 
chandiie buiinett of Grand Forkt, 
North Dakota, and hat followed 
mercantile punuitt ever lincc. He 
came (o Nome in the ipring of 1 900 
at manager of a mercantile intti- 
tution. In September, 1903, he 
bought out the butineu, and it now 
one of the prominent merchantt of 
the city. 

November 27. 1902. he and 
Miu Marguerite McPherren were 

married in Nome. Mr. Gaffney it pleatantly tituated, hat a thriving butinett aad t 
host of friendt; and he it deserving of eveiy pleasant phase of hit Ufc. He is Vice- 
Arctic Giief of the Arctic Brotherhood. 



RJ. PARK it one of the pioneen of Nome. He is a contpicuous figure m >" 
• hitlOTy, and a well known and luccestful citizen of the community. He ii * 
native of Ontario, Canada, and wiU be forty-four years old June 22, 1906. 
He accompanied hit folb to North DakoU in IS7I. In 1865 he began a Em of 
ynA, traveling as a talesman for safes, cash registers and bicycles, which he hScwtd 
for Bfleen years. 

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The Klondike rtrike gave him the geb) fever, and he went to Dawion in lt)98. 
Since that time the northem counter 1»* been hti home, and the place where aie located 
tw butineM interertt. He ha* had manjr intcntting ezperioico, tome of them mote 
interesting than agreeable, luch eiperiencet at come to every man who hat ipent yean 
b Alaika. 

Whik descending the Yukon kte in the leaion of 1898 he was "frozen m." and 
compeUed to go into winter quarten on Dall River. Hii wife was widi him and a 
participant in thb eq>erieDce. Sending ber to the tUtes via Dawion after the severe 
put of the winter had pasted, be left I^mpart in March. 1 699, with two dogs and « 
sled, without tent or stove, and started alone on a trip down the Yukon to Nome. An 
account of this trip u an interesting itoiy of ittelf. He was thirty days oa the trail, 
camping whenever it wu pooible with wood choppen or nativet. There were three 
ni^tt, however, when he was compeUed to make a camp in the mow and sleep before 
a camp fire underneath the canopy of the iky. In recounting hit eKperiencet he does 
not locJc upon the incident of this trip as hardsh^ of an extraordinary nature. He 
was without money, except a small quantity of gold dutt a a poke, bid he uya that 
he wat not discouraged until be arrived at Nome. At (Jnalakleet he met Edwin 
Englestad, die trader, whose uniform courtesy and kindness to all "muihen" were ex- 
tended to the weary traveW, making one bright ^>ot in ihit memorable journey. 

Arriving in Nome early in April he saw what appeared to him to be the mott 
desolate looking country he evn beheld. Near Nome he had fallen in with two men 
who had a tent, and the party had been augmented by anotbcr stampeder who had a 
stove. The Nome beach where the town now stands, was covered with seven feet of 
■now. Tbere was no evidence of a town or camp at dut time. The protpecton were 
compelled to dig a big hole in die snow to find ground upon which to pilch dicir lent. 
The tent was erected where the EMorado Saloon now stands. Mr. Paric wu so dis- 
gusted with the surroundings dial he intended to pull out for St Michael at soon as 
Ite was rested. 

Sooa after his arrival he met Charlie Hoxsie, who came over from St Michael. 
He was acquainted with Mr. Hoxsie and learned from him that the tent was pitched 
on hit ground. He purchased from Mr. Hoxsie a lot 50x300 feet, agreeing to pay 
$200 for it ninety days after date. He arranged with R. T. Lyng, manager of the 
Alaska Commercial Company, for the purchase of a large tent and a stock of liquon 
and cigait. The tent was a striped one, and it shown in an engraving in this hook. 
which was the first photograph ever made of Nome. Seventy days after buying this 
k>t he sold a one-quarter interest in it for $22,000. Tliis not «ily furnished him with 
ample capital to engage in business, bi4 enabled him to acquire other pn^Mrty. As 
the result of his business during this summer, and his speculations in mining and city 
proper^, he left Nome b the fall with $70,000 in cash, and he owned pnq>eTty valued 
at $100,000. 

The early part of this season was full of unique incidents. The arrival of the 
«4ialing fleet about May 24, and the procurem«it of htA siq>plies from the whalers, 
b remembered as a con^cuous feature of this season by the few men who spent diis 
winter in Nome. 

In die earty summer of 1905 Mr. Park disposed of his inl«cstt in Nome, and re- 
turned to the states. He raanied Mitt Louisa Couteion, of San Francisco, December 
5. 1695. He is an enterprising, piogrestive citizen. 

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RB. ZEHNER wu bora ti 
• Cheyenne, Wyoming, in 1S70, 
which WM ■! duki time a froo- 

ticT town. Duiing the gold itampede 

to Colorado in 1866 hii purenu jour- 

oeyed overland hy stage from New 

York to Denver, where they remained 

until the construction of the Union Pa- 
cific Railroad cauied them, for bunacM 

reatoni, to move to Cheyeime. 

Mr. ZduKr'i father wai a gold- 

mith by trade and the ton, after finiih- 

iog hit (chooling in the town Khoob, 

took up die trade widi hti father. After 

■pending two yean at an apprentice, be 

entered a watch conitruction tchool in 

Minnetota, >^iere he remained for one 

year. Soon after leaving ichool he be- 
came ctwnccted with a jewelry houte in 

St Louii, which atforded him an op- 

pwtuoity of acquiring a practical 

knowledge along hit cboien Ene. 

At opportunitiet toon pretenled 

iherot^e* in other localitiet, Mr. Zeh- 

ner left St. Loun to accept a poiition 

in Chicago. Later he vrant to Laramie 
City, 'Wyoming, where he wat placed in charge of a large retail jewelry store. Upon 
leaving Laramie City, Mr. Z^er traveled extensively in the Western statei in the inUrol 
of the jewehy buiinett, finally locating with W. H. Fink, the Seattle jeweler, in 1897. 

The Nome gold excitement that cauted the lustorical stampede of 1900 drew 
Mr. Zehner from his business and stimulated him to take passage on the steams Oa- 
lemiial for the Northland. On arriving at Nome he eq>eriei>ced die usual ncoa- 
veniences that nearly all of die first arrivab were forced to experience. The store be 
was to occiqiy had not been built, and he had to camp on the beach without eveo * 
a tent for shelter until such time as accommodaliont could be obtained. Quarltn 
finally being secured, he opened up a jeweby store and continued in business utti 

1901, when he sold his stock of goods and left for hii mines that he had purchased i> 
the Kougarok country. 

TTie property was located on Windy Creek, a tributary of the Kougarok Ri«r 
It was in April, and Mr. Zehner concluded to make the journey, a distance of fOO 
miles, overland by dog team. He encountered great hardships, being conqielled to 
lay out on Salmon Lake three days. He found, on reaching his property that s 
difficult undertaking confronted him, as the ground was frozen to unknown depths, and 
that in order to do any prospecting it would be necessary to devise some meant for 
thawing. He set to work, and by heating rocb in fires buih from the small wiDowf 
to be had, succeeded in thawing several holes to bedrock, and was rewarded by locadng 




■ pay-«tTeak, vAich, however, wu not thick enough to merit the ilow and expeniivc 
operatioBi. After sluicing (or • ikort time on the ckim he returned to Nome; hii 
cuppfia were becoming exhautted and the Ulenew of the muod would not juttify 
further dcnrelopmcnt 

When Mr. Zehner urived b Nome after hii (ummer't mining experience he 
reopened hii jewcby store, but soon moved to the location he now occupies, in the 
central part of die city, oppoate the Cape Nome Bank. Hit store is modem, and 
while his stock consists of the latest and newest gold jewelry, sterling silverware and 
cut glass, he makes a specialty of manufacturing nugget iewehy. 

That Mr. Zehner has faith in the future of the country is evident by the complete 
stock of goods he b importing. He still retain* hts Kougaiok mining interests, and has 
acquired several claim* o[ prospective value in the vicinity o( Nome. He brieves dial 
with cheaper and more rapid transportation to the Kougarok, that part o[ Seward Peninsula 
win produce untold millions. 


RN. SIMPSON is connected 
• with the commercial inter- 
ests of Nome, being as- 
associated with one of die largest 
mercantile and tran^tortation com- 
panies of Seward Peninsula. He 
had the (oresi^t to see the beneBts 
to be derived from a street railway 
m Nome and secured from die Nome 
Council a franchise for a street rail- 
way. This it the Brtt franchise of 
this character ever granted in Alaska. 

R. N. Simpson was bom in 
Oakland, CaHfomia, March 1 7. 
1867. His father. Thomas B. 
Simpson, was a well known mming 
man of that state, being largely in- 
terested in the Blue Gravel Mine at 
Smartsville and the ELxceltior Ditch 
at the same place. During ten 
yean of R. N. Simpson's business 
career he was b the cannbg buti- 
nett and inlereited b several Alaska 
salmon canneries. Five years prior 

to hit coming to Nome he was b r n aimpson. 

the insurance butmett. On his ar- 
rival b Nome the prevalence of liti- 
gation and the aspect of conditions as a result of thit litigation caused him to change 
his plant, and instead of engaging in mbing he took a position as cashier of the North- 
western Commercial Company, and has been connected with the company ever since. 

Mr. Simpson married Jessie B. Grayson, of HiHsboro, New Mexico, August 7, 

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good blcKKl and dunder, ukI willi thew ancMtnl bdongiiigs 4iid the oppoftuatba 
tbe Noithknd otm to tuch young moi. he iKould be kble to acquire the fortune that 
be^ to Imghten ■ good nunc. 


NO one fUnd* higber ud ii ntore umvcnally o- 
teemed among Nome bumcM men than H. Q. 
Mwtena, ibe Nome manager ot die Alaika 
Mercantile Coo^wny, (onnerly die Amet Mercantile 

Mr. Maiteni will be dii)ty-<Hic yean old on 
Sqrtember 9 thti year, 1905. He wn bom in 
Sao FranoKo, CaUornia and educated in the public 
(choob o( San Fr«nci*co. He began mercantile life 
vihta he wak teventeen yean old with die well known 
San Fnmdico houie. Tilman & Bendel, He wa« with 
thit 6rm for ten yean, beginning at the bottom and 
working hinuelf up to a leading poaition in die firm. 

In 1901 he wu elected lecretary of the Ama 
Mercantile Company, and in the fall of 1 902 he came 
nordi and look charge of the company 'i extenuve 
butineu in Nome. He hu been here ever lincc. 

Beaidet being a careful biuineM man looking 
after the mioutett detail of the busioeu 'at hii charge, 
Mr. Martena it a mod agreeable and companionable 
in (ocial circlet of Nome. 


gentleman who ii highly lopectcd 


SAEIANTIS CARLLIS wa* bom at Tripoli. 
Greece, in 1660. Hit father wu a farmer, 
who owned a tmall place in the outikirti of 
tbe city. Mr. Carilii' early ichoohng wai acquired 
at Tripob and Athent. Circunutancei compelled him 
to give up ichool and begin woik He clewed in a 
dry goodi itorc in Athens for a ihort time, and at 
the time of the British-Egyptian difficulty be left 
Athens for Egypt, where he stayed for two years, 
leaving diere b 1885 for San Francisco by way of 
Liveipool and New YoHl Soon after arriving in 
Sao Frandico he secured work in a committion bouse, 
and later went to Los Angeles, where he opened a 
comnunion store oi his own. 

During the Dawson excitement Mr. CarlHs out- 
fitted hit brother with merchandise and tent him to 
the gold Adds, but the adventure was a failure. In 
1900, when the Nome excitement swept over ^ 
country Mr. Carltii brought a big stock of merchandite 
to Nome. The first summer he conducted his business 


1 a building that had rougb 

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boardi for a Bom and « lent rooBng. The Mine fkU he erected ■ lubiUiitid building 
that he ha* added to yearly ever lince. Hit pro&U the first year were very Mtiifactofy, 
and the buiinen was rapidly expanded until he had three itore* in Nome and t>at in 

Mr. Carllit outfitted protpecton for intereati in daimi acqtiired by them until 
he ha* many valuable properties from >t4iich he is now reaping benefits. He has prop- 
erty on Seattle, ^X^Dow, Flambeau and other oreeks, which are producing cootiderable 
gold. Mr. CariKs has great faith in the future of Nome and Northern Alaska. 


ANTON C. SCHOW is the own- 
er of large mining interesU in 
Seward Peninsula. He b better 
known at Frank Schow. In hb young- 
er days he went to tea at a sailor, and 
when die crew was drawn up in line 
and the mate asking each one hit name, 
several slanting-browed natives o{ Por- 
tugal gave their names as Anton. When 
the mate asked Mr. Schow hit name, 
he promptly repbed, Frank, and by the 
name of Frank he has tince been known. 
Mr. Schow is a native of New York, 
and was b<»n August 25, 1860. He 
wat educated in the public tchoolt, and 
went to sea when he was fourteen years 
old. He folbwed the sea for seven 
yean. After 1676 hit home was m 
California. He was astiitant foreman 
(or GoodatI, Perkins fit Company, of 
San Francisco, at their Broadway 
wharf, prior to the ditcovery of gold 
in the Klondike, (.^khi receipt <^ the 
news of the Dawson strike in 1697 he 

started for that region. He and thirty- '^ ^- ^CHOW. 

nine other men paid $500 each for 

die schooner South Coast, in which they embarked for St. Michael. At Sl Michael 
he realized that die plant of the company would not enable him to get to Dawson 
that season, to he thipped at a mate on one of the river steamen. On the way up 
he purchased five toni of outfits for $300, and when he arrived in Dawson with them 
he wat oCered $6,500 for the tu^iliet they contained. These siq^Bet included 2.200 
pounds of Bour, and he refused an ofier of $4,400 for this Sour. Mr. Schow is an 
Elk, and he held the flour for the accommodation <rf his brothers in the order. 

He engaged in mining in die Klondike country, and during hit residence there 
owned twelve mining claimt, but they were aD "dead onet." He came down the 
river during the tummQ- of 1899, arriving in Nome June I. Siortly after hit arrival 
the beach digging* were struck, and Mr. Schow claims the distinction of having weighed 

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the fint product of the beach, which conikted ol dint vahied «l fifty-two dollus. 

Id 1 899 he got ■ bench claim off Dbcovery Claim on Anvil CteA. Tim dam 
adjoin* the property whete the big nugget wai found. Mr. Schow told tfaii claim io 
1903 for $32,000 caih. He ii now interoted in 6.000 aciet of mining land in vai- 
iou* part* of Seward Penintula, and it an owner in tome valuable water righta. In 
the (all of 1699 Mr. Schow went to the ttatei and took a trip to Eun^ie. He wat the 
firtt man to go to Europe on mmey made in Nome, 

Frank Schow it a whole-touled, generout man. He it a plunger at hit extcoiiTe 
holdingi in mining property in thit country would indicate. If thb property prove to 
be at good at the pnMpectt indicate he will make a big itake. 


"Qlve ua thla day our dally bread. " 

ONE of die bett known men in a 
tmall town it the baker. Thb 
it a diitinction that bebng* to 
George Fitzgerald, at for the pait lev- 
eral yean he hat supplied moit of the 
Nome communis with their daily 
bread. That he hat done hit work 
faithfully and well and built a butinett 
that givci him prettige in hit line of 
work it a ttatement of fact and a com- 
I^iment to which he it entitled. He u 
a native of Swantea, South Walet, C 
B., and wat bom November 1 7, 1873. 
He learned the grocery and baking 
butinett in hit native town. Immigrat- 
ing to the United Statet when he wat 
twenty yean old. he located in San 
Frandtco and found employment in 
Ae grocery butinett in that city, being 
employed by one firm during the entire 
time that he wat in San Franciico. In 
1698 he went to the Kkindike. He 
wat in Dawton a year, and came 

down the Yukon in the lununer of qkorob fitzqekau). 

1699, arriving in Nome July 19. Thit 

wat about the date the beach diggingt were firtt diicovered. He mined on the beach 
that aeaion and worked on Snow Gulch during the winter. The year foUowing be 
ettabliihed the Anvil Bakery in Nome which it now the oldett and the leading bakoy 
m the town. 

Mr. Fitzgerald wat married in Nome. November 27, 1902, to Miti l-redt 
Pobky. A ton, George Gerald, wat born to diem b 1904. Mr. Fitzgerald ii to 
energetic and induittiout young man. By a dwrou^ knowledge of hit vocation aix' 
dote attention to it, and by ttrictly honeat metbodt, he hat builded hit buHnesi until 
it it brmty ettablidied in the community. 

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MOSE ROSENCRANZ came to Nome June 
27. 1899. He wu a pauoigei od the 
•chooner Enna and was among the fint ai- 
livab frooi ihe itatet to ihe new mining camp. Hif 
entire capital cmuitted of the munificent mm of oat 
dollar and thirty-five coita. He Mcured tomt of the 
fint lumber flipped to Nome and began die con- 
struction of the fint frame building of the town. Po»- 
MMing a money-maldng inidnct he accumulated near 
$12,000 during die lummer leaMn of 1699. He 
was engaged in real eatate. the handhog of mining 
propertiet and a general brokerage and commiuion 
bunnett. He abo acquired during thi> kbioo «ome 
valuable mining interetts. 

At illuitrative of the conditioni in Nome during 
ihit teaxn, he telb of an bcident when be wu offered 
fifty dollan to cany a letter from town to Anvil Creek, 

• distance of not more than four milet, and he de- ..^oc nrl.l.»Tr^...■> 

dined the oner ai an opportumty prCMnted itielt tor 
a more profitable employment of hit time. 

He was bom in San Franctico, June 3, 1865. He ha> a butineu record in 
San Frandaco where he accumulated considerable money while engaged in the busi- 
ness of loaning money on real estate. Meeting with business reverses he was induced 
to go to Alaska. A brothn* of Mr. Rosencranz is a prominent and popular physician 
of San Francisco, and he has a sister who is abo a physician. At present Mr. Rosen- 
cranz b associated with Simson Brolfaeti, one of the largest mercantile institutions of 
Seward Peninsula. In die Hst of his mining properties is a one-half interest in Row 
Man's Bench adjoining the Maudeline and "Caribou Bill's" claim, a very valuable bench 
between Anvil and Deiter Creeb. He is abo the owner of considerable town property. 


THE SIMSON BROTHERS own one of the largest mercantile I 
Seward Peninsula, conducting stores in Nome and Coundl. Abe Simson is one 
of the pioneer merchants of Nome and was die first member of die firm to arrive 
m this camp. He came down the river from Dawson and landed in Nome Sqitember 
6, 1 899. He did not bring a stock of goods with him, as the object of the trip was to 
investigate die new camp and see what opportunities it might oSer for the establiibment 
of a business. But after arriving he thought it best to stay, and began business in a 
smafl way by bujring and selling goods and handling merchandise on commission. 

Abe Simson is a native of Haventraw, New York, and was bom November 
15, 1869. He is die second son of a family of eig^t, six boys and two girls. 
His fadicT was a merchant. When he was four years old die family moved to 
Germany and die subject of this sketch did not return to the United States until he was 
sixteen yean old. His education was obtained in Gennany. He started in business at 
the age of seventeen and began by taking retail orders. When he was nineteen yean old 

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he opened « rtore in CioIod. New York, and lubiequently with hit eltlest brother, S. Sn- 
*on, eaubliihed another (tore in SuSern, New YoiL It wu the UrgeM mercantile intt- 
tutioD b thit town. In 1896 he lold out hi* intcrcM in New Ywk and with hii bTottw 
Ben ttaited br Dawion, via Chilkoot PaM. Thqr pulled dies frei^t over the tn3 aod 
built the boat in which diey descended the Yukon. After Mveral monthi devoted to 
prDq>ecting in the Klondike region, they got weary digging for gold and detennmtd to 
engage in bunneM with which they were hmiliar. They began by buying and leBing M- 
iU. They returned to the atalei diat winter and in the ipring of 1 899 came back lo 
DawM» with a dock of gooda and opened a unall *tore. The report* from None b- 
duced Abe to make a trip to the new camp. In the q>ring of 1900 Ben Simacn ir- 
rived in Nome widi a ttock of goodi. Thi* wat the fint ilock of goodi received m 
Nome thi* leaaon. The firm did an extcniive butineM, but on account of the &n riik 
dtey retired from the field at the end of the (eaion of 1903. But Ben got tbc fever to p 
to Nome again, and in the ipring of 1 904 he returned and bought out the N. A T. & 
T. Co. Abe Simaon b a broad-minded, pubUc-^tirited citizen. 


THIS young man ii a merchant of Nome, and 
wb3e hit burin ew may not be ao exteoiive ai 
•ome of the larger concenu. it it conducted on 
liaa that tome day will place him in the position of 
a merchant of prominence. He it a native of Cal- 
abria, luly. and wai bom April 29, 188), and went 
lo Ameiica with hit parenti in 1892, locating in 
Seattle. When he wat fifteen yean old he began hit 
butineit career, hit fim venture being the purchate of 
• cigar (tore with money that he had earned and saved 
following die trade of a boot-black. By dose appli- 
cation to businest and economy he added to his Httle 
store of weahh. Realizing the need of a better com- 
mercial education he disposed of his business and 
look a coune m Wilton's Modem BusincH College. 
After graduating he came to Nome in 1900 with a 
•lock of groceries, and in partnershq) with 
Frank Aquino established the Snake River Grocery. 

In the fall of 1900 Mr. Polet boo^t his partner's a. polet. 

interest and is now the sc^ proprietor of the bwiineii. 

I know this young man and I admire the phick and courage by whidi he ''*' 
attained his pieaent position. He is boncat, and his business metbods are of (he W 
that wiU lead him on to greater success. 


CMELETUS is one of the pioneer minen of Good Hepe District He w» 
• one of die first prospectors on Dick Creel, a trOtutary of Bryan Creek ftwTC 
into die Serpendnc River. He staked property on thii crwk b 1901, t>x> 
has worked on die creek every season since then. He has believed horn ^ ^ 

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that Dick Creek coDtuoed a vast depoat of the prectoiu minenl, but lack of wats 
bat prevented him from ^>erating on a (cale that would yield large revenuei. By tang 
dte water available which would permit of iluidng for only an hour or two each 
day during a part of A/c leaion, Mr. Meletui hat been able to obtain a grub-<takt 
every seajon from these diggings. 

Mr. Meletus wai bom in Vatiar, near Sparta, Greece, in 1669. When he wit 
ten years old he left home and went to Russia and Turkey. He spent five yean in 
Russia and obtained a fair knowledge of the Ruwian and Rumanian languagei. He 
has attended both English and Greek ichook and at one time could speak Itakin 
fairly weU. In 1887 be immigrated to the United Slates and located in Chicaea. 
He has followed the restaurant business m Chicago, San Francisco and Seattle, and 
was successful in a restaurant venture at the Chicago World's Fair in 1693. 

His fint mining experience was in Cripple Creek. He came to None >i iIm 
4>riiig of 1 900, and in the following season acquired the Dick Creek property, and kai 
staid by it &rm in the faith that its deveh>pmait would make a fortune for him. Mc 
Meletus is a man of native intelligence, wide experience and coamopolitan learning. 
May 3. 1905, he married Miss L^e C. Rutherford, of Revere, Mo. She aecon- 
parned him this season to Dick Cre^ where Mr. Meletus is engaged in constnictiag a 
ditdi for the economical working of his mining property. 


THIS gentteman, whose p<9ularity is 
proverbial, and whose name in his 
city and vicinity is "familiar as 
housdwU words" comes of that sterlittg 
progre ss ive class of Germans, who, wher- 
ever they make a settlement, form an im- 
press for good, leaving on their onward 
march indelible "foot-prints on the sands 
of time." 

Some eighl years ago Mr. Hesse be- 
came interested financially in mining mat- 
ten in Alaska and continues ra the busi- 
ness today. He is accounted mie of the 
IHoneen of the Seward Peninsula in 
Alaska, t^cre he has large interests in 
tbe gold placer grounds, and tin and 
quicksiKer dq>osits, with an office in 

WilUam Hetae, father of our tubject. 
was bom in 1834, in Crivitz, Prussia, 
where he was reared and educated. At 
the age of eighteen, in 1 852, in conqMny 

with his father and the family, he went wili-iam h. hbssr 

to the United Stales, and for a short lime made his home in Rochester. New YorL 
From Rochester the family removed to Milwaukee. Wisconsin, and there he met U* 
future wife. Miss Claia Vehring. a lady of German nativity, and who, when miW» 

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jrauB oU, went to Amaiu with u uncle, die being an oipliui. Mr. Hene died in 
Necnah, Wncoodn. in 1 885. uid hit wife MIowed liim to du grave in 1 893. 

William R Hene wai bora in McDasha, Witconin. Norerober 2, I860, and 
received hit denenlary educabon in dte pabKc Khoob in Neenah, nipiJemailcd with 
a coune at dve Univenitx of Noire Dame, Indiana. At tbe age of twenty-one he 
enloed into partncnbqi with hit father in the hotel bwinen, ai nanagen of the Necnah 
Hotel. On tbe death of die lenior Heaae, in 1685, the aon continued the buvncM 
mtil 1 893, when be d^iowd of hii interert. 

In the meantime Mr. HcMe diKorcred dte exigence of white quattz quarries near 
WauMu, Mantbon County. WitcooMn, and concerred the idea that thii mi^ be 
made a Tahiable adjunct to the rcMMDcea of the Badger State. He had givco cooaidcf- 
able attention to geobgy and mining. WiA qMcimaii of the Maradion County quartz 
in hii poiMMion, he ictursed to Nee&ab from « vt«t and began expetimenting. He lOon 
diKOvered the quartz, puKerized, could not only be utilized b the manufacture of a 
fine quali^ of landp^xf, and for other purpoM>. but diat it made one of die beet water 
fiker bedt po«ibl& Armed with thii informalion. he eatablidMd a factory in a Knall 
way in Neenah, and mm won a reputation with hii product that induced the peopk 
<rf Waueau to offer him lufficicnt inducemcnta to remove hit plant to that city, where he 
engaged in die buiineM on a large Kale. The correctneM of hii judgment it lectified 
to by the fad; that the Badger Quartz Mill m among die more important induatriea of 
the ^^Kouin VaUc? today, ite output betng di^iped in carload lot> lo all parti of 
the counb;. 

Mr. Hene hai alwayi taken a deep intercM in pubhc matteti, whether dwy oo»- 
cemed the proqxtiQr t^ hit home d^, the itate. or the nation. In hit poltlaJ »<fiH«rii»M 
he H a Democrat He hai lerved tut party at a member of both county and congre*- 
Nonal oommitteee. and ai n ddegate to itate. connQr and city conventioni. He terved 
the ci^ of Neenah (or three yean ai a member of dte common council, and a« mayor 
for <»e term, 1891 to 1692. Hit admimitiaiion ai chief magiitrate, wai peculiarly 
fdicitioiii. from die fact that it gave to the people dw i^esent excellenl water woHo and 
inaugurated the atreet paving ^item. 

At the preeent time (1905), Mr. HesM it icrving die people at the prendent of 
die Board of Lil^ariei of Winnebago County. He bai been a member of the ichool 
hoard for leveral yean, and taket a deep intcreit in educational matters. 

In 1667 Mr. Hene mairied Mi» Flora May Dunham, a native of Ohio. They 
have one child, Monica A. Hesie. 

Descended from sturdy anceston, tome of diem in the honorable profetnons, 
othera in the no less honorable bdd of commerce, he ii. by inheritance, possessed of 
advantages and surrounded by circumstances combininp in a remarkable manner to a& 
celerate die developments of his character and tbe furtherance of hii future proqierity; 
and that they have been aceompfidied m no limited degree, hit life itself is indisputable 



H. CASTLE was born in San Fnndsco, February 15, 1663, and was 
graduated from Yale College widi die degree of B. A. in die dasi of '84. 
He read law in die ofice ot Doyle, Ga^ & Scripture, of San Fraodsco, 

ns admitled to tbe bar in 1866. He practiced law b Sao Frandtco and San 

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JoM. CaL. ud came to Aluka m the ipring of 1900. He bec«iiw uiocwted witb 
Laurier McKee. tnoAax Yale roan and a cWver young lawyer who has written an 
wt/att^Dt book entitled "The Land of Nome." They went to Council City and 
Mtabbhed an o£cc, and Mr. Castle hai remained [aithhiUy at thit poet (rf duty ever 
mce. In addition to building a lucrative practice be has acquired intoetta in valuabk 
Ftinbig pn^Mrty. Mr. Cactlc'i father it a prominent merchant of San Francitco. a 
mend>a of the brm of Castle Brothers and Macondrmy & Co. 

I knew Mr. Caitle yean ago, when neidieT of ui ever thought of going to Alasb. 
I know that he i* an educated gentleman, posscMt&g a dcq) appreciation of ethics, * 
broad knowledge of motive, charity for human fraiky and a conception of juMice whidi. 
if possessed by every one, would elevate immeasurably the character of mankiiid. 


JUDGE C S. JOHNSON has been 
a resident oi Alaska for sixteen 
yesn. He came from Nebraska to 
Sitka in 1889 as United States Attor- 
aey for die dktrict In 1897 Preaident 
McKinley appointed him to the office 
of Judge of the Dirtiict Court of Alas- 
ka, a position which he iiOed until the 
llxing of 1900. when he resigned to 
engage in die practice of law at Nome. 
Judge Johnsm's earlicsl recollections are 
associated with a k>g cabin on an Iowa 
prairie when he was bom August 3 1 , 
1854. He is of Scotch ancestry, and 
his father was one of the pimiceTs of 
Ohio. C S. Johnson's boyhood days 
were q>ent in Iowa. He attended Uie 
pubbc schools of Clarinda, a town m 
Page County. When he was 6fteen 
yew* old he was thrown upon hii own 
resources to obtain the education which 
he 10 much desired. He learned die 
printer's trade, and earned enough 

money at the case to attend die Iowa judob c. a jqhkson. 

State O^lege. In 1877 he was gradu- 
ated from the law department of the Univenily of Iowa, and die same year he moved to 
Wahoo. Nebraska, and began die practice of law widi N. H. Bell, under die firm atm 
<^ Bell 8c Johnson. He was married September 18, 1679. Mrs. Johnson is the dttigb- 
ler of Major J. B. Davii. of Wahoo. Neb. In 1882 Judge Johnson was elected to die N<- 
tvaska Legislature from Saunden County. Three yean later he moved to Nelscm, Nd>-i 
and served two teniu as Prosecuting Attorney of Nuckoh County. In 1889, and befsR 
the expiration of his second term of office, he received the appointment of U. S. Attoiney {■>' 
Alaska. He went to Sidu, where be lived until the expiration of hii term of office ; ind il 
it a noteworthy fact that he it die only District Attorney for Alaska who ever served s lul' 

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teim. After the Gq»i«tioa of hn tenn of oftcc he pnctked kw in Junesu uDtil 1 897, 
when be Teceired the Kpptmtiatot of Jadge of the Fedcs*! Court for die Dnbict (rf AUika. 
Hii mignatioii in 1900 wu becauM of die kwdequate taUrr KtUcbeci to the ofice. 
$3,000 « yev. The Attorney Genenl nrgently requested hiin to recootider hk rengnatioa 
upon the unmnce thst hit uUry vroold be doubled, a bill contnining a pravinMi to in- 
creaM the talaiies of iudge* of didnct court* to $7,500 bong before Coogrcai at that time. 

Thit it the outline tketch of a buty and eventful Kfe. Some of die detaik of diit out- 
Hne funurfi an intere>ting part of the hittory of Alaika and an impwtant feature oi jum- 
prudence in the United States. In 1699 the growth of the mining can^M in die Yukon 
VaUcy and the ditcoveiy of gold at Nome created the neccMity for a wttioa of die [>i>trict 
Court in a number of placet m thit part of the dittrict. Accordingly, Judge Johnton ituted 
oa a drcuit that required him to make a tr^ of 7,000 mils. The itinerary wat at foUowi: 
To Dawtoo via \l^iile Past, down the Yukon to Elagle, Circle, Ranq>art and St Micbad, 
termt of court being held in each place ; thence to Nome, where the tnt l ei tiop of the Dittrict 
Court wat held; tbcnce to Uoalaika, Unga and Kadiak, a revenue cutter being provided by 
the Govenmcnt for thit part (rf the tr^ ; and ibence to Si^, or, at die mincn lay in their 
location nolicet on placer claima, "to the point of beginning." Thii joum^ occupied ■ 
period of three mMitht. and it undoubtedly one of the loogcst drcuitt ever made by a court. 
At that time Judge Johnton'i juritdictioii extended ora* a territory near 600,000 tquaie 
milet in extent, and the only meant of eiqieditioat travd were veaKk on navigaUe rtreanu. 
Tbe vatt mtcrior wai a wildemeti, (it it Init little more today) only partially expired by die 
pioneer protpeclon. 

When Judge Johnton arrived in Nome in Augutt he found a qiaciout lent for the 
accommodation of die court The rainy teaaoo wai making a record, and die tent was not 
impcrviout to the conttant downpour, but leaked bountifully. Mud in the ttreett of Nome 
wat from a foot to two teO. in depth, and « part of die vettment of the Judge vAtm he coo- 
vcned court were a iBcker and a pair of gum booti. At thit lettion tome important qaet- 
tioM were lubmitted to Judge Johnton for adjudication. There were reqatrtt for injimc- 
tioBt and receivert. Thete requetti, after bearing, were denied. He wat caDed igwa to 
decide die right of an aUen to bold mining ground acquired by location. The qixalian was 
very important ai it involved title to tome of the moat vahiaUe property m the country, and 
the court wat without a lae c edeot The ittue had never bees Ixou^t to bar before, al- 
though there were dedtiooa that indicated the drift of die Supreme Court't opinion. He de- 
oded that tbe LUted State* wat the only party that had tbe ri^t to quettion citizendiip. 
Thit opnion hat (ince been affirmed by the Supreme Court. 

Tbe quettion of the Contdtution following the flag, (rf the ri^t of Congrett to pan 
^ledal impott lawi for Alatka, wai brought before him in a cate of refuial to pay tbe Gov- 
ennnent ipedal licente tax on butineit conduced in Alatka. White hit law h'brary fumidied 
him with but meager information on the nibject, die ditcuttimu of the government of oar 
intabr potaettiont m the law iounab at that dme were he^ful. In deciding m favor of the 
validity of the tpecial bceue lax he amnned that tbe Conttitulion wat patted by tbe ttale* 
for the govemmem of tbe ttatct, and not for die govermnent of dtizent of territoriet. Thit 
dedtion, whid wai the Grtt rendered upon thit qnerticHi, hat been affirmed and it now the 
nipreine law of the land. 

During Judge Johnton'i incumbency there wai a iharp umffict between the United 
Statet and die Canadian Govenmcnti over the quettion of pelagic teaiing. Many leizuret of 
iriadt were made by our Government, and proteculiont in die E}ittrict Court of Akika fol- 
lowed. Some of tbe quettion* invoKed were very dehcale. The matter wat finally iuIh 

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mkled to an btenationaJ ubitnboo committee, wbicli uinuUed our lawi and fined UkIc 
Sam $425,000 for tbe rcMck be had captund and tbe damage be had therein done. 

Judge JohnaMi't inteipretatiMi of the law ha* been compatathrely h«e of miilakt*. « 
only t¥ra of hu dednmia have been revencd hf the Supieate Court. By tbe exacue of it 
court'* prerogative and refuting to grant mjimctiooi and a^iomt recaivai at tlie fini term cf 
tbe Dimict Court in Nmne, the ri^tfnl ownen of the propertio were permitted to worl tiie 
ground and extract enough gold to fight dwir caaea to a tucccMfnl teiminatioa when the hal- 
cyon d^> of the injunction and receiver came in the judida] regime ^ tbe folknving jeai. 
Law » be«t adminirtered wbea it beat nJMcrvet jurticc. 

Judge Johmon it an aSaUe gentlonan, a man of re&nentcnt and culture. He hu i 
depth and bteadth of mind which enable him to gra^i prind[Je*, ponemi a true perccptim 
of etbict and a broad underatanding c^ human diaractet. A> a lawyer be oco^nei a )eid- 
ing poaition among the membcn of die Nome bar, and u a citizen cmnmanda the mpect ud 
catoem of die c 


THE aelectioo of a judge for the Second Judicial Drriaion of Alaaka to wccced 
Arthur H. Noyea, wai a matter that received more than ordinary attention bw 
die Government at Waihiogton, on account of »he condition of aian m liiii 
judicial dirtrict The tangle of litigation had beoi pretty well unraveled by Judp 
Wickenham of tbe Third Diitrict, wbo had been directed by the Atbmiey Gobi!, 
iqxn the retirement of Judge Noyet. to [voceed to Nome and hold a term of omoL 
The condition in which Judge Noyet left the legal aJain of tfaii corainwuty, howtnr. 
made it neccaaary for the Goremmcnt to txerciae care in die adectioa ot a tncJcam. 
There wai a demand for a judge of ability and abaohite booeaty. and Alfred & Mont 
of Beaver. PennayWania, wat adected to lili thia poattion. He bad been a bwrn ■ 
Pcnntylvania tincc 1871, he had icrved three yean aa Diitrict Attorney of Bctnr 
County, wat pretident of the Law Aiaociation of the county for a period of three ytan: 
waa a member of the ^TTaming board for four yean; had been a truatee in Beaver Col- 
lege for twenty yeara, and wat a director of the Fint National Bank of Beaver. H> 
record and reputation met aU the requiremenia, and be recdved the appointnienl « 
Judge of die Second Judicial Divition of Alatka, in May. 1 902. and entcRd upon h" 
dutiet July M, aucceeding. 

Judge Moore waa bora September 13, IS46; waa educated in tbe public fcfacob 
(J PcntyKania. in the old Beaver Academy and in Waibington and Jeffaun C^l«« 
and waa graduated from JeCeraon College with the degree of A. B., aubaeqnw 
receiving die degree of A. M. 

He began work at a railroad man, and during a period of twoty-five montht an** 
from the poaition of baggage man to the poaition of conductor of a paateniier tnn 
He wat only twenty-two yean old when he hdd die potition of condudor. 

Hit raihoad experience waa begun oa account of ill health, and on a road ffH" 
St Louit into tllinoit, of which hit uncle. Col. Henry S. Moon, wat tupoaiaoat 
Having regained hit healdi, he returned home and atudied law under Sam. B. Vlf^ 
the leader of die bar of Beaver County, and wat admitted to practice law SeptcnM 
II. 1871. He 6ret opened an office in Butler. After duee yean of practice M 
returned to Beaver, and b 1680 wat elected dirtrict attorney of the county. 

Judge Moore wat one of the moat tucceaaful lawyera of the Beaver bar. He K*" 
loal a tingle cate in the Supreme Court. While practicing at Buder, oil «rat ifo^ 

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in thai put of Penntylrutk, and a grcftt deal of litigatioD renilted from the new bdinby. 
Judge Moore lat n aibitrater in many important catea, and it wai bere that he dia-- 
pkyed the iwhcial tnit oi character which made him a^ire to a aeat on the bcoch. 

Ai noted in the opening paragraph. Judge Moore hai filled a number of im- 
portant potitioiN of tnut in hit native town. Upon hi* appointment aa judge of the 
Sec«»)d Judicial Diviuon of Alaika. he haatened to Nome and (ormaltr enta«d upon 
the diM^atge of hia dutiea July 14, 1902. Having hved all of hi* life in the Eaat, 
Judge Moore at the inception of hia work at Federal Judge of Alatka, wai confrwiled 
with the dificul^ roulting from a diMmilaii^ in both people and practice. Northern 
Knd vrattem mining campt iq>retent the »7t^"^T^ of dificnnce exirting between the 
people of the oldeat communis in die EAtt and the people ot the oewect in the Weit. 
The law> of Alatka woe new, and the iuuet imobred in ^ligation were radically dif- 
ferat from ihoae that vreuld oMoe before a judge on the bench in a manufacturing or 
agricuhunl dittrict of an old and wdl lettled community. Judge Moore ia an indua- 
tiioui man, and he a^^lied htmtelf dJUgeotly to acquiring a proper knowledge <rf hit 
new environment to at to ditcharge hit dutiea in a manner thai would tubicrve the beat 
interesti of the people of Nordiwettem Alatka. 

Judge Moore it of Scotch-Iiiih deicent m which diere it a ttram of Spanirii, 
F.wg liA and Gennan blood. Hit anceiton came to America in Colonial dayi. He ii 
a member of a family of tawyen, being a nei^ew to Chief Juttice Danid Agnew. 
Robert Moore, a ceM>rated lawyer, vrat hit grandhther. A man of unquealioaed 
probi^ and itrong cotavictiont. Judge Moore hat endeavored to ditcharge the ditfies 
of hit ofice Uaiy and faithfully, and hat worked diligently for the contummatioB of 
diii pntpote. 


IT Eu been taid diat no one goet to Alatka to make 
a home and permanent reudence, but v^ieo a man 
hatilwit a decade of the moat active period of bit 
life in thit country, he feeli like it it bit home, and cer- 
tainly it entitled to the appeUabon of an Alaakan. A. J. 
Daly came to Alatka when tvren^-one yean M and 
hat lived in the dittrict ever lince. He hat filled the 
potition of deputy clerk of the Dittrict Court when the 
juriadiclion of thit court extended over the 591,000 
tquare milet of Alatka territory; he wrat for a period 
t^ four yean attittant United Statei Attorney, for thit 
vatt territory, and wai the rqireientative of the At- 
tontey Cieneral'i <^ice who auiited in holding the fint 
term of the Dittrict Court in Nome in 1 899. 

Mr. DaV it a native of Troy, New York, and wai 
bom March 18. 1873. After attending the Troy 
Hit^ School he entered '^Diamt College, and wai 

graduated from thit inttitution with the clatt <rf '93, ^ dalt 

recoving the degree of A. B. The foUowing year he 

went to Alatka at deputy clerk of the Diitiict Court at Sitka. While a reiident of Troy, 
New York, he ttudied law m a law oAce, and was tiJiaequently admitted to the bar. In 
Aiigud. 1 896, he waa appoinled to the petition of awittant United Statet Attorney for 

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Aluka, and •taboned at Juneau. In 1699, wp r ct ating die Attomey CcDcnl't ofce» he 
accompanied Judge C. S. Johnton on a circuit throu^ die dirtiict This probably was the 
longest drcutl ever made by a court in tbe hirtoiy of the United State*, the trip cooamuiig 
three nwnth*' time, during which the dittance traveled wai more than 7.000 milet. 

The court reached Nome in Augwt, having come down die Yukon, biding leaaJom 
at tbe principal itationi. Ax thit time Nome wai in the bud of ili boom. Tbae waa 
great activity in the mines near town and on the beach, and no one could forecast tbe 
future of the camp, but the possAiKties were immeasurably great and eneouraging. Mr. 
Daly determined to cast his lot with tbe gold seekers in the new camp. In the spcing 
of 1900 he resigned his federal position, having held the office under both Clevefamd mod 
McKinley'i administrations, and came to Nome to engage in the practice of law. After 
his anival in Nome, hit resignation not having been accepted by tbe department, be scted 
•t district attorney, at the s^icitation of General RandaB. until the arrival tJ Judge Nt^es. 

Mr. Daly is associated with Judge Johnson in the practice of law. He is a promi- 
r (rf the Nome bar and a lawyer of ability. 


IRA D. ORTON is a pfominent 
member of the Nome bar. He 

is a successful lawyer, a man 
oi ability and recognized force of 
character, a hard worker and a 
scrupuk>usiy honest man. Possess- 
ing these qualities of character it it 
not surprising that he is c»e of the 
very successful lawyers of Nome. 

He was bom in Princeton, 
Mitsouri, March 11, 1871. He 
was graduated by the Prince- 
ton Hi^ School and the Stale Uni- 
vcTsity of Iowa. From the State 
Univernly he received tbe degrees 
of A. B. and LL D. Mr. Orton's 
father it H. G. Orton, a well known 
attomqr of Northern Missouri, and 
a descendant of an EngUi ccioa' 
ist vAm came to America in 
1640. Mr. H. G. Orton wat a 
Union soldier in the Civil War, and 
wu to severely wounded at die 
battle of Cross Lanes diat he has 
beai crippled ever sine & 

After Ira D. f>ton received ^«* "> oRTON. 

his law degree in 1892, he went to 

San Francisco, and was associated with the law 6rm of Reddy, Campbdl & Mettoa. 
He came to Nome in 1900 at an aisodate of Mr. WiUiam H. Metton. EttaUishiag 
an office in Nome he has by diligence, faithfulness to cKcntt and inherent abiity placed 
himself among the leaders of the Nome bar. He is attomey for some of the largot 

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cotporatioM in tbe NonK country, notably dw Mioceie Ditch Company, the Pioneor 
Minios Company. Council City & Sobmon River Raihoad Company, Topknk Ditch 
Company. Nortbem Mining and Trading Company, Nome-Arctic RaiKvay Company, 
Alaika Mercantile Company, Alaska TelefJioDe and Tetegrai^ Company, and ii abo 
a dinctoi of and aOontef for the Miners and Meichantf Bank, the Electric Light and 
Power Company and the MoMiUiJit Spring! Water Company. 

Mr. Oiton wai married in 1897; hit wife was Claudia M. Ewing, daughter of 
a prorobent lawyer of Iowa, and a manber of an old family of the United Sutet. The 
iwne <rf diit marriage it one child, a dau^ter. Helen, aged aeven yean. Mn. Orton 
died in IS99. June M. 1903. Mr. Orton ccmtracted a xcond marriage with Mm 
VioU M. Coddmg, of Nome. 

Mr. OrloD, Bnnly believing in the permanency and future of Norm, ha« built a 
pretty home for himaelf and family. 


VILUAM A. GILMORE k a bright law- 
ya and a prominent manber of dK N<nDe 
bar. He came to Nome bom Seattle in the 
ipring of 1900, but did not relinquiih hit Seattle 
<^e, where he was attociated widi P. V. Davii, 
under the firm name of Davit & Gibnore. He re- 
tained hit inlerert in thit partnenhp, returning to Se- 
attle in the faO of die year for the firtt two leaioni 
after hit venture in Alatka. but in 1902 he diqwted 
of hit Seattle interettt and came to Nome to reude 
pomanentiy, at leatl for yean, if not f<Mever. A lu- 
crative and tteadily growing practice atterti die etteem 
in which he it held both at a roan and at a lawyer. 

Mr. Gifanore it a native of Oakland, CaL. and wat 
thirty-five yean old January 19 of diit year. 1905. 
When he wat one year old hit parcnti moved to Port- 
land, Ore., and thence to Vancouver, Waih., where he 

Bv«l «.lil two.* y», of «.. After s>.<lu.ti»t ,^ ^ oimORi;. 

Imn Monmoutn College m I o9 1 . he began the reading 

of law, and three yean later went to Chicago and entered dte law departmcnl of the 
Northweitem Univertily, and wrat a ttudeul in thit inttitution for two yean. In 18971 
be wat graduated from the law department of Lake Forea UniverHty, receiving die degree 
of LL B. He returned to the Nordiwett, and in 1897 opened an office and began 
the practice of hit profettion in Seattle. In 1898 he wat appMnted lecretaiy of die 
RcpdbHcan State Central Committee of Wathington. 

The following year be formed a partnerthg) with P. V. Davit, at bdore noted, 
but the proipectt of the Nordiem gold fieldi, die poidbility of acquiring valuable 
mining interettt and the certainty of lidgation in the new country, cauied him to join 
the great ttampede which makei the year 1900 coMpicuoui in the hittory of Nome. 
During die firtt teaton in Nome he wat retained by the Good Hope Mining Company, 
of ChicagcN and die Swediih Mittitm in tuitt over Anvil Creek clainu, in which he wat 
luccevful and for vdiich he received large feet. He hat iiince been attorney in a num- 

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ber of praausenl niits in the Fecknl Court of dm dmnun of Alaska, nolabhr a* the 
leprcMotetive of dv. advau claimants in the matter (^ ^plication ior a patent Id 
Claim No. 1 1 Dexter Cr^rV. in which a compro m iie wa« ^ected entirely tttiiimtUtj 
to hii clinti. and by which they kwt none of dieir property; abo in the case of Neatar 
VI. N. C Co., in which he aecured a verdict Thit cue wm ^ipealed and m iKmr 
p«iding before the ^>pellale court Mr. Gihoore it dte attorney for the CMnpioa 
Mining and Trading CoafMnj. and it cmiductinfl its litigatioo with the greKt rrral 
ditch company, the Miocene Ditch Co.. over the poMcinoa of the water of the Nome 
River Divide. Mr. Gihnore wai leading counsel lor the defense in the proaeciitian of 
J. L. Bates, for bribery, in the District Court He is a prtnniBcsit numbs of the Arcbc 
Brotherhood, and at this writing is Ardic Chief of Camp N<Hne, No. 9. He ii abo 
an Elagle, being a mendier of Aerie No. 1. of Seattle, die modier aerie of the Fn- 
temal Order of Eagles. He belong* to the Woodmoi of die Wodd. and Modcn 
Woodmen of America, and retains his membership in the Seattle Athletic Club. 

November 6, 1691, be roanied Miss Carrie I. Thompaon, of Tacoma. The 
fruit of the union is a daughter. Dorothy Belle, bom in 1903. and the apple of ber 
hther's eye. 


AFTER following the profession of ioumabim 
for six yean. C. M. Thuknd began die study 
<rf law, and two years later, in 1895, was 
admitted to die bar. Since this date he has aban- 
doned the treadmill of a newspaper man's life, and 
devoted his time and applied hii energies to the work 
of a lawyer. Ergo, writing briefs it a more congenial 
and profitable punuil than writing editorials. 

Mr. Thuland is the stm of a Norvregian school 
teacher, and was bom in Bergen, Norway. May 7, 
1868. During his bt^bood he redded ia Christiana 
for a peritx] of eight years, and attended the Latin 
school in diat city. In 1884 he emigrated with die 
family to Decorah, Iowa, where he attended Luther 
College. He was graduated from this institution 
1885, widi die degree of A. B. He took a po^- 
graduate course the following year at the University 
of Minnesota, and in 1867 began hts career as a 
ioumalist by establishing a Norwegian newspaper in 
La Crosie, Wis. He was subsequently connected 
with die publication of several pi^Kfs, bodi English and Norwegian. He moved to Se- 
attle in 1669 (before die fire) and esUblithed die Washington Tidende. which was 
afterward merged into the Washington Post. Hi* knowledge of the law requisite for 
admisnon to the bar was obtained in the office of Wiley & Bostwick, of Seattle. 

He opened an office in Seattle in 1 895, and was enjoying a lucrative [»actice when 
the Nome strike was made. In the qiring of 1900 he came to Nome to defend the 
interests of some of his clients, acquired some vahiable mining property while here, and 
after returning to Seattle in 1903. has come back to Nome to sUy IndeBnitely. Thii 


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•ea»oa he it buitding « cMnfortable ootUgc in Fint Aveoue, vrfiere be and Mn. ThuUad 
will rende. Thui are the plant of life tuned awry and the cunent of action cuU a new 

Mi. Thuland ha* been luccettful in a number of luiu involving valuable 
mining pnperty in dte Nome country, notably in the tuit againit Miuionaiy 
AndenoQ over No. 9 Anvil, ^^lich wa* itaked for Conttantine Uperazuk and Gabriel 
Adamt, natives, who bekmged to the mittion over which Andeiton pretided. In this 
case a latitfactory compTomiic wai effected, and Andenon — but that is another itoiy. 
During the winter* of l90l-'02 and 1902-'03 Mr. Thuland wai acting vice<on>uI in 
Nmne for Norway and Sweden. He wa* married in Seattle Oec. 26, 1697. Mr. 
Thuland i* a luccettful and clever lawyer, and an educated gentleman, who it met 
with more pleasure in aocial life than as an advenaiy at the bar. 


PORTER J. COSTON, bom b AshtabuU 
County, Ohio, August 29, 1 649 ; when diree 
yean of age his parenb moved to McDonou^ 
County. Illinois. In the hll of 1859 his falhcr moved, 
overland, to Kantai, settling Br*t in Linn County, but 
ifae f<dtowing year the great drouth that F»evailed in 
that itatc, drove him to Foit Scott, which ha* been 
the residence of the family ever unce. In those days 
tbere were no schools in Kansas, and the father of 
young Coaton put him in a printing office to learn 
the trade, dunkhg that the best uibstitute for a school. 
He served hit apprenticethq) of four years, and *ub- 
tequently became identilied with newipapen in South- 
eastern Kan*a* and Weatero Missouri as printer, pub- 
lisher and editor. At the time of the Guim City mas- 
sacre, a* it i* known in the history of that region, in 
Cast County, Missouri, m 1872, he wa* publi^iing 
ifae Haniscniville Democrat, a Republican paper m that 

town, and had many duilUng experiences during the ^" '' *^°^^°''- 

excitement connected with and following the murder 

of the County Court by a mob. He refera to hi* e:q>erience now a* hi* effort to publish 
a Republican newq>aper in that hotbed of Democracy, at a period in life when he had 
more cothutiaim than judgment. Hit newqwper plant wai burned by the tame mob in 
the fall of 1872. He then went to Colorado, ^t^iere he remained a couple of years, 
when the "law fever" developed in him, and he returned to Fort Scott, where he read law 
in the office of W. J. Bawden, and wa* admitted to the bar. He ha* been actively 
engaged in the practice ever since in the States of ICantat, Colorado and Missouri, 
except seven years, during which time he held die office of asNstant attorney in the 
Interior Department in Washington City. He came to Nome in July. 1900, and 
immediately started in the practice. 

In 1903 the City of Nome concluded to make an effort to get a patent for the 
townote, the titles to lots at that time being held only under the settlement laws of 
die United States, and Mr. Cotton was employed by the city for that purpose. The 

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JAMES FRAWLY h ■ None Uwyar. but hu a buHncM instina, and it en- 
gftged ID mcKuitile Ikkca aod miiiBtg eotapiiwt u vrdl u in the practice of ha. 

He » a native of MadiKNi, WiKouin. and dates hit birthday annivcnuiei fra 
Januaty 26, 1660. He wm graduated from the Umrenity of Wikuimii m I8S4. 
Govetnor La FoUette. who ha* men to a pontion of politkal eminence a* the tcpic- 
lentattve of anti-machiiK poHtica, wai a member of thii cUm. Mr. Frawiy took bolli 
a collegiate and law coune in thk iutitution. 

In 1677, and before he attended the Univenity, he was in the Black Hilk 
After graduating, he letumed to Deadwood. He wa« in the Cr^le Creek combr 
in 1696 where he practiced hit profettioa and engaged in mining. He caroe to Nome 
in 1900, and hai nice been interected in taw and mining. He has hoidmgi id ibe 
Gold Run country and thought that he had ttiuck it rich in 1 900 when he rocked oat 
$400 in four houn on that ttream. 


WH. BARD it a pioneer lawyer of Ncme. a imHninent member trf the bv of 
• Northweatem Alaska, and has the cbtiactiim of having been the fourth iiiir>r. 
under municipal organization, <rf the city. He was 45 years old Febnui7 '^' 
1905, and is a native of Genesee, Illinois. His parents moved to Iowa during hk in- 
fancy, and his fathei enlisted in the Union army and was killed at the battle t4 G^tp- 
burg. In 1668 die family moved to Nebraska where Mr. Bard resided until be vnt 
sixteen years old. He then went to the Black Hilk, and served two yean w coitt> 
of the U. S. scouts under Captain Jack. In '76 be went to Denver, and worked K the 
froghting busineM, driving tne of ttie &rst mule teams bom Denver to Leadville. Uxr 
he mined near Georgetown, and was the discoverer of the Little Florence Silver Mine *'l>i» 
he sold (or $3,000. Six weeks after the sale, the property was resold for $60.0(ia 
With the mntey tana the sale of the mine he went to Europe, and acquired $3,000 woitk 
of knowledge and eq>erience. 

Returning to C^cago he found en^loyroent in a music store, and appbed Iubki 
by attending night school to the acquisition of a better education than the c^iportuBiH 
of a frontier life aforded. He studied law in Danville, 111., in the oftce of Judge J. V. 
Lawrence, subsequently attending Ann Arbor, and was graduated from the law depsrtiscM 
of that institution. He practiced law in Chicago for a time, being the junior miwa 
of the law firm of Briggs, Martin, May flc Bard. Through an operation for toonliu •* 
was tmable to speak above a whisper for more than a year, and was forced to tempoiw 
abandon his pncice. During this affliction he went to Cumberland, Marybitd. *» 
founded the Kennedy Manufacturing Co., wholesale grocen, but recovering the uk « 
his voice he went back into the practice of law, opening offices in Pitt^urg. P** "^ 
devoting his time entirely to the specialty of insurance law. 

In 1697 the reports of the new Eldorado in the Yukon Territory revivified the g<n» 
of the gold fever, v^ich had been donnant for near a quarter of a century; f^ *'^ 
first money of any importance that he made came from the sale of a mine be i**"™ 
to go to dte Klondike. He accordingly started west again and went neiA ore <>' 
White Pass, reaching Dawson that year. Being one of the firrt lawyers b p»*7" 
he was permitted to practice by the Dominion Government, but devoted most '"'''' j 
to mining. He was the first discoverer of gold in the bendtes of Lower Bona""- ""^ 

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owned an interctl in eight claimt oppoaitc 46 below, left limit of thii itTeun. The 
property vnt vay valuable, but bong unilevelaped iU vahie was unknowD. The ownen 
of die property got into a wrangle and Mr. Bard sold bit inlereit Ibi $d,000. Half a 
milbon dollars was afterwaTd taken out of these claims. 

The favoraUe reports received from the Ntune camp induced him to ioin the stam- 
peders to the new diggings. Arriving in Nome September 30. 1699, he opened a law 
office in the Mutber building, in a room about as big as a dry goods box, furnished with a 
crude table and stoob made out of btnes, and began the practice of law. His bbrary 
consisted of the Criminal Code and the Code of Oregon. He filled the position of acting 
U. S. Attorney uniler District Attorney Fredericbl, of Juneau, and discharged the duties 
of diis office until the arrival of [>istiict Attorney Joe. Wood, July 15. 1900. During 
bis iiKUmbency he prosecuted 1 10 criminal cases before U. S. Commissioner Rawsoo, 
the only court here at that time. 

Since his arrival in Nome Mr. Bard has been interested in mining. In the spring 
of 1902 he made a Ir^ with Bob Warren over the snow from Nome to the Koyukuk 
River. In December, 1902. Mr. Bard, accon^ianied by Barney Rolands, went to Norttm 
Bay by dog team to look after some quartz property of the Conon Mining Company. 
On dM trail between Solomon and Cberuk Road-house be encountered the wont blizzard he 
ever experienced. Nodiing was dislinguishabie a rod away. They were apparently in 
a cloud of snow, driven by a furious gale, and the weather biting cold, fifty degrees 
below zero. After three hours painstabng effort to follow die telephone poles of the 
Long Distance Telephone line they came to a road-house and found shelter. During 
this trip and t^iile endeavoring to avoid the rou^ ice near shore in die vicinity of BIuS. 
they got (Mito new ice recently formed over wveral fathoms of water. An (Hninous 
cracking and bcstding of the ice warned them to get near the shore and be satisfied with 
a rough trail. These incidents give one a glimpse at some of the conditions encountered 
in winter travd in diis part of Alaska, 

Mr. Bard was elected to the common council at the municipal election in 1 903. and 
in September of that year was unanimously selected by his associates to preside over 
the debberations of that body, and discharge the duties of mayor of Nome. During 
his incumbesicy the council took the first steps toward securing a patent (or a townsite, 
constructed a city hall and added to the equipmeni of die fire department. The first two 
of these measures were objects of special efforts by the mayor, being regarded by him 
of paramount importance and vahie to the citizens of Nome. Mr. Bard, both as a 
lawyer and as the leading official of the mimicipality, took an active part in getting the 
nwasure before Congress permitting municq>abties to handle misdemeanors. As the 
Alaska Code provided penalties for misdesneanon, it was not unusual in the earlier history 
of Nome for a person to be arresled and fined under the city ordinance and re-arrested 
and fined for the same offence by the federal authorities. The object of those who pro- 
posed the measure which was adopted as an amendment to the code in 1904, was to 
prevent the Federal Goverammt from mterfering in misdemeanor cases over which 
tbe municipality had jurisdiction. 

W. H. Bard and Miis Gusne Saunders were married in Dawson in IS9S. Mrs. 
Bard is a native of Tampico, llKnois, which is only twenty miles from the town where Mr. 
Bard was bom, but they never knew each odier until they met in Dawson. They have 
one child, Edgar Burton Bard, now in his third year. 

In 1668 Mr. Bard joined in Cumberland, Maryland, the following orders; Masons, 
Kni^ts of FVthias, I. O. O. F., and Chosen Friends. As a Mason be has taken die 

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degRCi of Knight Tanpkr and die Mjntic Shime. He k a membeT of Nome Camp, 
Arctic BrodiahoDd, ud hu served two tennt u Woitfajr Prctident of Nome Aerie, No. 
75, F. O. E.. being aX thii writing Diitrict Deputy Grand Prendent of the oritr il 
Nome. Hii membcnhqi in numerous locietiea give* one a sJimpie at a leading tnil <i 
Mr. Bard's character. A phrenologirt would uy that his bump of Friendthqi ii mi- 
nnially krge. Having fought since boyhood the battle of hfe unaided, and having ipcd 
the greater part of his yean in the West and North, refpcms where the stream, oi duuit^ 
broadens and deepens, he has acquired t» developed the mdqte&dence and idf-reliinct 
characteristic of a western environmoit, and has cuhivated die belief that there is infinitdj 
more good than evil in the human race. 


tLM J. COCHRAN, lawyer and journalist, ii a 

member of the Nome bar and has bUed the 
office of United States Commiuioner for the 
Kougarok District. He was born April 1, 1654, at 
Evansville, Indiana. His pmndfather was a pioneer 
who came from East Tennesee to this region before 
Indiana was a slate. Mr. Cochran belongs to an old 
Scotch family that was forced to leave the old country 
on account of the persecution of the Covenanters in the 
days of King Charles. He was educated in the pub- 
lic schools. He studied law at Rockville, Indiana, 
under David H. Maxwell, Ute Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Cour of Indiana, and was admitted to the 
bar in May, 1 675. He went to Kansas in 1 877, lo- 
cating in Woodson County; thence he vrent to Medi- 
cine Lodge, Kansas, vAere he edited a newq;taper for 
the period of a year, and vras assistant i^oaecuting at- 
torney. In 1 679 be was in New Mexico, and subse- 
quently was deputy clerk of the District Court of the 
Fifth -Judicial £)ivision at Buena Vista. Colorado. 
After the election of 1 662. he practiced law in Buena Vista for six years, and wu iw 
uiociated with A. R. Kennedy in the publication of the Buena Vista Herald. 

In 1 880 he went to Washingtm Territoiy. and was nominated as one of the asi- 
didates for the first legislatuic, but was defeated. In the spring of 1690 he k>cstaf 
in Aberdeen, and practiced law there for ux years. In 1696. when the Pop<^ 
dected a superior judge, he moved to Spokane, pteferring to ttA. new beldi noa 
than practice in a court presided over by a Populist He was subsequently uw^ 
with C. S. Warren of Butte, in mining. He came to Alaska in January, 169S, lo- 
cating first at Fort Wrangell, >^ere he practiced law. In 1 699 he went over the tisi 
to Atlin, and the following season he came to Nome. He was appointed Uu"*' 
Slates CommisBioner for the Kougarok District in the q>ring of 1901. and bdd tbe 
office one season. The balance of his lime tn Nome hat been devoted to the pndx^ 
of taw. 

During the iiist legislative seswm of the State of Washington Mr. Codnsn *" 
deri: of the Senate Committee on Education and tlie Joint Committee on Tide L*"**- 


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He reported thii Mnion of the le^Utuie for the TMoma Gk^. He ha* cniojred 
the dittmctioD of u acquamtuice with tome noted men in the lileivr woiid, UDong 
them Eugene Field, Bill Nye, Opie Rdd and Col. Vitcher. Mi. Cochru hat beca 
a very luccestful lawyer, and hat made an excqitional record in cnmina] practice. In 
eighteen murder caiet which he defended, there wai only one conviction, but there 
were three reversal* by the Supreme Court 


QORIX>N HALL, who ii now coimMl 
for and a director of the Wild GooM 
Mining and Trading Company, hai 
been identified with the mining interala and 
htigation of Alaika since the fall of 1 896. 

Mr. Hall was bom at Piqua, Ohio. Decem- 
ber 16. 1670, but he bai inherited from his 
parents, who were of Colonial New England 
■lock, the Ivain, energy and staying qualities 
of dbe Yankee, and his western training has 
added to thcK quahtiei an ad^tabihty to cir- 
cumstances that has enabled him to cope success- 
fully with the varying conilitioni and problems 
of a new country lilcc Alaska. 

Mr. Hall's early education was obtained in 
the public schools at Ann Arbor and Marquette. 
Michigan. He went to college at Trinity, Hart- 
ford. Coon., and wu graduated from there in the 
year 1 692, with the degree of Bachelor of Sd- 
ence. From Trinity he went to Harvard, and 
after a three year* course at the Harvard Uni- 
versity Law School, was graduated with the de- qoRDOn hall. 
gree of Bachelor of Laws. Siortly after rfcdving 

hi* sheepskin he became junior member of the well-known law firm of Otis, Gregg & 
Hall, of San Benurdino, CaKfomia, 

In die spring of 1697 he went to San Francisco and opened a law office in the 
Milk Building, and rapidly built up a lucrative law practice. In the summer of 1899 
be was employed by the intcresU that were afterward known as die Gob>vin Bay 
and Norton Sound Mining Companies to go to Alaska to perfect and clear up the 
titles to pnq>eTtie9 owned by them in the Nome and Council Ci^ reruns. This 
mlroduction to Akuka gave Mr. Hall an opportunity to acquire a practical knovrledge 
of Alaska's many interests. When Charles D. Lan^ acting for the Wild Goose 
Mining and Trading Company, began operations on an extensive scale in 
Ala^ he felt the need of an attorney of Mr. Hall's qualifications, and he caused 
Mr. Hall to associate himself with the Wild Goose Mining and Tradmg Company. 
Mr. Hall's ability as a lawyer and his integrity as a man have pushed him to 
die front in legal and financial matters, and he is now the holder of valuable propeitiet 
in Alaska, in additicm to enjoying an extensive law practice at San Francisco. 

On February 23, 1904, at San Fmndtco, Califoniia. he married Mis* Alice 

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of ttut yur and went to Sui FrancMco widi Judge Ntqret. «tten<lmg the [smout trul 
io the amtonpt ouct in the United State* Circuit Court mt San Fnncbco. Ht n- 
turned to Nome <» one of the Uit iteamcn of the leuon, and hat lince engaged a 
the practice of hii profenion. He wa* city attorney b 1903. 

Mr. Beli ii an orator of recognized ability, pooetung an excellent voice, u a- 
tensive and well itocked vocabulary, and a conuoand of words which maket his i 
con^Mcuoui figure in public aHemblages or before a jury. 


Biblical injunctioo to man: "Be huitful, and 
multiply, and replaiith the earth." He ad- 
mirei geniui, capacity to work, ability to do, inde- 
pendence of character, courage, frankness and honcily : 
and if recent newspaper and magaziiie articles be true, 
this category is not complete without adding, large 
families. This foreword has been suggested by the 
fact that the last census of Nome ihowi that G. J. 
Lomen has the largest family in this community, five 
sons and one daughter, and he is prouder of his 
hmHy than of any luccets or achievement of his life. 
Mr. Lomen was bom of Norwegian parents on a 
farm near Decorah. Iowa, January 28. 1854. He 
attended the common ichools of the state, l^dier 
College, and in 1 875 was graduated by dii State Uni- 
versity of Iowa with the degree of LL B. Two 
years later he was elected to the office of Cleric of the 

District Court of Houston County. Minn., and held o. J. i.OHEN. 

this ofice for a period of eight years. Removing to 

St. Paul, he etUblished an office and began the practice of law. In 1 889 he wai ^ 
Republican candidate for Municipal Judge of St. Paul, but was defeated with tbe »' 
of hit ticket. He represented the first ward in the House of Representotives durng ^ 
session of 1891. and took an active part in Minnesota politics, serving on county sod 
congressional committees. 

He came to Nome with the rush in 1 900, and was engaged in the practia o< 
his profession until SepL 1 , 1 903, when he accepted the office of deputy clerk of *' 
U. S. District Court, at Nome. While practicing law in Nome Mr. 1"°^ 
acquired a number of valuable mining interests. He has been an attorney b a DOia>B 
cl imporUnt case* before Ae District Court b Nome, notably as the representative » 
the plabtifc b the celebrated No. M Ophir suit b 1901. Among other «W»^ 
cases with which he has been connected, are the suits over No. 3 bench claim. D*>"* 
Creek, the Sequoia daim on Ophir Creek, and the suit against the Wild Coote Minine 
Company, bvotving the question of water righu on Ophir Creek- The imp«*»''* 
of the Uil case mentioned was emphasized by the fact that it was the first one ol UK 
Idnd to detcrmbe the question of water rights to come before the court During ^ 
practice before the courts m Minnesota he was attorney for a client who recared d>' 
largest a&mony, $45,000, ever awarded b any court of the state. 

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I- B. B. EtobbB. 





G. J. LomcD and Julie £. M. Jcqw w«k nwrrifd in M&iiittee, Mich.. May 27. 
1678. The imie of thit nutniage '» six children, u heretofore noted. George, Carl, 
Harry. Ra^, Alfred and Heniy. Mr. Loioen it a patriotic citizen, with a hereditary 
love of the land of hit ancetton, and hat taken a prominent part b the celebiationi at 
Nome by Norwegiant of Norway's ladependence day. May 17; and in the absence of 
Vice-Couul R. T. Lyng, he fiUt the positiMi of acting vice^onnil in Nome for Nor- 
way and Sweden. He ii an unpretentiout man. whote quiet demeanor conceab 
an erudite mind. Hii unvarying urbanity and probity are diiringuithing qualitie* of hii 
character, and make him a highly oteeroed citizen. 

Mr. Lomeo was one of the partidpanti in the amutbg incident of a run-away 
boat, which it one of the itoriei told in thit volume. 


THE official acts and the character of the lirtt federal officials in Nome, who were ap- 
pointed after the enactment of the Alaska Code, have been ditcuised and criticised by 
new^Mtpen, investigated by special agents of the Government; have been a bone of 
contention between politicians in Washington, and the subject of inquiry hy the Federal 
Court of Appeals in San Francisco, y^ae the final record is written, until what is geiH 
erally known as the Ntmie scandals have become a part of the hirtory of die United 
States. It is a noteworthy fact that George V. Borchseniut was the fint clerk <^ the 
court of this judicial division of Alaska, and although he was retired by Judge Noyes 
after one year of service he was reappointed by Judge Ntqres' successor to the position 
he formerly held, and in 1 904 was the only (me of the first federal appointees in Nome who 
filled die office to which he was first appointed. This is due to (he (act that while he 
was one of the officials of the old regime he was not a part of that regime or a party 
to iL Hi* official acts have borne the closest scrutiny without revealing aught that was 
wrong or discreditable. In short he has done well and faithfully the woric the Gov- 
ernment required of him, and has not sought to gain prestige or profit by dishonest or 
questionable methods. 

Mr. Borchsenius, who is of Scandinavian ancestry, was bom in Madison. Wis., 
July 15, 1 865. When he was twelve years old he moved with his parmts to Baldwin. 
He attended the public schools of Wisconsin and subsequently was graduated from the law 
department of the State University. While a resident of Baldwin he learned the printers 
trade. At a later period he engaged in the hardware and genera] mercantile business, 
and subsequently, with his father and bxithcr, conducted a real estate and loan agency 
under the film name of H. Borchsenius & Sons. In 1883 he returned to Madison 
and assisted in the compilation of the state census. Following the completion of this 
woi^ he was en^loyed in the executive office by Governor Rusk, and at a later date 
was connected with the land office. 

In 1891 he returned to Baldwin, and for a period of four years was in the real 
estate and loon business. In 1 895 he went back to (he ci^ital as assistant to the sUte 
treasuror. He was here in 1899 when the reports of the wonderful Eldorado. at Nome 
reached the states, and he determined to try his fortune in the newly discovered gold 
fields. In the spring <rf 1900 he received the appointment of CleHc of the U. S. E>istrict 
Court, and arrived in Nome and entered iqion the discharge of hii duties July 19. 
JuV 15, 1901 he was retired by Judge Noyes, and it is a singular and notable 

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the tubject of thit tkctch wu only dght yeui oM invetted bini at an otriy tge mL 
the cam and rapouibilitia of the head of the family. When sixteen yean M bt tuftl 
ichool, and the following year wat a ttudoit in (he PJne Grove Academy, now bmi 
ai the Grove Gty CoUege. After leaching school for another period, he tttnded 
the Ediirfxno State Normal School and wai graduated from tim inititutiofl m 1S6S. 
In 1692 he wai graduated from the AUeghai^ College at Meadavilie. with die deptc 
of A B., having received the clatskal coune. Three yean later the degree of A. M. 
was oHtfeiTed upon him. 

From IS93 to 1895 he wai principal of the icbooU at Monaco, ud im 
1896 to 1S9S he wai principal of the ichook in Beaver, Penn. h 1694 ht bep 
the Mudy of law in die oAce of John A Buchanan, in Beaver, and in 1697. wIJe 
teaching icbool, wu admitted to the bar. The following year he opened i hw 
oAce b Beaver, and practiced law until 1 902, when Judge Moore, who hid b«i 
a^Minted from Eleavcr, Penn., to lucceed Arthur H. Noycs a« Judge t^ the SccmJ 
Judicial Diviiion of Alaska, requetted him to accept a deputyahip in the ofice ei 
the district cletk. He closed his oRtce in Eteaver and came to Nome, and hu mi 
bUed. satisfactorily and creditably, the position of deputy clerk in the court room, *illi 
the exception of two month*, when he Elled the office of U. S. Commiwiooa it 
Council, owing to a temporary vacancy. During the summer of 1904, ukI Wiilt 
Mr. Borchsenius was absent from Nome, he was acting clerk. 

k dte fall of 1904 Mr. Dunn wa* appointed U S. Marshal pending the »mni<i 
Mr. Powell, who succeeded Frank H. Richards. In the summer of 1905 he wu ^■ 
ed by Judge Moore as District Clerk, vice Geo. V. Borchsoiius, resigned. 

Mr. Dunn is a student, a worker, a genial conqianion and a good friend. He 
is a member of the Knighb of Pythias and Woodmen of the Wodd. He wii p»- 
ident of the K. of P. club in Nome during the winter of l903-'04. During the uw 
period he was president of die Nook Litetaiy Society, one of the better clati ol 'a^ 
tution* that has helped to make the long winters an occasion for instruction and »- 


JE. FENTON is an able member of the Nome bar and a lawyer who hat *«P^ 
* preeminent distinction in the practice of criminal law. He was bom m (-«* 
County, Missouri, April 6, 1837, and crossed the plains in a prairie iclMOia 
with his parenU in 1665. The family setded in Yamhill County, Oregon, is i* 
wonderfully fertile valley of the Willamette, where his father engaged in himiog- T^ 
subject of this sketch received a public school education and took a classical conw b 
Christian College, Monnwuth. Oregon. He began his career in educational *^ ""^ 
taught in an academy for two yean. He subsequently studied law under Jvdp Wa>' 
Ramsay, of Salem. Ore., and was admitted to die bar in 1862. He pnctictd is"*' 
Eugene, Ore., until 1900, wfaoi he moved to Spokane, Washington, and <°8M^ 
practice with his brother under the name of Fenton & Fenton. In 1892 he wu dee^ 
prosecuting attorney tot die county, a majority of 1,257 votes attesting hit popautl- 
In 1896 he was elected as a delegate from Washington to the Democratic N«<^ 
Convention at Chicago, and was suluequently chosen as die messenger to csnT 
vote of his slate to the electoral college and cast it for Biyan. He practiced U" ' 
Spokane until September, 1699. vdien he went to Nome. He returned to ^*~T 
ton that winter and went back to Nonte the foDowing spring, residing there cattBuo"*' 

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B100RAPHIB8 AND 8rrORIB8. 363 

until the fall of 1902. ^ce dicn he hft* (pent hk winlen in the itato retuinug to 
Nmne each qmng where he hat a large clientage and a lucntivc law practice. 
He hat been retained a* the leading attontey in the moat noted ciiminal niiti that have 
been tried by the Nome court. Soioe ^ the«e catei have been hard fighti in whidi 
^tpeab were carried to the Siqineme Court, but Mr. Fenton hat ikillfuUy lecured a 


he it flu 
tnutk d 

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Blue Lead Mining Compuiy, having for it> object the development of tlic famous Bhe 
Lead of Tuolumne County, Califoniia. Mr. Bruner hat a npulation at a mina- and 
mining expert ai well as a lawyer. He ha* received some very large feet for expertB( 
mining property, and in the practice of hit profetiion he hai made mining law a ^^tciakJ. 
He ii the owner ol some piomiiing property in the Ntnne country, and hke all otber tan 
v4io have beoi initiated into the work of the proq>ector and miner, he will make a far- 
tune from the discovery of the prectout mineral or follow the alluring avocation nnt^ 
the end of bis days. Hit law practice in Nome it extensive, and among hit cliaita aie the 
leading people of the country. But he finds frequent opportunities to visit daima which 
be owns or it interested in, put to tee how the work it progrctiing and to inveatigatE 
ihe pnqiects. 

Mr. Bruner was married a second time in Saaamento in 1900. Ma. Kima^ wai 
formerly Miw Mary Putnam, a lineal descendant of Itrael Putnam. Mr. Bruner it > 
prominent Mason, and in 1894 was pretident of the Anvil Matonic Chib. mod vat 
selected at the first master of the Matonic Lodge to be instituted in Nome. 


appointed United States Mar- 
shal of the Secmd Judicial 
Division of Alaska June 4. 190). 
and he hdd the positicm until the 
faUon904. He was bom in Mc- 
Heniy County. IDinoit, March 21, 
1858. He lived on a (arm until 
he wat twenty'jour yean old. He 
immigrated to die Puget Sound 
country in 1 683, and wat with £u- 
gette Canfield when he made the fiitt 
lurvey of die railroad between Brit- 
ish Columlna and Seattle. Later he 
studied law at the Columbia Law 
School and wat admitted to the bar, 
but never engaged in the practice of 
the profettion. He was appointed 
Harbor C<»nmittioner of the State 
of Washinfrton July I. 1890, and 
resigned the office in January, 1893. 
He wat elected state senator from 
Whatcom County, and served in the 
biennial lettion of '91 and '93. He 
was chairman of die Fisheries Com- 
mittee and the firtt legitlator in the 
interest of the fish industry in Wash- 
ington. Legitlatim which has built up the great bh-caiming butineti on die Sound 
wat introduced by him. 

The panic in 1693 twept away hit accumulaliont and a lew years later he wot 


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to Alulca. After proq>ectmg in Southcutern AUika he weot to tbe Forty-Mile coun- 
try in 1699. and aimed m Nome in 1900. October 6, 1903, be muiied Mit* Benie 
^^ilke, of Chicago. When he wu a ichool boy her father wat hit teacher. 



QEORGE B. GRIGSBY came to Nome in July. 
1902, 01 A»i>tant United States Attorney un- 
der his father. Colonel Crigtby. He had charge 
of the United States Attorney's office in Nome two 
^vinten during his father's absence in the states, and 
was connected with the office until his father's reng- 
tiation. and subsequently under District Attonqr I-Ico^ 
He was bom in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Decem- 
ber 2, IS74. He received bit education in the Uni- 
venty of South Dakota and read law in the office of 
Bailey & Vorfaee*. He was admitted to the bar in 
1 696, and optoed a law office in his native state. He 
practiced law for a while in Chicago, and when his 
father organized a regiment of Rough Riders during the 
war with Spain, he received a commission ai &nt lieu- 
tenant in bis father's command. In 1900 and 1901 
he practiced law in Victor, Colorado. 

Mr. Giigsby is now engaged in the practice of law 
in Nome. 


PROMINENTLY identified with civic endeavor in the earliest hislory of Nome 
and widi eariy mining opetationi in tfaii part of the peninsula. R. S. Ryan is 
one of die beat known of the pioneen <^ diis country. He was bom m the 
Ci^ of Wateifbrd, Ireland, in 1861. and was educated at the famous Cbnquowes Wood 
College, at which be attained die highest honors. He adopted the profession of en- 
gineciing and entered his father's office. His father was at that time the head of the 
great contracting firm of John Ryan flc Sons. 

R. S. Ryan went to the United States in 1S81, and immediately engaged in 
tbe railway contracting business, building in part the Elkbom and Missouri Valley 
Railroad, the Cheyenne and Nwtbem Railway, the Colorado and Western, tbe Union 
Pacific. Denver and GuU, and many branch lines. 

In 1689 Mr. Ryan obtamed opticms on a great tract of land of 3,500 acres, lying 
between Jeney City and Newail^ and known as the "Jersey Meadows." He planned 
with the aiaiitance of hi* associates a great manufacturing city. The work undertaken 
Bvolved an cxpenditne of more than $50,000,000. This money was partly raoed 
b London, but the failure of die famous banking bouse of Baring Brothen at this time, 
and the great panic of 1693 forced tbe syndicate to allow the project to tapae with a 
large monetary loss to themselves. 

Mr. Ryan returned to the West, and m 1697 organized the Blue Star Navigation 
Company for die transaction of business in Alaska. In 1899 he landed in Nome, the 
Grit citizen from die "outside" to step on the golden ihorei which have since proved to 

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prolific in their weahh. Since that day Mi. Ryan hat been clotdy i 
the growth and piogren of the country. He wa* dected diainnan of dte Anvfl Towb- 
ote Comraittce, d>e fini organization efeded for die govenimcot or icgulatioa of None 
He hai always evinced a public 4>int m all mattcn pertaining to the future of the ooivitrT. 
In the fall of 1900 an attempt wai made to incorporate the city. The mcAaure failed 
to receive the necettary two-third vote and wai con*equcnt]y d^eated. Mr. Ryan wat 
a candidate for councilman at diii election, and received the higbcM vote cait for any ol 
the nomineei, and would have been Nome't fii>t mayor if incccporation had caixied 
He wai urged to permit hit name to go before the people at the municipal dectioo £*e 
months later, when mcoiporation wa« carried. He declined to becmne a candidate, and 
hat cmtinued in ite walk of a private citizen until lelected in 1904 at a delegate faoa 
Nmne to Washington. He wai a member of the health committee of the Chamber of 
Commerce in the eady days of Nome, and was secretary of the relief commiRee that was 
organized during the winter of l90l-'02. 

Mr. Ryan's work in Washington has been helphil to the Nome countir and end- 
liable to himtelf. Hit knowledge of Alatkan affairs is accurate and the Boataria] that 
he fumiihed to congrestmen vdio have thown an interett in our part of the wtnld b*f 
been of great aid in securing needed Icgitlation. 


JB. BREWSTER it the auditor of the Wild Goose Mining and Tradk&g Com- 
* pany, and it weD and favorably known in commercial and bunneta drdet ■ 
the Nordiland. He was bom in Dayton, Ohio. April 10, 1659, cofnieg koa 
old Puritan stock. While Mr. Brewster may entertain Puritanical ideas <rf right and 
wrong and honesty, there is nothing in his demeanor and the social phase of his char- 
acter to indicate hit Puritan origin. He it a man who sees the hummous side of St, 
and would radier lau^ over a good ttory than lectwe a small boy for fashing cm Suoday. 

He came to Nome on the Charles D. Lane in the q>ring of 1900. The coo- 
ditiont of the camp were all strange to him. The incidents of thote early days wen 
out of the usual routine of happenings that come to men in walb of life in old oxn- 
munitics. After the arrival of die steamer, and while frd^t was being ditcbarged 
and piled from a dozen steamers in a heterogeneous mass on the beadi. one of the 
pastengen on the Lane lott a trunk Failing to get any trace of it or satisfactioti fiMi 
the men in charge on shore, he: went out to the steamer and interviewed Mr. Brewitcr, 
who urbanely and suavely said to him: "Judge Kemtedy, I will guarantee to gd 
your trunk before dark." The Judge dianked him and left perfectly tatit6ed, not 
realizing that it wouldn't get dark («- nx weeks. Mr. Brewster kept bis word. He 
found die trunk before darkness ^read iu table wingt over die land. 

After die half million dollan worth of frd^l was discharged from die Lane, be 
went ashore, and was directed by an cAcial o( the cooqMny to caD upoa John Gdifti 
^o had been in charge of one of the company's canqis, and from whom he could 
obtain information reUtive to die conqnuiy and its affairs which would be vahiable to 
him. He found Mr. Griffin, and after introducing himself, 
Mr. Griffin told him that he had just been in charge of a amp of t 
The interview terminated immediately. 

Mr. Brewster it bodi laconic and witty. During die great fight widi Alexanda 
McKenzie who wat appointed by the court at receiver for tome of the claimt of ibt 

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^^ild Goote Mining Company, McKenzie chipped 2,000 feet of lumber over the 
A^ild GooM G>mpuiy'* railroad to the Wild Goote Company') mine which he wa> 
operating. The freight rale (or thii hauliiig wa» at this time lix cents the foot, and 
^vhen Receiver McKoizie called at the office of the railroad company to pay die 
frei^t he wai wrathful and virtuously (?) indignant over the bill. While he wu 
storming around in the office Mr. Brewster entered, and the clerk directed him to Mr. 
Bre^viter as the auditor of the company and the man to ajiqily to if he wonted a rebate. 
Xuming to Mr. Brcwstei McKenzie Mid: 

"Why do you allow your men to charge such outrageous prices?" 
Mr. Brewster cabniy replied, "If you don't Uke those prices I suggest that you 
shq> by the other road." The irony of this is apparent when it is known that diere 
was not another railroad within 3,000 miles of this Uttle line. 

Mr. BrcwWer is married. Mr*. BrewMer formerly was Miss LleanoT Lacy, 
daughter of Congressman Lacy. They have one child, Doris, a bright, sweet Kttle 
gill thirteen yean oM. 


REX E. BEACH is engaged in 
the manufacturing business in 
Chicago. Althou^ a young 
man, he has "mushed" on the Yukon, 
mined in the Nome country, and writ- 
ten some very clever stories about the 
Northland. When he was in Nome 
hit friends knew his genius for ttoiy- 
telling. but the magazines did not dis- 
cover him until he had broken away 
from Alaska, and had engaged in the 
prosaic and practical butbets of a man- 
ufacturer. His Northland stories, which 
have beoi pi^Hshed in tome of the lead- 
ing magazines of the United States, bear 
the impress of striking originality and are 
a vivid word-painting of fact. They are 
told in strong terse Elnglith, which im- 
mediately chains the reader's attention, 
and holds him captive to the end of the 
narrative. I remember Rex Beach in 
Nome, but did not know him well. 
I remember attending a minstrel show 
m which he was the chief bumt-coHc 

artitl, furnishing the audience widi more "^^ ^ beach. 

merriment than ordinarily falls to the lot of the Nome citizen during his period of winter 
hibernation. I mention this incident as an evidence of the versatility of a man who 
hat the csfMcity to entertain hit friends, in addition to the ablhty of a tuccettful man of 
business and the genius >^ich hat given him in New York the soubriquet of "The 
Bret Harte of Alaska." 

Bdieving diat Mr. Beach should have a place in this album of Northwettem Alat- 

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kuu. I wrote him (or a photograph and d>e material from which a *ketch could he 
pnpand. and this ii hii npiy' 

"I went North in '97 with ihe Gnt nuh, and ipcnt two yean on tbe Yukon, 
mining with varying luccett. I tay 'varying' becauw moit of Ihe time I vras broke md 
dining the rest I owed money. Then I went home and qwired for wind. 

"The Munmer of 1900 I ipcnt in Nome, and acquired tome good propeitia: am 
out in the fall, and went in again that winter via Katmai. En route I slept nnich ei 
the time in Indian huU, acquiring ai con^ilete a knowledge of the local flora and bm 
at any man living — particularly btiniate wai my study of the Utter. 

"For two yeart I mined in dte Nome and Council Ci^ Dittricti; then entered ihc 
manufacturing bmineH b Chicago, where I now am. With pride I pewit to tbe bet 
that I am the only college man in tbe £nt itampede who did not work his way od 
from the Yukon on a steamboat — the one I left on had all die roustabouts it needed 
My (xiy further claim to distinction is that I have never worn nugget jevreby nor 
told any rich claims for a song." 

Rex Beach has a strong mdividualtty. He belongs to the class of men that do 
things. He ii esteemed among his friends because of the sunshine of his dioracter. aad 
because of bis unfailing fund of wit and anecdote. Tbe work of writing his stmies ii 
the pastime of a busy man engaged in another Ene of endeavor. 

J. F. A. STRONa. 

JF. A. STRONG published die first newqMper ever issued in Nome and the bit 
* paper published as a commercial ventaac in Nordiwestem AUika. This pape 
was the Nome News, and the first tssiw wa* October 9, 1699. The p^per vm 
a four<olumn quarto and sold for fifty cents the copy. The plant was brought ta 
Nome from Davwm where Mr. Strong had previously been engaged in journalism. 

J. F. A. StTMig is a native of Franldin County, Kentucky. After a varied newv 
paper career in many towns of the United States he went to Dawson in 1897 and csne 
to Nome in tbe summer of 1699. He is now the editor and proprietor of the Nobm 
Nugget, a temi-weddy newspaper that would be a credit to any town in the United 
States with ten times the poputatian of Nome. J. F. A. Strong is a versatile wiiia 
of marked ability, and his journalistic career in N<»iie has met with deserved recog- 
nition and compensation. He is a man of pleasing and magnetic personality, ud 
unvarying urbanity. He has taken an active part in all civic endeavor for the wdfaie 
of the Northland, and his pen has been an important factor in shaping the destiny of 
this new country. 


ER. LINTON was bom in Toledo. Iowa. September 22. 1871. He raceivea s 
• public school education and ^en sixteen yean old left for Colorado. He has beoi 
dq>endent upon his own resources ever since his eariy boyhood. He studied dentiitry n 
the University of E^enver, and practiced hit profession six yean m that city. He left Dea- 
ver in 1900 for Nome, and established a dental office in the nordiem mining canqi. He 
went out in the fall of that year and did not return until 1902. During the interim be 
was in Oregon. Upon his return he fitted up the finest dental offices in Nome. Like 
most of the business and professional men of Nome he has dabbled in mines, bat a brge 
clienlele keeps him busy in his profession. 

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it the paitor of the Coogrc' 
gatioiuJ Churcfa aX Nome. 

He k a Mtive of Chicago, lUiDois. 

and wu educated at Cadeton dA- 

lege, Northfield, Minn-, and wai 

graduated with the degree of A.B. in 

1896. He began preaching vthea 

he wa* a (tudent at college, and 

modatly daimt to be nothing more 

than a "lay preacher" now. Before 

coming to Alaika he wa* paitor of 

one of the oldeit chiuchei m Min- 

Deaota, at Cannon FaBt, and wu 

engaged m inoneer reEgiou* work. 
A chum of hit boj^iood day*. 

who had itruck it rich at None, 

wrote him and urged him to come to 

Alaika. He accordingly left hii 

work in Minneaota and itaited for 

Nome. Airiving here in the nmi- 

mer of 1900. he secured a ntuation 

as foreman on No. 9 Anvil Creek. 

After he had worked long enough 

toiecuTea"gnib-*take"ajidhone. he rdt. c. b. rtberg. 

went to d>e ICougarok Dittrid on a 

pRMpecting ti^. During tfaii trip 

be located a claim on GarGdd CredL After returning to Nome be had an olhr of 

$I5,0C0 for thi* property. But the pro4>ect* he had obtained from the properQr 

made dm oier look Kke a bagatelle. He went to the itate* that (all, and came back 

ihe following ipring with a big outfit to work the Garfield claim. But the protpeds 

he had obtained were deceptive and vfiM had appeared to be a veiy rich claim 

proved to be vahieleu. 

Mr. Ryberg returned to Nome late in the leaion without a dollar. He walked 

the itreet* of the town discouraged and hungry. He had teen the teductive glamour 

of proq>ective wealdii now he fully realized the deiection cauid by faihtre. intennfied 

by povoty. He wa« endeavoring to arrange to return to the (tales when MistHnaiy 

KadtoD wrote him from Unalakleet asking him to come to tbe mixion and help widi 

the vmrk. Thi* letter caused him to change his plani. He went to Unalakleet and 

lent his services to the mtssioDaiy work, aiitsting in many ways from postoffice cleil: 

to general chore boy- 
Returning to Nome in die qoing of 1902. the Rev. M. Fowler, who was pastor 

of tbe Congregational Church, urged him to stay and at*irt in the church work. He 

itaid and thus became pastor of the Congregational Church, at Mr. Fowler returned 

to tbe states during the summer season of 1902. Mr. Ryberg is an aggresnve minister. 

He believes in fitting tm. He i* a man with a strong individuality and is an earnest 

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and effective worker. During his minixenal career in Nome he hu been the agent 
lot the etUbliihment of the Quartz Oeek Miuton for nativet. Thit work was begun 
nnder his lupervition in the fall <4 1903, and at the ck«e of Uit season 100 Eskimo 
or more had been gathered at this mission. It is not generally known that N. O. 
Hultberg, a layman, who was sent by the Swedish Missionary Society to estaE^sh 
an industrial school among the natives at Golovin Bay. and who subsequently becan-e 
a nine operator m the Nome country, furnished the fundi with which to establish the 
Quartz Ciedc Mission. 


known in Nordiweilem Alas- 
ka, be is also known among the 
pbotographen ol die United Sutes as 
the man who received one of the gold 
medhb given Iv the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition as an award for his 
pictures ol the Esldmo. Mr. Dobbs 
ii a photographer who has been idenb- 
fied with Nome since the begirming of 
1900. The exceOent character of his 
work may be seen by the illustrations 
in Uiis book, as most of the photogri4>hs 
from which these illustrations were 
made, are reproductions of Mr. Dobb's 

He was bom near Marshall, Mis- 
•ouii, in 1868. He is a farmer's 
•on. He moved v/iA his parents to 
Ndiraska in 1676, and learned pho- 
tography in Lincob. He went to 
Washington in 1688, and kx»ted in 
Bellin^am, where he conducted a gal- 
lery for tweKe years. 

Attracted by die Nome gold fidds, B. R dobbs. 

be wait north in the great stampede 

of 1900. and has been every summer since dien in Nome. He probably has the 
hrgest collection of Seward Peninsula views that ever have been made, f-lis studies 
of the Eskimo show careful and painstaking work. The best evidence of the char- 
acter of his wwk is the fact that he received one of the six gold medals awarded at the 
St. Louis Fair. 

May 20, 1896, Mr. Dobbs and Miss Dorothy Sturgeon, of Bellin«^uun, were 
married. Mr. Dobbs is an -industrious photographer. In additjcn to being well in- 
formed on the technical and mechanical features of his profession, he has the perceptmn 
of die artist, and is constantly on the alert ^ new features, striking scenes and 
attitudes, and endeavoring to rqiroduce the varied forms of expression which the artist's 
tyc sees; and herein his work obtains its individuality. 

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THIS it the itoiy of a buty and a useful life, ■ story of work, itiatuoui wnk. in pnpti- 
ing for ibe active dutie* of a profeiuon dedicated to humanity, and the ptaclice 
oi the profeuioa after aunnounting the oUtaclet diat ky in the way of the 
acguirement of the prerequitite knowledge. A buy life ii ncceuaiily an eventful one. 
It b 6Ued with action, with (hifting Kenet and changing colon. The*e scene) de|Hct 
"enteipiise of great pith and moment," and reveal the ponibilitiet of human achieve- 
ment. Uie success that waits on purpose and effort No matter what the line <d en- 
deavor, whether it be high or hunjile, woric is the only method of accomplishing the end. 
"There is no royal road to tuccesi," and the story of Dr. Rininger's life it a lenon 
for amlMtioui young men whose environment it a bar to their hopes. 

Bom b the little town of SchelldHirg. I^.. March 7, 1870, of PennsyKania 
Dutch parents in whoie veint wat an infusion of Celtic and Gaelic Uood, be inherited 
the robust physique that belonged to hit Dntch anceston, their persistence and will, 
together with the quick perception, discernment and intuition of the Ceh and the unflag- 
ging indurtry of the ScoL His father was a cabinet maker who moved to Kansas and 
engaged in farming, and two yean later, in 1676, removed in a prairie schooner to 
Ohio. Most of the boyhood days of Dr. Rininger were spent on a farm near Tiro, 
Ohio, wbeie he (Attained a coounon school education. When a mere youth he taught 
•ctwol during winters, and with Hie money thut earned attended the tununer termt of 
the O. N. U. at Ada, Ohio. After three years of this kind of work he attained his 
nukiority. E>iuing diit period he wat ambitious to go to West Hoint, and tried to get 
the appointment Goieral German interceded for him. Dr. Rininger's father wat a 
veteran of the civil war, aand had been a n<»'Committioned officer m Sherman's army. 
The young aspirant for a cadetship woAed hard and faithfully to prepare for the 
examination and felt confident of hi* ability to win b the contest, but politics instead of 
merit detemuned the lelectim. 

When this road wat closed he made up hit nund to be a doctor, and began the 
study of medicbe in the office of Dr. Hatfield, of Crettline, Ohio. From May until 
October, 1691, he worked with all bit zeal and mdustry b Dr. Hatfield's office. He 
then entered the Ohio Medical College, which he attended for a year, during which 
time he was a student under Prof. Tom Hayes. He then went to the Marion Sims 
Medical College of St Louis, wdtere be did at Alexander Hamilton did when he 
came from the West Indies to the Cobnies to be educated: requested the privilege of 
graduadng as soon at he could past die exanunation. This was granted, and by arif 
ing at 7 m the mombg and working until 2 A. M. he was able to Knish a three yean' 
course in two yean, receivbg at graduation next to the highest honor m a class of dghty-two 
students. During this period of hard work he received great assistance From Prof. 
Given Campbell, by whom he was drilled and coached. After graduating, the positimi 
of asnstant to the chair of Bacteriology and Physiological Chemistiy wat tendered him. 
He went home on a visit, got the opportunity to take a doctor's practice b New 
Wathington, a neighborbg town, and settled down to his Ufe work. By 1896 he had 
paid off his school debb and accumulated a little money, and he started west widi die 
intention of locating in tome five mtntng camp. He traveled until 1 897, and at one time 
thought of locating b Salt Lake. He pasted the examination of the State Medical 
Board (tf Utah, and opened an office, but went to California a few months later. 

Attracted by the Kkindike boom he started for Dawton, but too late to get in 

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tbst Kuon, )897. He itopped in Dougkn, and ben conceived the idea of evening 
An biMpitai at Sheep Cvap on the Djrea Trail He forcMW the congeated conditioo 
of Invel, the h«rd«hip«, iUncM and acddenti which would beaeC Ait trail the next ipriac 
when the eager gold leeken. ignorant i^ d>e triali that confronted dum, would make a 
nnh for the noidicni gold fieldi. He put iq> a drug (tore, erected an luNintal diat coo- 
lained twdve bedi. and hired two trained nunet. The hiitoiy of the triak and anf- 
fering on the Dyea trail in I89S ha* never been written. Thoe wai an qndemic ot 
cerebro q>inal mcncngitii and tyi^id pneumonia, and mai^ accidenti. A great aow- 
■Kde two mile* above Sheep Camp killed fifty-«ix people. Then woe hundredt of weary, 
heart-tick travden, wboae malady could not be reached hy medicinet. Dr. Rininger'a 
hoqiital accommodationt were inadequate. Not more than twenty per cenL of the ailing 
could be received at the ho^iital, but the doctor never hiled to reqiond to a call if it 
were potsible to attend. Day and night, from February 'I to June I , be wai boqr. 
much of die time on hondback, between Lake Lindeman and Dyea, a dittance of twen^- 
five miki. Mrt. Riningcr wat widt hira, aantttng him m hit wo^ 

When the army oi gold hunter* had paned over the traU, leaving ibetr dead buried 
by the way. Dr. and Mn. Rininger went to Lake Lindeman, bu3l a boat and fcJkiwed 
the procesnon to Dawioo. A> the Canadian lawi would not pamil him to practice liia 
profetuoo he turned hit attention to mining. In partnerdig> with A. S. Kerry he 
wmked with a large force of men on No. 1 1 above Bonanza, and opetated tuccetifully 
the firtt (team thawing plant widi pointi in the Klondike country, the dutwer being an 
invention of a mins by name of Van Meter. E>UTing diit. winter he operated oo Gold 
Bottom, Quartz and Hunker Creeks, but at he did not find mining [voGtable he de- 
cided to go to NcMne. 

He arrived in Nome September 20, 1699, bringing witfa him a tupply of druga 
obtained in Dawaon aand St Michad, and opened the Pioneer Drug Store, the fint in 
the towiL He began dte practice of medicine, and die demandt for hit tervicet have 
kept him buty ever soce, except the time he hat tpent in the ttatet. At die dote of 
navigation in 1900 he wat ^>pointed by pubBc maM meeting at one of three ddegatea 
to Wathingtbn to place before Congreta the need of better lawt Uxc Alatka. Sam 
Knia^t and CapL G. R Baldwin were the odier members of diit committee. E>r. 
tltningcr wai inttnunental in having a bill appropriating $25,000 for the care of die 
indigoit lick of Alaika introduced in the Senate. It paned the Senate, but wai killed 
in the Houte. Dr. Riningcr 4>ent a month in Wathini^on trying to lecurc die pattage 
of thit bill. Hit e^>erience in Alaaka had ihown him die dire need of tuch a meature. 
While in Nome the Chamber of Commerce had raited $3,000, and placed it in hit 
handt to provide meant for die care of unfortunatet who were ill and without means, 
and it was apparent to all Alaskans that the Government should relieve our citizens <iS 
the great burden of private charity, which humanity, in the absence of Goverament aid, 
demanded that they should carry. 

Dr. Riningcr went from Washington to New York, and took a post graduate 
course, vMch was the primary object of hit brq> to the ttates. The following tprin? 
he brought hit family to Nome with him. hit wife having gone out from Dawion in the 
spring of '99. In the eariy part of the season of 1902 he establithed an hospital in 
Nome, and turned it over to the Sisters of Chari^ later in the leaton when ihty ar- 
rived in Nome. This inidtutiOD is now known as the Holy Crosi HoipitaL He went 
to the states in 1903, and tpent the vnnter in New York, doing laboratoiy and cKntcal 

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work. Retiuning die following qirmg, he returned hit [Hvctice. In the hll of 1904 
Dr. Rininger left Nome, and located b Seattle, where he purchated a pretty home. He 
fitted iq> office! in the AUtka Building. Thete <^ice* are q>lendidly equipped. 

Jutjr 1 1, 1693, Dr. Rininger and Mitt Nellie Powen were mairied at Tiro, Ohio. 
Tfaey have one child. Dorothy hieloi. bom F^niaiy 2, 1900. Dr. Rininger is a 
big man, phyiically and mentally. poMeuing a ttrong and magnetic pertonahty, native 
ability and the geniui of induttry. With all the work he hat done and u doing, he 
(indi time to acquire and abtorb Uie neweit ideas pertaining to hit profetnon. 


IN the q>iii^ of I8S0 B. B. Red- 
ding arrived in San Francitco. 
He wat one of a company of 
young men that brought a ichooner 
•nd a cargo of lumber around the 
Horn to Califomia. When they got 
into port dicy found the market well 
•locked with lumber, and prices of 
dm commodity comparatively k>w, 
but a tmall invoice of canned lob- 
•ten \Wiich they had, aold readily 
at dte rate of $5.00 a can. If diey 
had brought canned k>bitert inttead 
of lumber they would have made a 
fortune. Mr. Redding wat the ton 
of the American contul at Yar- 
mouth, Nova Scotia, at which place 
he was bom. He wat a man of 
native intelligence, good education 
and ttrong character; and he hat left 
an interetling and conipicuoui record 
in tbe early hittory of the ttate of 
California. He wai tuccenful in 
mining ventures and butinett enter- 

pritet, followed ioumaliim for a ^j, ^ „ „ reduixo, 

time, wu in the legitlature when 
the capital wu in Benecia, filled the 

petition of the first tecretaiy of ttate, and in later years took a great roterett in horti- 
culture, the pretervation of game and the propagation of fiih. He was the first 
president of the Fish Commission of Califomia. and to him is due the credit of the 
formation of this commistion. 

Half a century after the arrival of B. B. Redding in San Francisco, hit son. 
Dr. G. H. H. Redding, came to Nome, and brought a cargo of lumber, and found 
the market in a condition similar to the market hit father found Eifty years before in 
Calik>mia. When the newt of the wonderful gold fields of the Nome region was 
audienticated in 1899, Dr. Redding and Count Jacques des Carets chartered die 
schooner Annie M. CanqibelL She was loaded with 730,000 feet of lumber, and 

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deqwlched at t date in the tpna% of )900 that vrould enable her to reach the northern 
milling camp as early ai it wai practicable for veitdl to arrive. The ownen of the 
cargo lailed later on the iteamer San Joie, and got into Nome an the flood tide of the 
human tea that poured upon theie ihore* in that memorable year. When the Doctor 
arrived he found a city of while tent*, the beach piled and itrewn with freight, dia- 
orda ao^ amfu*ion everywhoe, pricei of town real e*Ute tailing upward Hke rockets. 
(to come down later like tticki), aitd charge* for primitive hotel accommodatioru at 
the rate of $1.00 an hour. They finally lucceeded ia leasing three loti on the SaDd^>k 
at a monthly rental of $730. The lum of $12,000 wat paid toi Ughterage to tbe 
S. Y. T. Co. After the lumber was dumped on the beach, the labor required to haul 
it and pile it in the yank coat $ 1 a day for each man employed. This ii a gliiiipM 
of the conditions in die q>ring of 1900. 

While this venture was not the fiff«nfi»l success anticipated at the beginning. Dr- 
Rcdding remained in Nome for two seasons, and wound up the aSairs of die businesa 
•0 that a balance has been shown on the profit side of die ledger. Their company, 
tbe Riverside Ljunber Yard, Furnished most of the lumber for planking the streets ot 
Nome, and at diis writing holds city wananU bearing interest for limiber furnished m 
the qiring of 1901. During the winter of 1900-'0I he took an active interest in 
theatricals and amuaement features for die public, and did a great deal toward making 
the long tedious winters something more than just endurable. In 1903 he and A. H. 
Dunham purchased the Geiger toll bridge, w^iich has since been acquired by die dty. 
He is interested in mining property in the peninsula, and is vice president of the Alaska 
Placer Mining Company, with holdings on Flambeau River. This is the first Nome 
conqiany organized under the laws of Alaska. 

Dr. Redding was bom in Sacramento. Cal.. Dec. )6, 1660. He is descended 
from the early Massachusetts Colonist*, viito came to America in 1634 during the 
regime of Governor Winthrop. He traces his lineage dirou^ his mother's family lo 
Israel Putnam. Dr. Redding was educated in the schools of Sacramento, the Cali- 
fomia Military Academy of Oakland and the Urban Academy of San Francisco. 
He received his degree in medicine from the Cooper Medical College, and was gradu- 
ated from Bellevue Medical College. New York. He tptat three yean walking the 
hospitals of Europe, during which time he visited nearly all the notable dtie* of the 
Continent and of England. Returning to California in 1689 he practiced medicine 
for ei^t years m San Francisco. He was the first house surgeon of die San Fran- 
cisco Polyclinic. He was police surgeon of San Fiandsco in 1894, and was also 
the surgeon of the Midwinter Fair. He relinquished his practice to engage in mining 
on the Mother Lode in California. After selling the famous Tarantula Mine he went to 
Karluk, Kodiak bland, in 1898, and relieved hb cousin, J. A. Richardson, superin- 
tendent of the fish hatchery of the Alaska Packers Association. He was in Karhik 
a year, in charge of this extensive industry. Dr. Redding has made five trips to Alaska. 
three to Nome, one to Karluk and one to Sitka. 

He has two brothers, Albeit Putnam, secretary Pacific Surety Co., and J, D, 
Reddmg, the latter one of the leading members of the bar of California and New York, 
and a prominent club man, who attended Harvard at the time Theodore Rooseveh was 
a student m that college. Dr. Redding is a man possessed of a broad education and 
a liberal mind. Extensive travel and association with the better class of people in 
foreign lands have given him a wide view of life, and furnished him with an interesting 

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fund of anecdote and incident. He hat b predilection for art and natural hirtor;, 
and itudicd painting (cveral yean. He takei great pleasure in collecting thingi that 
are rare, odd and unique. An interior view of a room m hit Nome reiideace is ihown 
in an engraving in this volume. It ii filled with Altukan curiot. 


AMONG Nome'i early settlcn probably no one ii 
better entitled to a place in tbit work than i> 
Dr. E^dmund E. Hill, tbe nibject of thii iketch. 
Dr. Hill came here with the big ruih of 1 900 and hat 
been a reqwcted resident of Nome ever lince. In the 
early dayt of the canq), when the town wat really 
widiout government, and overrun with the tcum of the 
earth. Dr. Hill, as the presiding officer of the board 
of directors of the Chamber of Commerce, took the 
initiative in ridding the town of the undesirable ele- 
ment. A sufficient amount of money was raited and 
the disreputables were rounded up and deported on 
the last boat that left at the dose of navigation, much 
to die gratification of Nome's citizens. Later he wat 
a prime mover in the organization of what is known 
as the "Second Consent Government." vrfiich was or- 
ganized by the merchants and property owners of the 
dty and which continued in the management of affairs 

until the incorporation of the city of Nome in 1901. dr. e. b. rilu 

The Doctor was health <^er and city physician dur- 
ing that period and gave hit tervices gratuitously. It it said of him that never a poor 
miner without money and m need of medicine and medical attention wat turned away 
from the Doctor's door. He it known for his charitable actions to the minen both near 
and far, and many a sufferer hat reason to remember Dr. HiD kindly. 

He is a native of San Francisco, Califofnia, and wat bom November 21, 1666. 
He was graduated from the Cooper Medical College in the clast of '95. and prior to 
coming to Nome held several important official podtiont in San Francisco. He hat a 
predilection for poUtics, and when the second election for the incorporation of Nome 
wat held the Doctor took a leading part in the fi^t for incorporation, which wat car- 
ried by an overwhelming majority. To his efforts is due in a great measure the in- 
corporation of Nome. Uncle Sam's most northerly incorporated town. He has served 
in the common council of Nome, and as chairman of the finance and building committee, 
tupervited the conttruclion of the City Hall and the Dry Creek Bridge. The Bel- 
mont Cemetery and the abolition of the obnoxioui dog iicenie tax, which imposed a 
great hardshq> on the prospectors and minen, are measures which he championed, and 
should be credited to hit diligent work. He has twice been health officer of Nome. 

Dr. HiU is a practicing physician and the proprietor of the Cut f^te Drug 
Store in Front SbeeL He is also interested in a number of mines near Nome. The 
D»ctoT hM a genial personality. Hb ample hce is always beaming with a smile, and 
if there be the least bit of a siker fining in a cloud it reveals itself to him with such 
himinoitty that the cloud is diq>eUed. 

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DR. H. «. MOORE. 

DR. H. S. MOORE Bnt came to Nome in ifae Ul of 1902. He returned to the 
■tates, wfaeie be tpeat the xKceeding winter, comiDg back to Nome the foUow- 
ing tpring lo become aMociated with Dr. Rininger in hii ezteniive practice. 
During the winter of 1903-'04, and while Dr. Rininger was in the £a>tcm states. Dr. 
Moore had charge of the office and aD the w<^ connected with it 

He was graduated from the IndiaaapoHs Medical College ol the Univcnity of 
Indiana, in 1900, and entered the army as Fint Lieutenant Aniriant Surgeon. He was 
widi the 156th Indiana Regiment during the war with Spain. After the regiment 
was mustered out m 1699 he took the examinalioa of the United States army for 
astirtant surgeon, and was assigned to the barracks at St Louis. From St Louis he 
was tranrferred to the Presidio at San Francisco, and then sent to ^ Philipfwies. where 
he was promoted to Captain Assistant Surgeon, U. S, He was attached to the army 
service during a period of two years in the Philii^>ines. and came to Alaska soon after 
his return hom the i»l»ii>J« 

During Ms stay in the Philippines, the country was ravaged by die plague. In 
some districts there was an appalling death list of native inhabitants. Dr. Moore vol- 
unteered his services, and was asugned to one of the worst districts of the island. 
and had charge of it until die abatement of the dread malady. 

Dr. Moore is a native of Indiana, and was bom October 26. 1874. Although 
a young man, he has had a wide and varied experience in the ^actice of bis prnfrsiifwi 

He has traveled extensively, during which he devoted some time to die study of 
medicine in Milan, Italy. He is a man of educatira and high social and profeasioDa) 
standing, possessed of quiet dignity and executive abibty, and is a strict adherer to 
the ethics of bis profession. 


DURING the past three years Dr. A. L Derby- 
shire has filled the position of Assistant Sw 
geoo of the U. S. Marine Hoqntal Service in 
N<mie. This position places him in charge of die 
hospital and quarantine wwk, and requires him to 
in^>ect aD vessels arriving at Nome. Dr. Derbyshire 
has discharged his duties faithfully, and ni a manner to 
receive the commendation of the public. Many times 
in niidsummer he has been awakened after midnight by 
a hustling agent of a steamer, and has ^bgingty 
arisen from his bed to go out and inspect a vessel, al- 
though the regulations of his department did not re- 
quire him to woik at these hours. But he is an old 
resident of Nome, and understands the conditions here 
— the uncertainty of the weather, and the value to 
steamship companies of a smooth sea when cargoes 
are to be discharged, or passcngen are to be landed. 
Frequently storms come up suddenly, without an hour's 
warning, and Uih the sea roto fury so that steamers 
have to seek safety in an anchorage five or six miles 
from land, or shelter in the lee of ^edge Island, twenty miles distant Dr. Derbyshire's 


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protnpt mpooM to calk for hn official lervice at aD houn ii commcDdablc and has been 
be^ul to rtffffi't'ip companiet and die public 

Dr. Dedqnhiie it a native of FnnUin County, Indiana. He wai bom May 
23, 1851. Wbco a jroung man he learned telegnphy, and was employed at a telegraph 
opeiatOT on the Wabaih Railroad foi a period of lix yean. It twai during thii time he 
began the study of mediciDe. He afterward completed hit medical education in the Ohio 
Medical College at .Cincinnati and Indiana Medical O^lege at Indian^tolit, and wat gradu- 
ated from the btter institution FA. 1 8. 1 886. He began the practice of medicine in Con- 
nenville, Ind. In 1 887 be moved to San Diego, CaL, and practiced in San Diego and EU 
Cajon Valley. He ipe&t a year at Cedioui Iiland, Mexico, ai phyiician for a mining com- 
paiqr. and moved to Oregon in 1893, locating at Stayton, tevcnteen milei from Salem. Five 
yean later he moved to Portland where he resided until the ^ring of 1 900, when he came 
Id Nome. He tried hit hand at mining for a couple of yean, but raumed the practice 
<rf hit profeinon in 1902, tubaequently receiving the Government appointment heretofore 
noted. , «^|; 

Dr. Derbythire wat married in 1679. The inue of thit marriage ii a dau^ter. 
Laura, now twea^-diree yean old. Mrt. Derbythire died in 1 882. Thirteen yean later 
he contracted a tecond marriage with Mitt Frandt A. Briggt, of Stayton, Oregon. Dr. 
Deibydiire it a courteout gentleman, and a man of worth. 


DR. W. D'ARCY CHACE it a "tourdough" by 
virtue of all die attaiomentt, having been a reii- 
dent of AUtka and the Yukon Territory since 
1896. He n not one of the old gray-bearded argo- 
naut!, at he wat bom in San Fraociaco, Cal., on 
Hallowe'en, 1873. He attended the public tchook 
of San Franciico, and was graduated by die Medical 
Dcpaitment of (he Univertity of California in the 
datt of *96. In die month of June of die year of hit 
graduation he acc^ted the potition of company tur- 
geon of die A C. Co., and immediately tailed for 
die company 't pott at St. Michael. At that time St. 
Michael wat the ntotl important lUtion in Northwest- 
ern Alatka. The reminiicences of hit year't lojoum 
■I St. Michael would make an intereiting chapter. 
In 1897, when hit UMitiact expired, he quit the 
employ of the company and prepared to return to 
San Francisco, but while wailing for a steamer, newt 

of the Kkindik* ttrike reached him. He changed hit dr. w. dARCY chace. 

plant and Went to Dawson, arriving in July of "97. 

After a tummer't work, die robbeiy of his cache and a threatened shortage of provisions 
caused him to go to Circle. He practiced medicine in Circle during the winter of '97-'98, 
and in the early tpring returned to Dawson over die ice with a dog team. During the 
summer of '99 newt of die strike at Nome wat confirmed in Dawton, and Dr. Chace 

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unnged to come down the river in the Merwio, but u the veuel did aot uH, he utd 
Dr. T. B. Craig and Frank Wickery itatted (or Nome m a small boat. Twenty milei 
below the mouth of the Tanana the freezing of the Yukon made it necesMiy to devite 
other meau of travcL 

Thejr went into canqi, and remained here until the middle of January, vdien they 
made another fUrt for Nome widi two iledi loaded with their n^ipbei. Three dogs 
were hitched to one of the iledi and two men of the par^ to the other tied. Elach team 
wodud tandem. After traveling one day and a half, and when the Doctor was in 
the hamest, di^ saw the trail of a solitary man pulhng a sled. The trail cris*-ciD«ed 
the regular trail in a manner that indicated bewikJerment of the lone mutber, and diey 
were not surprised when they came upon a heap of snow, a man vfnpptd in a mbc. 
with a piece of frozen bacon and a razor lying by his side. The bacon was his onfy 
food and the razor was his means of cutting it. But the unfortunate man was in less 
danger of starvation than of freezing. The weather was very cold, sixty degrees below 
zero, and the man had lain in this bed five days. A camp was hurriedly made, and an 
examination showed that the unfortunate was frozen beyond any remedy that could be 
administered on the trail. His hands were partially frozen and both feet were frozeo 
to the ankles. To save his life it would be necessary to have die best surreal skill 
under the most favorable conditimu. There was but one thing to be done. Leaving 
Mr. Wickery in charge of the camp, the doctors put the frozen man on a iled and 
started for the Tanana Military Post, sixty miles distant in the direction whence itxy came. 
In the Gist day's journey they coveted forty-five miles and killed the hithful bttle leader of 
their team by overwork. They delivered their charge to the commander of the post the next 
day. Both of the victim's feet were amputated and parti of his hands were cut away. 
He recovered, and in 1902 was in Nome. His name is Frank G>nnor. This is the 
brief story of an incident of the trail, a peril of winter travel in Alaska, and the hcrobm 
of men who are among the pioneen of the Northland. 

Returning to the camp. Dr. Chace and his companions continued their joum^ 
leisurely to Nome. At the mouth of the Kojrukuk Chris Netbuhr, who has since become 
one of the successful minen of Nome, jomed the party, and all hands reached thdr 
destination eady in the spring. Dr. Chace went to the ICougarok country soon after 
hi* arrival in Nome, and helped to organize that district. He returned from the Kou- 
garok dte middle of April, and during the summer of 1900 practiced his profession in 
Nome, and subsequently conducted Cribb's drug store. He was acting city [^ysician 
and health officer in 1 90 1 -'02 during the smallpox scare, and was assistant city phy- 
sician in l903-'04, and the city council elected in April, 1904, appointed him city 
physician, which position he h^ds at the date of this writing. He is one of the charter 
members of Nome Aerie No. 75 F. O. E., and is physician to the order, besides being 
surgeon for mining companies and several large operaton of mines. 

December 3. 1903, Dr. Chace was married to Delia Body, of Seattle. He is 
a young man, at die age when many men are just beginning a professional career, but 
he has a past rich in eq>erience and filled with strenuous endeavor. The Arctic wintcn 
have not chilled a temperament that is warmed by the aunshine of a genial nature. The 
vast North, with its freedom of the frontier, has strengthened and broadened a mind 
naturally intuitive and carefully trained in the science of medicine and the ethics of fife, 
as well as in the ethics of his profession, and helped to make him a type of the best class 
of Alaska pioneers. 




DR. SLOAN it a prominent and 
lucceaihit phyucian of Nome, 
who came to thit countiy to 
mine. During the Gnt three yean of 
hit retidcnce in Seward Peniniula he 
pro^KCted and mined in the Gold Run 
legion, and carried a pack on hit back 
through a large area of the aorthem 
country. He it a native of Huron 
County, Ontario, Canada, and began 
diii life with the fint day of the new 
year. 1868. Hit ancctlon were 
Scotch, and after graduating from the 
Clinton Collegiate lutitutc and the 
Manitoba L'nivenity he went to Scot- 
land to perfect hit education for the 
profcttion he had (elected, and was 
graduated from the Edinborou^ and 
the Ghugow Colleges of F%yticiani and 
Surgeoni. From the Edinbonu^ Col- 
lege he received the degree of L. R. 
C. P. and S., and from the Glatgow 
College. L. F. P. S. After graduating 
he went to London, and tpent a tvw 

month* in the Moorfield and London »«■ '■ »■ sloan. 


When he returned to America he went to the United Stales, and k>cated b Chicago, 
wfaoe he began die pnctice of medicine. Thii wai in 1894, and during dut year he 
received the iqipmntment of Profettor of Surgery in the Harvard Medical College. Later 
he wat Initructor of Surgery in the Pott Graduate Medical College of Chicago, and held 
bodi of theie podtiont when he started for Nome in die Spring of 1 900. 

After arriving in Nome he went to the Port Clarence and York Districts, and was 
one of the first in on the Bluestone strike, which at that time promised to ecHpte die itrike 
on Anvil Creek. The protpecti were not reafized, but there is gold in the country, and 
with plenty of water, the utilization of which will require the expenditure of considerable 
money, die hopes of the early explorers of this country may be realized. After three 
yean of hard work and the privatimt incident to camp life far away from a bate of 
fUppliet, Dr. Sk>an returned to Nome and opened an oAce in die Golden Gate Hotel. 
He immediately met with ihe recognition which ability and tborou^ education always 
conmiand. Hit brodier. Dr. W. Sloan, is the operating manager of their mining inter- 
ect). which are extensive, comprising gold minet in the Bluestone and Gold Run countiy 
and tin properties m the vicinity of Ear Mountain and elsewhere in the York District. 

Dr. loan's slight phyiique it a parcel moitly brains and nerves. Guided by an 
unerring intuition and equq>ped with the very best education, possessing natural ability 
and die skill that comet from experience. Dr. Sloan tried to spoil a good physician to 

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DR. W. SLOAN wu born in Ontario, CuiacU, in 1669. wbera be ipent hit eariy 
life <» a him. Aha fecuiing a public icfaool education he pmed a tcacfaer'a cx- 
aminaliaii ud taught ichool for three yean. He wai graduated from die Detioit 
Medical College in ) 696. The next year he ipcnt at the Chicago City Hotpital, prepaing 
tot practice. He left Chicago im the Yulmi country during die winter of 1897-'98, hy 
vray <J Edmonton Trail, and after ipcoding a year and a half <»i the tra3. nicceeded in 
reaching Dawion in 1 899. Remaining at Dawion only a ihort time, be pushed on down 
the river to St Michael, en route lo Nome, landing there late in the hll of '99. He prac- 
ticed medicine at Tdler and Gold Run during the wintcn of I900-'OI-'02, and became 
inlerated in property in Gold Run region, where he hai operated (ince 1900. In the 
winter of l903-'04 he wai in Solomon, practicing medicine, but gave up practicing hit 
pnfemon in order that be might give mining hii undivided attention. He ha* travcieS 
over die northern part of Seward Pcninmila and owni conndeiable property in the York and 
Shinnaretf country. While thii property i* practically unpnMpected, every indication pnit* 
toward favorable rewlti. Some of hii property m thit lection it located near Ear Mountain, 
and it quartz, ihowing valuable anayt from the cropping!, m gold, lead, copper and nhrer. 
He believei diii to be the best quartz tecttoo ever found in Alatka. and intendt lo 
develop tome of the mott prominng of Ut property the coming nunmer. 


THE poUtical history of Alaska and the municipal hittoiy of Nome, would not be 
coiqilete widiout mentioning George Muiphy. u he hat been identified widi a| 
mattert pertaining to the welfare of die community, and tvrice vitited Wadiins- 
lott lo obtain redreti and secure necessary legtslatton from Congrett. 

Mr. Muri^iy participated in the Klondike ttanqtede b '97, and he, with sevcni 
of hit company, was the BrtI to pro^tect and produce retuht from the celdMmted French 
Hill, m EJdorado Creek. He returned to hii dd home in Montana, intakding to return 
to Dawton in the q>ring, but after amving in Seattle, concluded lo cmbaA for St Michael, 
with dw intention of inveitigating the reported strike on Anvil Creek. 

The outkwk at Anvi! Gty. upon his arrival dien. was certainly not propitioos, at the 
rainy season had begun, and there vns but little in sit^t to encourage the new arrivals. 
There was but one dakn on Anvil Cred^ No. 6. bekmeing to Mr. Price, diat vns produc- 
ing any remits. As but few of die new comen bad found sufficient courage to leave can^h 
ifaey were very skeptical about future developments. 

The season being very wet and disagreeable, the tundra was almott impassable tm 
man n beast, and the indications for business were not of the best But Mr. Muri^iy ctm- 
duded to remain during the mmmer; and die latter part of July pay was struck on ibe 
beach, and Mr. Muiphy found himself involved in business matten to such an extent that 
before the last boat departed for die outside he had c<»cluded lo cast bis fortunes with the 
new camp. 

The political situation at Nome for the coming winter vnt not of the brightest Cili- 
zent and minen had hdd an election in the fall for a munidpa] form of government, but as 
Congress had not provided for such a procedure, the so-called Content City Govemment 
had no legal standing. The cktting of the mining season left a great many idle people in 
the camp, and enforced idleness soon brought its usual result — disconKnt, and oritiasro of 

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tboM who had politica] pontioiu. A great maoy compUinti, loine vafid and (ome other- 
wife, were made. Matten at last anumed a critical (hape, and Ueut Cragie vrai pmented 
widi a petition, though not generally ligned by the be>t dtizoia, to declare the euting 
ibuiuc^mJ organization without authority to enforce its ordinance*. 

Mr. Muiphy wai <»ie of the butinew men choien by Lieut. Cragie to btten to die 
grievancet, and he labored indiutrioutly to iqihold and lumiort the exirting municipa] acbnin- 
irtration. Bui not even the penistent and comcientioui efforti of the leading buniteM meo 
were luAcienl to Hutain the fast falling government, and reafizing that loine form of ait- 
tbori^ ^uld be organized, a committee consitting of Mr. Muiphy, Maj. Strong. Judge 
Rawira. Capt Siem and Authur Pope, met and organized a chamber of commerce, 
ibat was lo necettary and entered » prominently into the life of the communis. 

The chamber of commerce awumed at near ai pomUe charge of all public utihlict, 
care of the itreett. tanitary conditioo*, hoipitab, police and fire dcpartmenti, aitd its ad- 
miniitratxm was conducted with credit to its membas. The beahh of the city wa* good, 
the law wa* reelected, and there wat no k>M of any consequence by fire. 

Mr. Mur^iy entered actively and zealously in aD duties emanating from this body, 
and by hk example encouraged a full aUeodance at its meetings, and inasted that memben 
should serve on appomted conmittees, and as chairman of the executive commitlee was 
inttrumoital in d ir ec t ing the diferent departments. 

Alaska, like all frontier parti of the United States, had long been neglected by Congress. 
and the matter of sending a delegate lo Washington, to ask for tome legislation in 
conformity with the needs of our fast-growing little city and territory, bad been discussed. 
The duties of a delegate naturally aromed a great deal of cbcustioo. and just what he 
should advocate, and just yAml was needed, constituted the principle theme <^ disci»- 
sioo im a long lime previous to election. 

The friaKUiq> of the pRxpective ddegate was eagerly sousJit by diferent factions. 
those factions consisting principally of tfae adhercnb of the federal court on we side, and 
dwse who believed that the decisions of ibe court were not such as were consistent widi 
kw and justice; each side hoping to sdect a representative who would favor its interest m 

Mr. Mutpby's succenfui h-ndlfng (rf public affairs, and higji personal integrity, made 
him a logical candidate for a rt^esentative, but he insisted that it would be impoesible for 
him lo take any part in the c4»ilroversy at Nome, and should he be sent to Washington, he 
would not advocate any measures that did not pertain to the public welfare ^ the tenitory 
at large. 

The chamber of commerce, by a unanimous vote, elected Mr. Murphy, and instructed 
him to advocate such measures at Wadimgton as be thought necessary and that might arise 
during his sojourn tfacre, and his selection justified the judgment of his ftiends. Aldiou|^ 
a stranger in Washingtm, be secured aae.balf of all the revalues and licenses collected 
within munic^Mlities in Alaska for schocJ and munidpa] expencbturei, a measure of in- 
calculable benefit, as thereby a qoarter ei a million doUan has been retained in the lenttoty 
for public needs. 

His mission being succes^ul, he was again induced the following year, dui time by the 
ctly council, to return to Washington the next season, and attend to secure the remaining 
half of all revenues and licenses, and while not securing immediate paNage of all this veiy 
■tecessary and appropriate measure, it was framed and introduced under his directioa, and 
passed at dte next session ei Congress. 

Mr. Murphy, while in Washington Ci^, labored earnestly and zealously for all meas- 

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ura that in hw opinion would be of benefit to the great Northweat, and thai while his 
friendi Ml that hi* miuion had been far more lucceitfu] than the mort aanginne bad 
Tcaion to predict, he has felt that there it a great deal yet to be done. 

Mr. Murphy hai not ahvayt confined hinuelf to dvic duties. He hai been active in 
hii tupport of all public enteipri*et, hotpitab, Kbrariei. and all matter* that would tend la 
improve the intellectual ilandard of the conununity; and particularly hai he been active in 
the tuKKtrt of retigiout inttitutiont, aicouraging churche* of different dcsominationa, be- 
lieving that a friendly rivalry between churches bring* forth the beat material in all. 

Mr. Murphy, ^^lile not an active partisan, believei that the citizen can best serve his 
country by bekmging to one of the great political parties, and he has always been identified 
with the Oeroocratic party ; hai never occupied a public office, but accepted dM chainnan- 
Mp oi the Democratic Central Cnnmittee of Helena, Montana, in 1897, was a delegalc 
(torn Nome lo die Natimutl Dentocratic Convention at St Louis in 1904, and was 
selected as chairman of die Alaska delegation. 

Mr. Murphy was bom b Carrolton, lUinoit. July 22, 1 662. He was reared on a 
hrm and educated in the public schools of his native town. When twen^ years of age 
he went west, and after a kng and arduous trqi, located in Montana, where be followed 
vmrien businesi enterpriies until the KkMidike mcittnient in 1697. Soon after receiving 
news of the Klondike strike he started for the new gold fidds via Skagway and Dyesi Pass. 
Like the other pioneer pnMpecton who went to Davnon, he buih a beat on Lake Unde- 
man. He arrived in Dawson October 3, after a tiip of fifty-d^t days, and oigaged in 
mining and merchandising until the following fall, when he went out for the winter, vititiDg 
his old home in Helena, Montana, intending to return the fo&owing spring. Upon arriving 
at Skagway in the firing of 1 S99, he learned that the tee in the lakes had not broken, and 
he returned to Seattle to purchase merchandise lo take to Dawscm. When he arrived in 
Seattle the Nome excitement was at its height, and he changed his plans and secured passage 
on the steamer Roanoke, bound for Nome and St. Michael. He has since been identified 
with the commercial interests of Nome, and is the owner of both city and mining property 
in die town and district, 

Mr. Murphy it an earnest, tbcere and juil man. He hat always laken a 6etp interest 
in pohttct. and has been foremost in ihe advocacy of measures for die public good. What 
he has accompbshed for Alaska, and for Nmne in particuhir, cntilles him to an honorable 
place in the annab of diis country. 


BEN SIMSON wat bom in Middletown. New York, February 20, 1674, and 
began business in mercantile lines in Suffem, New YoA, when he was terca- 
teoi years old. In 1696 he and hit brother Abe started for Dawson. Thqr 
had a narrow escape from the great tnow-tbde at Sheep Camp, and tubtequeatiy 
lost moat of their outfit in a tent fire. 

Not meeting with luccos at mining in the Klondike gold fields, he turned his 
attention to merchandising. He went outside in the fall of 1698 to buy goods, and 
got back to Skagway in January with a three thoutand-dollar stock, which he to^ 
lo Dawson. In the summer of 1899 he bought two claims in the Forty-Mile coimtry, 
and nearly froze lo death the following winter vrivie doing astetsment work. He got 
a letter from his brother Abe, who had gone to Nome, telling him to go to dje states 
and buy a stock of goods, and get it to Nome at the carHesI possible dale. In tiie 
^>ring of 1900 he wu "Johnny on die spot." The firm of Siniton Bros, made nxMiey 

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in Nome, and it now one ot the krgst mercwitite inatitutioiu in Northwetiern Aluka. 
Ben Sinuon it a broad-f&ugc merchant, with a ipmt (or big undertakingi. 


• Nome m 1900 m manager o[ 
die Nome Trading Conqwny, 
a mercantile institution which toon ac- 
quired a tplcndid Teputati<n for hon- 
ertjr of bunneai melbodi and the hi^ 
gnde good* It •iQvbed it* patrons. Mr. 
Valentine wai dected to the Nome 
council at the municqial dection held 
in April. 1902. and wai unanimoutly 
lefacted hy that body u mayor of 
Nome. He ditchaTged the duties oF 
thii office with marked alnli^. 

Mr. Valentine was bom b Fon- 
bwcUe, Adair County. Iowa, June 1 6, 
1868. He went to California with hii 
parentt in IS75. The death of hii 
modtcT • tew weeln after their arrival. 
was die came of die boy going to Se- 
attle to reude with hit uncle. Mr. 
Valenttne'i education was obtained in 
die Seattle public ichoob. At die age 
of tttteen he began to cam hi* own 
livdihood. In 1686 he wai employed 
by the Puget Sound and Gray'i Har- 
bor Railroad Company as a member of 

the surveying puty. This employment probably determined much of his future career. 
From 1687 to 1690 he was in the Seattle city eitgineer'i office. Later he wu as- 
sociated with the Nwdiem Pacibc Railroad Company, in connection with die Seattle 
terminals. Fr<Mn 1692 to 1697 he was assistant engineer and chief clerk of the O. I. 
Ca. now the Pacific Coast Co. In 1897 Mr. Valentine was empkiyed by the North- 
ern Pacific Coal Conqiany. but went back to the O. 1. Co. in the fall as manager of the 
riora at Franklin. Here he remained until 1699. In the following year he came to 
Nome, wkere he resided three years. He is idll interested in mining and ditch property 
in die Nome country. 

At die state and county clectitHi b 1904 Mr. Valentbe was elected to die office 
of surveyor of King County, WaahmBton, a position which his trainbg and wide ex- 
pcriesce eminently qualifies him to 61L Fdiruary M. 1694, Mr. Valentine married 
Miss Mardia Sid^otham. The issue of this union is one child. Albert L Valentine. Jr., 
bon October 13, 18%. 

Mr. Valentine is an Iwnest, sbcere man, and was recognized as one of Nome's 
progressive and public-^irited citizens. 


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WM. J. 5CANLAN. one of the p<q>ukr young 
men of the Nome country, wu born in 
Ourlestown, Mui., May 20. 1674. He 
Kceived hit education m the public ichoob of hii na- 
tive (tate and the Allen Inttitute of Botton. He hai 
fiUed the poutkmt of private lecreUry to teveral multi- 
miilionairei in the Eatt, and abo acted in the capacity 
of Kcretary to a number of corporationi. 

In 1901 he went to Nome ai the lecretary of 
teveral mining companiet aerating in Seward Penm- 
nila. Piiot to g<»ng to Nome he wa* a broker in 
the dty of New YoHc, engaged in the bond and mort- 
gage bunneu. He ha* travded cxtenuvely m America 
and abroad. He hai ipent every ninmier nnce 1901 
with Major H. L. French in the Nome countiy, in 
the faidtful discharge of a Kcretary'i work in connection 
with the mteipricet in which Major French i* engaged. 
Mr. Scanlan and MiM Katharine M. Hagan 
wen married in New Y<»k F^ruary 1, 1903. Mr. 
Scanlan i* a genial man whoae companionable nature 
hat made him many fiiendi in the Nome countiy. He 
•ee* life throu^ the eyet of an opdmiit. and b lur- 
rounded by an atrootpbere in which doudt never can 
obacure the i 

P. ■. MeLEOD. 

PB. McLEOD ii identified with the ^pmg 
• and tranqjortation intereitt of Seward Penin- 
>ula. owning veatdt and barges in the coatt 
trade. He wai bom in Toronto. Canada, September 
9, 1670. and received a public ichool education in 
hi* native dty. He went to Chicago when he wai 
fourteen yean old, ii^Mequently moving to Seattle. 
vrlien he hved for ten yean, and followed the bufineu 
of a diy goods merchant. He (old out in 1 900, and 
lince 1901 ha* been connected with the ihipping 
Inuineu of Nome. 

For the pait two leasont Mr. McLeod hat been 
the agent at Nome for the iteamer Corwin. Captain 
Wett, master. The Corwin wa* formerly a revenue 
cutter, and is the first vessel arriving at Nome in the 
q>ring, and tuually the last one to leave in the fall 

Mr. McLeod's name reveal* his Scotch ancestry. 
He is energetic in business, a true friend, and a man 
of strong character. 



MARRY G. STEEL, editor uk) 
manager <rf tbe Nome Newi, i* 
a ntdve of Peniuytvanu, what 
be ipent hk boj^iood dayi and received 
hit newQMper training. He i« the 
youDgat (on of Col. J. Irvin Sted. 
trcuurer of the National Editorial Aa- 
tociation, and om of the oldest living 
new^Mper owners in the ICeyttone 
State, having been actively engaged in 
the profcwion for near half a century. 
The hther and five wnt own in all 
fourteen newtpapen. 

H. G. Steel wa* dty editor of the 
Aifaland Evening Telegram, Mavch 
Chunk Daily Times and Potltville 
Daily Republican prior to 1893, ^^len 
he purchaied die Shamoldn Daily Her- 
ald. All of theie papen are pdbUied 
in Pemuylvania. In 1699 Mr. Steel 
took a icventy-five tm plant to [>aw((Mi 
and itarted the Daily Newi, the fint 
daily newg>apcr m the Kkmdike. That 

faU he lent a plant to Nome and there 

etubliihed the New., die fint newf «*««^ °- »™=^ 

paper in that camp. He went to Nome 

in die spring of 1900, and aasumed the active management of the News and hat since 
be«i at the bead of that paper. When the wireless tyttem was completed between St. 
Michael and Safety, Mr. Steel bad the dittinction of receiving the fint commercial mes- 
sage over the bne, and the Newt received and printed die fint wirelen press messages re- 
ceived in the Nwtfa. 


JOHN L. SANDSTROM it a Nome miner who owns some promising pnpaty. 
He was bom in Ahon, Norway, August 12. 1866, and received hit education 

in the public schools of Norway. He went to America with bis parents in 1885, 
and resided for a year in Chicago. In 1 886 he went to Los Angeles, and a year later 
to Portland, Oregon. Durmg the early nineties he resided in Silver Ci^, Idaho, and 
for a period of five yean was engaged in quartz mining. In 1 899 he projected in 
the Buffalo Hump coimtiy, and came to Nome in 1900. 

For three yean he was mine foreman for Magnui Kjeliberg, operating property 
in the Nome DittricL Mr. Sanditrom is the owner of No. 2 bench on the left fork 
of Dexter Creek. He is one of the owiters in the Louisa and Golden benches adjoin* 
ing dtit proper^. 

In 1693 he and Miss Amanda PeterKm of Boise City, Idaho, were nurried. 
They have two cbildroi. Either and Harala. Hit home it b Portland, Oregon. Mr. 

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SuKklrom it an enerBetic and induttiioiit nuui, and hk mining property ii atuated in 
tbe mott favorable part of die None DiriricL 


JOHN I. BEAU hai an amaUe repidation in Nome u a reliable racKbant and 
tquare man. He hai buUt im boMieai, one of ibe rooM extennTe at Setmd 
Pcoinnita, by boncat mediodi. In tbe early dayi be ta\d ihoe Mmv in Sl 
MichfteL He came to Alaika to blazo a trail lo fortune. He knew tbera wru "no 
toyal road to micccm." and there wa* not an bonorable endeavor nor any kind of 
kplimate bbor tbat could impair hit digmly or thwart bit puipote. He hu attained 
the tucccM that waitt on induttiy, and ha* won the etteem and conBdcace of die men 
of the Northland. 


CG. HORSFALL wat bom m 
• Derbyshire, England. July 5, 
1859. He immigrated to 
Anxrica in 1869, and tettled in 
Biooklyo. Hit hther nibiequently 
purcbated a Souring mill on Long bl- 
and, where be wat initiated in the fint 
rudiment! of hit vocation at miller and 

C' G. Honfall tettded m New 
York until 1892. wHuo he moved lo ' 
Salt Lake City to inttall roller ma- 
chinery b the plant of die Inland 
Crystal Salt Co., at Sahair, Utah, re- 
taining hit petition at iiqieiinlendcnt. 
until 1900, when he rengned in order 
to become a member of the Utah- 
Alaika Mining Co., and joined diat 
memorable ruth to Nome. 

UiUke many othert tbat came in 
with di&t itampede, Mr. HortfoU't 
faith b the ultimate development of 
Seward Penintula never wavered and 
tbe pretent t^xratioiit have fully nit- 
tabed hit <vtnion. CHABUifl a. homfall. 

March 14. 1902, Mr. Hortfall 
began the conttruction of tbe Nome River bridge, hit attociatet being A. A. Nicfaol 
and J. A. Croger. Thit was tbe fourth bridge conttnicted at this place, die Ifaree 
othen succumbing to the ttormt and ice a few we^ after completion. Mr. Honhl 
ttrongly mabtained, in opposition to tbe <^>bion of leveial militaiy officert, diat it wai 
poitible to erect a bridge at a reatonaUe cott that would widutand tbe elementi. Hit 
mt, bated on Kq>erience in dock and bridge buildbg in New Yor^ bat been 

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verified by tbe (tnicture that qMUU Nome River. Boynlon & Nichokoa were the 

Mr. Horsftll ud hii wife are well and favorably known in (hit part of the North- 
land. They were married in Nome, having met for die first time in tbe Northern mining 
camp in 1900. 


THE likenen herewith prcaented ii that of Mr. 
Jack Hinei, a Kentuckian by birth. For 
five yean he ha* inhabited and travtned the 
vrikb of Seward Peninsula in quest of the gold 
which is always "over die next divide." Hi* ad- 
ventures and esperiencci would read like the most 
dramatic fiction. 

b regard to the native question, an impmi- 
ant one in diis country, Mr. Hines advance* the 
foUowiog theory: "Ai sure as civilization is des- 
tined to advance in this hi Nordiland, just so sure 
is tbe dedbe and faD (rf the native inhabitant 
bevitabie. I have seen tbe native m his moat ttiriv- 
ing and progressive c«iditioo, L e., wben the 
presence of tbe white man was not ni^ to engender 


In his observations of the character and custom 
<rf tbe various tribe*. Ate interesting fact is dis- 
closed, that tbe strain which shows all the char- 
actetistic* of the North American Indian is more 
indq>esdcnt and loatbe to deviale fimn die custom 
of its anteoedcnl*. The Eakimo wbo inhabits tbe 
coast is an aborigeoe, likewise is the Indian of the 
riven and woodland. A vast difcnnce is per- 
ceptiUe ID the races. The Eskimo is snscept2>le 
to tbe degrading influence of tbe unscrupulous white man; the Indian is not 

The primitive days of dii* country witnessed many a bk>ody warpath, and the 
legends of the Woodland Indian lead one to believe that the Eskimo was generally the 
aggressor and likewise the vanquished. 

There is probably no one b dii* country who is hekl in higher esteem by the 
natives than Mr. Hines; nor who understands them more thorou^Iy, nor who has a 
more coii4>lete knowledge ^ thdr dialects and language. 


ONE of die best bear stories I ever heard ii an incident of die winter <rf l903-'04 
on Seward Peninsula. This story has the merit of being true. Two Scandn 
navian prospecton were in the mountains some diirty miles from Nome during 
a part of dii* winter. One day two bears were seen in the vicinity of their can^. Tbe 
prospectors were armed with a repeating rifle and a shotgun, the lattn being used for 

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huntiiig ptannigan. One of the men took the rifle and the odicr the ^otgun, loackd 
with bird ihot, and they itaited after die bean. The man with the ibotgun did imt 
intend to do any killing. 

By making a detour, they came upon their quarry. The man with the rifle *cpar- 
ated from hit companion and took a (bort cut in order to get in a povtion vrbat he 
could get a ibot at the game. The man with the Jiotgun leiniily walked around the 
mountain in the direction the bean were traveling. Suddenly, and without wamiAg, 
he heard an mninou* growL and above him and not twoity feet distant, itood an 
enrnmous brown bear. The animal charged toward him, and before the hunter could 
fire, gratped the muzzle of the ihotgun with hit teeth. At thit inttant the hunter pulled 
both tiiggen, diKharging both barrels into the bear's throat. The animal rolled over 
dead, having broken the gun barrels frcHn the stock at the instant the gun was discharged. 

I saw this bear vrhen it was skinned, and the caicax bore evidence of the tn^ 
oi the itoiy. I taw the gun banels, dented by the bear's teeth, additional evidence 
diat it is a true stoiy. 




n St. Louii in 1 369. His 
father was John W. Lwrnore, 
a w^ieat and grain merchant, v^ con- 
trolled at (Hie time the elevator lyttem 
of St. Louit. Hit modier was Mim 
Carlisle, die titter of Judge S. S. C«r- 
litle. of Seattle, and James L. Carble, 
postinatter of St Louit. 

He received his early education in 
St Louit and afterwardt attended col- 
lege in Tcnneitee. When he completed 
hi* education he entered a bank in St 
Louit and terved at clerk, but soon 
after, receiving a politica) appointment, 
he made politics hi* profession until 
struck with the gold fever in 1898. 

He then went as far north as St. 
Michael, where, hearing rumon of a 
strike having been made in the Nome 
district, he went to that region and lo- 
cated a number of claims. He and hit 
partners conttituled ^^t has since 
been known at the Nome-Sino^ Min- 
ing Co., and staked the territory now ^ ■*. larimore. 
occupied by the town of Nome. Since 
that time he has been engaged, with varied success, almost continuously in mining. 

In 1901 he married Miss Jeatie Gambiill, of St. Louit. Mr. Larimore pot- 
tettet a itrong sense of duty and honesty, and is htfhiy esteemed by loyal friends who 
know hit worth. 

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:er and Builder of the Council City and Solomon R|v( 

road, the Flret Standard-sauKe Road In Alaska. 

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THE author of thii book wu bom on 
a fann near Alton, III., May 22, 
1859. Hit early education wa* 
obtained in a little brick tchool hoiue and 
in the Bekti and woods tuTTOunding his 
bo^ood home. When he was nmeteen 
yean old he went to California, and pur- 
chased a half interest m a Hollister news' 
paper, and from that date until 1900 he 
was connected, in a modest way, with 
Pacific Giast joumaliim. 

In 1 900 he came to Nome to make 
A fortune out of the mines. Failing to find 
nuggets in the sands of the sea-shore, or 
the roots of the tundra moss, he was glad 
to accept a pontioi on a Nome newq»per 
At pick-and-ihovel wages. During a resi- 
dence of near five years m the country he 
gathered the material for this book, and a 
quantity of other material, including noies 
for other books and magazine stories, which 
will furnish him pleasant and, he hopes, 
profitable work for the next two years. p_ g harbtson. 


THE discovery of gold on Candle Creek furnishes a first class spook story. The 
man who brought the first itews of the Candle Creek strike, and who is gener- 
ally accredited with being the discoverer of gold on this stream, is G. W. 
Blankenthq). He started from Nome in the summer of 1901, his destination bemg 
Kotzebue Sound. He loaded his supplies into a small boat, and without a companion, 
hoisted sail on a peribus tr^ up dM coast through Bering Strait and around the Arctic 
coast line to his destination. After arriving in the Arctic Ocean he was blovm out to 
sea by a furious gale, and for several days was in the floating ice of the ocean. In the 
peril of this critical situation be was directed and assisted by a spook guide, wittmut 
whose aid, he claims, he neva would hav« reached shore. He says diat the q>ook tat 
in the stem of the boat, and by motioning with its hands, directed him how to Steer 
^lile be puBed at the oais. He recognized the qiirit as the dude of his deceased 
father-in-law. Not only did the spook assist him to get back to land, but it directed 
him where to go to &nd gold, and following these directions. Blankenship k>st do tioK 
in ascending the Kewalik fliver to Candle Creek. 

He located a large number of claims on- Candle Cre^ most of which w«re 
valuable. This is the story that Blankenship told me. The reader may accept it or 
reject it. accnding to his pwnt of view of the things that are not "dreompt of in our 

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LATE in die mmod of 1899. Jeny Gfttvin. Fnnk Riley, Huiy [}oImoii, Wilkm 
JoDcs, ukI wiotlier man, hul a danserom experience and tame near loMng tbeir 
livei on a proq>ectiag trip lo Sledge bland. Thk bland, whicli it a mile or 
two in extent, ii vinltte and about leventeen mila diitant from Nome, being nine mila 
from the main bmd. Mr. Calvin and hit companioiit (tarted from Nome late in the 
•eaion in a dory to protpect on the iiland for quartz. Befwe they reached their 
dotinalioa they met a floe. Thii ice had not formed tobdly and wai of a variety 
known ai muih ice. They were only about a mile from the iiland when they came 
in contact with the ice, but it required the wrork of near half a day for ihem to get 
their boat to a landing place at didr dettination. Upon reaching the itland neariy ex- 
bauated. artd lome of them ahnoat frozen, at the weather had turned intenie^ cold, 
diey were confronted widi the problem of bovr to get back. 

After building a fire, Mr. GaKin itarted on a tr^ of exploration. At die further 
end of the iiland he found an old igkx). But after arriving herle he taw tome v«ry 
queer trackt in the mow which had recent^ falkn. Very plainly thqr were not human 
tracki. nor were they bear trackt. He followed the tpoor with tome trepidation. 
What wai hit nirpriie. on peering into die igkw, to ditcover a man buty working over 
a kyak, a native tlon boat Accoiting him, he learned that the poor fellow had been 
■hqiwrecked, and had reached die itland without food or meant <rf making a fire. He 
had been three dayi on the itland and wat nearly frozen. The peculiar tracki were 
due to die fact that he had cut otf the ileevei of hit coat and wrapped diem around hii 
het to keep diem from freezing. The man wat blue with cold and nearly famtihed. 
He wat takoi back to the camp, where a roaring fire and food restored him to hit 
notmal condition. 

The next day the floating ice filled d>e tea between die iiland and die main land, 
and (hit condition prevailed for a week or more. The party look with dicm food for 
only a few dayi. and the ii4>pliei were toon ezhautted. They had a tbotgun and 
ammunidon, and at this it die period of the year vrbea wild water fowl are on didr 
loudierly fli^t, they were able to kill duclu upon which they lived for a period of 
nine days. 

After being oa die itland twdve dayt, it wat apparent that an etfert mutt be made 
to get to d>e main land, aa otfaerwiie itarvatiott avraited hem. Mr. Gahin, who af 
nmied die leadenhip of the party, had noticed every day the condiliaa of the ice, and 
he taw that from the tbore to within a dirtance of a mile of the iiland the ice leemed to 
be anchored. Between the itland and the anchored ice a itrong current carried the 
Aoet to i^iidly by diat it leemed like foolhardincM to attonpt die cromng. But in 
hit obacrvationi he noticed that every rooming there wai leu motion, die current flowed 
leu iwifdy, to he detennined to make an early dart and get acrow the floating ice 
during die time when there waa leait danger. On the morning of the twelfth day 
tbey all Marted. Traveling over moving iw it an ordinary daily experience for die 
nativei during die winter teaton, bat to «^iite men who were itraagen in this country, 
it looked Kke marching to their death. They made the trip, however, witfaool miriiap. 
After reaching the anchored ice it wai found necenary to make levcni wfde detourt, 
u thii ice wat filled with laket. In crotang die channel it wat n ece w ary at timet 
to get on a cake of ice and ferry thcnoielvei over to another cake. Eadi man wat pro- 
vided with a Long ice-pole which enabled him to accompliih diii feat without difficulty. 

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When tbey got uhore, after levcral bouni of ezluiutting wotIc, the entire Beki 
f>f anchored ice over which the? bad Miety ciowed, broke kraae and joined the floet, 
j^ndjy floatiiig eaitward in the ciurenL Thii wai an eventful experience lor che- 


ONE of the moit thrilling and dangeroui incidenti of the many remarkable and 
imiquc ezpenencet of the people in this countiy, happened to G. A. Corbetl. 
in the (uramer of 1903. Mr. G>ri>elt, who k a weQ known btuineM mui of 
Nome, wai at York and (taited on a trip acrou counHjr to Tin Ci^. Seeing a peta- 
boro canoe on the beach, he conchided that il would be much easier to make the trip 
by water than by foot overland. Inquiry revealed the fact that the canoe belwiged to 
a fiiend oi hit. The loan <rf it wa> euily tecured, and he hired Tom Derby to take 
him to Tin Q^ and bring the canoe bacL A ftroog otf-thore wind wa* blowing, but 
the tea Dear the diore appeared to be unuiually tnwoth. Some dirtance out the wavet 
were topped with white-capi. Mr. Coibett intended to hug the ^ore, and tiiut keep 
m imooth water. 

No Moner had he and hit con^ianion launched the htde boat than dte wind pidsed 
it up and wfaiiked it out to tea. They exerted aO dwir atroigth in an atlenqil to get 
back to the ihore, but the efort wa* umIcm. Several people who were at York. 
witncMed what ^)peaied to be a cataitrophe. but vrere powerlcM to render awirtance. 
Dr. Pannalee, the tin <q>erator, offered $f,000 to any peraon who would rescue the 
men in the frail craft. But there were do mean* of rescue at hand. 

When Mr. Corbett discovered that it was imp"ttiHf to get back to lan<L he 
knew that their only hope of safety lay in their ability to keep the boat from being 
swamped until the wind carried them to some place of safety. He knew m a vague 
way that King bland, the loc^ island whidi rises out of Bering Sea, and wfaidi has 
been made famous by the Arctic Cliff Dwellen wbo inhabit it, was somevrhere in the 
course the wmd was taking them. Mr. Owbett steered the cmft and the other man 
paddled. They were soon amidst tumultuous waves and the danger oi wreck was 
always imminent Mr. Coibett was an experienced boatman, and in all probabili^ 
to this fact is due the succeuful termination of their hazardous tr^. At one time the 
btle boat was caught on the crest of a wave and seemed to fly through the air fc^ a 
distance of two hundred or three hundred feet. This was the roost remarkaUe part of the 

Thqr launched the boat at nine o'clock in the morning, and at twelve o'clock that 
ni^t diey reached King island, fnty miles tmm shore. Mr. Coibett wnu so exhainted 
that be had to be assisted by the natives up the steps cut in the precipitous sides of the 
island. He slept in a cave dwdler's home that night. The next mommg, the wind 
having abated, he hired the natives to take himself and his c«npanion back in one c^ 
their large sldn boats. Upon their arrival at York ifaey were Kceived as people who 
had come back hrom the grave. AH hope that they would ever again be seen alive 
had been abandoned. Mr. Corbett'i wife had been notified of the fact that she was a 
widow, an enmg but good btentioned hiend having travded on foot continuously foe 
seventeen hours to convey to her the sad nevrs. 

This IS the nairation of the facU without cokH', of a true story. It it only one 
of many experiences sinukr in adventure and "hair-breadth 'scapes" t^iieh have over- 
uken many of the pitmeers of die Northland. 

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IT DOES not Mcm pottible thsl a man could be loit in an Arctic wildernen for 
lix^ da]n. and foT forty dayi of that period lubuit upon mou and roott, and 

MTvire the ordeal. Jame* A. Hall had thii experience in the Port Clarence 
Diitrict in the summer of 1900. He started out on a proq>ecting trip from TeHer with 
two companioni. He could not travel lo fast ai his companions. Thav wae no traik 
but HaD knew the course th^ were going and expected lo overtake them whoi thejr 
went into con^. He trudged along all day and most of the night, at it was a period 
(rf die year witen there it no dorkneis in this country. Finally, worn out by hiigue, 
be wrapped himself in hit blankets and went to sleep. When he awoke the landtcape 
WM obscured by a dense fog, and as he did not have a cmnpass, and as there were no 
bfiringt or bud marks by which he could obtain an idea of direction, he soon became 
bewildered and realized that he wat lost. He walked all day and when overcome 
by weaiineai. camped again. He seemed to be in a labyrinth of iwaropt and hiUt, oil 
of wfaidi kxJoed aEke. In his pack was a food supply for a few days. He divided 
this up into rations, allowing himself only one slice of bacon a day. He wat a strong, 
robust man, and in the early part of this trying c9q>eneoce anticqiated no serious diffi' 
cnhy in bong tUt to extricate himself from this Arctic solitude. But at he wandend 
day after day without teeing any trace of human being or habitation, the serioutneu of 
hit situation wot forced iqxH) him. 

When his food wis exhausted he hod recourse to such herbage as nature ttintingly 
(umiibes in this country. He ate evetything in die way of roots and plants that ap- 
peared to be edible. A few days after he was kitl he counted his matches and by 
their number kept count of die days of his wanderings. In the meantime searching 
parties had been organized, but they were unable lo find any trace of him. As the 
weeb reached into mmdu his energy and vital force were steadily exhausted. Rainy 
weather set in and the clouds hung over him umtinuously, but stiU he tramped <m, be 
knew not v^ther. 

Finally, after two mondu of lone^ wandering, he laid down to die. He was on 
the bonb of die Agjapuk River. Tbe rains bad swdlen die stream to a Bood, and 
the waten were rapidly rising. While lying on die ground. w<aiting and praying for 
deadi to come, die waten of the river rote and submerged his feet He shrank from 
the gurgling monster that was reaching for him. With a last etfoit he grasped a 
willow bush and dragged himself to a position of immediate safety. He was so weak 
that this effort left him in a half ctnitciout condition. Hi heard the report of a gun, 
and a moment later a wounded ptarmigan Ut within a few feet of him. In a little 
while, whidi teemed to him an age. be taw a man in purtuit of the bird. He tried to 
tbont, but hit voice wat to fed>le diat be feared that be would not be able to attract 
die attentioa of tbe hunter. In descrilMng the incident, dte man viho rescued him said, 
that when he heard the voice he tbou^t it wat somebody calling from a long distance, 
aldiough the man was lying widiin twenty yards of him. 

When discovered. HaD wat emaciated and looked more like a mummy than a 
Kring man. A boat wat tecured and he was token down the river to Teller. For 
wedcs after the rescue it wat a teriout question whether be would live. He fiiwlly re- 
covered, nit it it probable diat not one man in a thousand would have survived the oMeal 
through which he lived. 

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YOU may have heanl o( many kind* of rurawajn, frun the boltkig at ma ox toun 
lo an etopenKnt in hi^ life. In the days of proud Rome there might have 
been chaiiot ninawayf; wild en^ne* have caiued coutemation on raiboad 
tracks, and captive baUoont have brokco dteir tetfaen and Bown away; but wboerer 
heard tell of a hone running away with a boat on the hi|li teai? It happened b 
Alaika. Id the lummer of 1900. C J. Lomen, W. H. Davit. — . — . King. Henir 
Andenon, and a man who had bea a rqireientative of the ^nitbtonian ludtntion. 
■tarted from Nome to Sbuk in a boat The fint few mile* were covered without inci- 
dent or ctfort, ai a favorable wind blled the tail of the Uttle crafL But the wind died 
and the marinen took to the oan. Thit wat bard work, and after pulling levexal hourt. 
tmne men and a bone were teen athote. One of die boat'i crew, who may have been 
at <we time matter of a tow boat on a canal, tuggeited making a landing and negotiating 
the hire of die hone to tow the boat the balance of the way. Acting upon die tug- 
gettion. latitfactory arrangtmcntt were made, and the hone vrat hitched to a kng rope 
made fatt to die matt of the boat Mr. Lomen wat at the helm, and one of the party 
walked behind die bone lo hold up die tingletree and prevent it from ttriking the bone't 
heek. Everything worked trooothly for awhile, and the man who tuggetted hiring the 
bone, patted hit bead, tmiled conqilacently and dozed in the boat 

The tea became rou^ier. and the helmtman found it necetiary to tteer the boat 
farther out in order to avmd the breaken. Thit effort to dodge the biWken dragged 
die hone into die water; he got hiijiteited. began to kick, the man dropped the hue that 
held the tingletree, and the horte ran avray. The boat cut through the water, ttirowing 
the tpray like a racing yacht The man at the helm taw tome people launching a boat 
a tbort dittancc ap the beach, and a colliiion teemed inevitable. 

"Cut die tow linel" be thouted. 

But the .man who itarted to execute the order wat poiMiied of more thrift than 
good judgment in tuch an eroergcDcy, and be tried to untie ibe rope from die matt A 
cotUiion wat imminent, at the launching party wat only a ihort diitance awray. Mr. 
Lomca put the htim down hard, and the craft obeyed, and pointing teward, dragged the 
borte mto the tuif, where he came sear drowning: but tbit maneuver ttopped &c run- 
away. In die readjuttmenl, the towline wat hitched to the hamet of die horte'i banteta, 
and the balance of tbe trip wat made wrilfaont incident 


IN the winter of 1900 tiding wat quite tbe fad, and ikiiug partiei could be teen 
OD mott any fine day, coatting down the bank of Dry Credc, at Nome. Thoe 
were caUnt built along tmder the bank (tf the creek, and die tnow wat to deep 
diat the cabint were cmtiTely covered: notfamg being tea <rf dtem but the tlove p^>et 
tticking up. One fdlow, in going over a cabm, conceived die idea of itraddling the 
ttan pipe, but hit legt not being at long at they ibould have been, die cap trf the 
tlove pipe cau^t him m patting over, to he "played borte" die rett of tbe way down 
the hill with die pipe. f-Ie alto forgot about tbe three barbed wirei widi wbich tbe 
pipe wat anchored to dte top of the houte, and one can imagine hit predicament with 
the triangle of wiret dangBng after him, the itove pq>e and one wire between hit legt. 
and tbe other two wiret fattened to hit legt by die barbt. 

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IN 1900 Iben weie placet in the mam rtreet of Nome where ihe mud and muck 
were of treacbcnNM and UBcertain depdu and it required courage and a pair 

(tf ttont legs to nangate tbe primitive lfa«oughhre. A feminine cbechako at- 
tenptfd to CTOM the itreet, and got mto a bad {Jace. Her eCort to get out increued 
ibe dificttltjr and added to ber petplenly. No twe happened at ibe moment to be 
nev at hand to be^ the poor woman out The fini man to obaerve her predicamcnl 
waa a kodak Bcsd. The woman wai standing thi^ deep in ibe tundra mire, her ildrt* 
■ndicred amimd bcr wairti. and ber agony wa> finding vent in a flood of tean. 

"Jurt wait a moment, madaine, and I will bdp you out," laid tbe camara man. 
•a be focuMd lb« vnb^ipy picture and mapped the ibuttcr. The hidncont atualkni 
Bade the frightened woman lauiJi thnuiji ber teart. Then the kodak man got a board, 
aind went to the letcoe. 


THE Eikimo wotd for whidir it tonak. 1 diacovcred ib deriviation by acddenl in 
tbe Hacjr of an <dd whaler'i early veyaget to Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean. 
He ipcnt a winter at St Lawrence bland, and a native of tome note on the 
■had, attached himtelf to tbe dd whaler and reveled that winter in vrhke man'a 
"kow-kow." The whaler had a nddioard well stocked widi ndiiiky. and at be 
tted the Etkimo, he gave him a drink occasionally, prefacing the treat with ifae remaA: 
"WeO, Joe, it's time for ut to lake our tonic" 

Tbe native assumed that tonic was the name ot the stuf. Tonak he called it. 
and tonak it h today to the nalivea of Capt Nome and adfaceat country. 

The names sdected hy Eskimo for dwir children. Eke the names ai Ibe North 
American Indian, frequently have a ugnificance that suggests an incident connected with 
•ome physical or mental peculiarity of the chUd. Ahkxik meau "look 19;" Krngjdk 
means "lost <mw tooth;" Ayownok means "bUnd," and Chelu signifies "deaf;" Chaka- 
wana is an Eskimo name of snow-bird. Alluna it an Eikiirio name, the meaning of 
which is "dish of ctanberriet," and ASungow means "cat with a q>oon." Kongoyou 
is Ae "smiler," Koregah is the " white fox," Kownah is "deer hit," and Koopab is 
"jewel," Kakana is "Bihing," Konwichea "mountain climber," and ICeligabuk is mam- 
moth." Numnch means "evening star."